Evolution to 4G and Impacts on IMRAPT Workshop on IMR / Hong Kong, China / June, 2011WWW.IMOBIX.COM
Introduction This presentation’s scope is limited to an overview on LTE (4GSM)  deployment and its impact on Internationa...
(Vo)LTE Standardization RoadmapStandards approval processes across different Industry Associations might collidewith a maj...
Roaming Availability & Handsets
Roaming Availability & HandsetsRoaming services and handset availability strongly depends on thefrequencies used by the vi...
Roaming Availability & Handsets                             LTE Duplex Schemes Compared           Item                    ...
Roaming Availability & Handsets             FDD Scheme / Frequencies                                TDD Scheme / Frequenci...
Roaming Availability & Handsets     LTE (S8) and 3G via GGSN (Gp) or PGW (Gp) or PGW (S4/S8)     LTE (S8) and 3G via GGS...
Roaming Availability & Handsets:  The Path Forward Regulators and Operators should work closely together on the allocatio...
Roaming Network Architecture
2G/3G Roaming Voice Roaming                                              Data Roaming                            Data serv...
Roaming Network Architecture Impact LTE Roaming - Main differences from 3GSM Roaming are:   - New Network Elements       ...
Roaming Architecture                                                             HSS                  PCRF                ...
Roaming Network Architecture Impact LTE was originally thought to be a purely IP based cellular data service.  Recently d...
Roaming Network Architecture Impact:The Path Forward Mobile Operators need to monitor on-going changes in LTE standards a...
Roaming Management Impact
Roaming Management Impact New interfaces will have to be integrated into the Roaming Agreements: The  new environment req...
Roaming Agreements Impact:The Path Forward MVNOs should support GSMAs initiative for developments of standards  and minim...
Roaming Business Model
Roaming Business Models Impact Current LTE architecture does not support certain Roaming scenarios, thus  restricting bus...
Fraud & Security
Fraud & Security Impact The merger of mobile, fixed and internet networks are now  opening a once protected infrastructur...
Fraud & Security Impact Fraud reduction measures are currently under discussion. Current  procedures (Near Real Time Roam...
Fraud & Security Impact Current GSM and UMTS security measures & methods are  being reviewed Newer security algorithms, ...
Conclusion
Conclusion A large number of implementation options are planned for LTE  based on current standards. This flexibility co...
ConclusionOperators are very concerned about LTE Roaming commercialimpacts, such as: Additional complexities recently dis...
Contact                        IMOBIX                  WWW.IMOBIX.COM                        Jeff Hunter                  ...
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APT IMR Workshop, Session 8 (Evolution to 4g and impacts on IMR_2011-06-14)

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IMOBIX presentation to APT Workshop on International Mobile Roaming (IMR) in Hong Kong (June 2011)

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APT IMR Workshop, Session 8 (Evolution to 4g and impacts on IMR_2011-06-14)

  1. 1. Evolution to 4G and Impacts on IMRAPT Workshop on IMR / Hong Kong, China / June, 2011WWW.IMOBIX.COM
  2. 2. Introduction This presentation’s scope is limited to an overview on LTE (4GSM) deployment and its impact on International Mobile Roaming. Roaming LTE deployment is affected by both the complexity of national implementation and the complexity of Multiple Network Interoperability For the sake of clarification, the main challenges and impacts to be reviewed are grouped as follows:  Roaming Availability & Handsets  Roaming Network Architecture  Roaming Management  Roaming Business Models  Fraud and SecurityWWW.IMOBIX.COM
  3. 3. (Vo)LTE Standardization RoadmapStandards approval processes across different Industry Associations might collidewith a major impact on LTE Roadmap. Roaming Frameworks standardizationcurrently scheduled for March 2012 could be delayed User-network Network- Roaming Roaming Call Commercial interface defined network interface Architecture, Jan Scenarios, May Framework Apr 2010 defined Jun 2010 2011 2011 templates, Nov 2011 LIVE VoLTE 2010 2011 NETWORKS 2012 GSMA VoLTE initiative GSMA VoLTE demo GSMA VoLTE handset call GSMA and Multi- announced at Mobile with CSL at Mobile Asia demo with Verizon at Service Forum VoLTEWorld Congress Feb 2010 Congress, Nov 2010 Mobile World test event, Sep 2011 Congress, Feb 2011 WWW.IMOBIX.COM
  4. 4. Roaming Availability & Handsets
  5. 5. Roaming Availability & HandsetsRoaming services and handset availability strongly depends on thefrequencies used by the visited network: Currently there are no global answers for LTE spectrum allocation and harmonization. Differences of technology adoption across the world are a main threat to global Roaming availability LTE-only Handsets are multimode and support both available frequencies (FDD and TDD), however there may be a need for “penta-band” LTE handsets (700/900/1800/1900/2600) for international roaming.WWW.IMOBIX.COM
  6. 6. Roaming Availability & Handsets LTE Duplex Schemes Compared Item TDD FDD Does not require paired spectrum as both Requires paired spectrum with sufficientPaired Spectrum transmit and receive occur on the same frequency separation to allow channel simultaneous transmission and reception Substantially lower cost (no diplexerHardware cost needed) Diplexer is needed and cost is higher Channel propagation is the same in both Different channel characteristic (use ofChannel reciprocity directions different frequencies) Fixed Capacity allocation as determinedUL / DL asymmetry Dynamic UL/DL capacity allocation by local authority Large Guard Periods are requested toGuard period / Guard band avoid UL/DL clashes in case of big No issue associated with Guard Bands distance; thus reducing capacity parameters Discountinuous UL vs. DL transmissionDiscontinuous Transmission impacts negatively on RF performance Continuous Transmission applies Base Stations should be constantlyCross Slot Interface alligned (syncronized) to UL/DL Capacity allocation changes Not applicable WWW.IMOBIX.COM
  7. 7. Roaming Availability & Handsets FDD Scheme / Frequencies TDD Scheme / Frequencies TDD Band FDD Allocation (MHz) Main Regions of Use Uplink Downlink Band Number 3G Main Regions of Use Numbe (MHz) (MHz) r 33 1900 - 1920 Asia (not Japan), Europe 1 1920 - 1980 2110 - 2170 √ Asia, Europe 2 1850 - 1910 1930 - 1990 √ Americas, Asia 34 2010 - 2025 Asia, Europe 3 1710 - 1785 1805 -1880 √ Americas, Asia, Europe 35 1850 - 1910 Americas 4 1710 - 1755 2110 - 2155 √ Americas 5 824 - 849 869 - 894 √ Americas 36 1930 - 1990 Americas 6 830 - 840 875 - 885 Japan 37 1910 - 1930 7 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 Asia, Europe 8 880 - 915 925 - 960 Asia, Europe 38 2570 - 2620 Europe 9 1749.9 - 1784.9 1844.9 - 1879.9 Japan 39 1880 - 1920 China 10 1710 - 1770 2110 - 2170 Americas 11 1427.9 - 1452.9 1475.9 - 1500.9 Japan 40 2300 - 2400 Asia, Europe 12 698 - 716 728 - 746 USA 41 3400 - 3600 USA 13 777 - 787 746 - 756 USA 14 788 - 798 758 - 768 USA 17 704 - 716 734 - 746 USA Coexistence of UMTS and LTE might be an issue 18 815 - 830 860 - 875 Japan 19 830 - 845 875 - 890 Japan – CEPT Report 40. 20 832 - 862 791 - 821 Europe Use of existing spectrum by operators may 21 1447.9 - 1462.9 1495.5 - 1510.9 22 3410 - 3500 3510 - 3600 Japan determine use of FDD or TDD. New spectrum allocations depend on regulatory authorities WWW.IMOBIX.COM
  8. 8. Roaming Availability & Handsets  LTE (S8) and 3G via GGSN (Gp) or PGW (Gp) or PGW (S4/S8)  LTE (S8) and 3G via GGSN (Gp) or PGW (S4/S8)  LTE (S8) and 3G via GGSN (Gp) or PGW (Gp)  LTE (S8) and 3G via PGW (S4/S8) or PGW (Gp)  LTE (S8) and 3G via PGW (S4/S8)  LTE (S8) and 3G via PGW (Gp)  LTE (S8) and GPRS (Gp)  LTE onlyWWW.IMOBIX.COM
  9. 9. Roaming Availability & Handsets: The Path Forward Regulators and Operators should work closely together on the allocation of frequencies and bands that are compatible with top Partner Countries and consider intra and inter- regional Roaming requirements During the LTE World Summit Orange, TeliaSonera and T-Mobile promoted the use of 1800MHz for rolling out LTE globally. This frequency band was identified as best compromise between coverage and capacity. EU Digital Agenda Vice President Neelie Kroes announced that the EU will ensure leveraged licensing across member countries in order to facilitate International Roaming availability. The European Commission has established rules for licenses allocation that member countries shall adopt by end of 2011. Among others, this Regulation promotes and sets out the technical parameters for allowing the co-existence on the 900MHz and 1800MHz bands of 2G, 3G and 4G/LTE/WiMAX services WWW.IMOBIX.COM
  10. 10. Roaming Network Architecture
  11. 11. 2G/3G Roaming Voice Roaming Data Roaming Data services Core Core Network Network Home Network Home Network SS7 Visited Network Visited Network Other networks Radio Core Radio Core Access Network Access Network• Voice traffic routed directly from the visited network. • Data traffic routed directly to home network via GRX.• Optimized path for QoS. • Enables control of data sessions.• Signaling via SS7 for subscription/mobility management. WWW.IMOBIX.COM
  12. 12. Roaming Network Architecture Impact LTE Roaming - Main differences from 3GSM Roaming are: - New Network Elements - New Protocols - New Interfaces Data servicesNo more SS7 Signaling  Legacy solution.Signaling over IPX Core  Home operator maintains control. Network Home Network IPX Visited Network Core  New option to route delay sensitive services Radio Access Network via visited network.  Challenges: Data services  Is this acceptable to operators?  Customer experience/customer control? WWW.IMOBIX.COM
  13. 13. Roaming Architecture HSS PCRF Gx Rx S6a PDN SGi Operator’s IP Gateway Services (e.g. IMS, PSS etc.)HPLMNVPLMN UTRAN S8 SGSN  In LTE there is only IP roaming GERAN S12 S3 S4  The signaling protocol is not MAP/SS7 S1-MME MME anymore but is a Diameter Application S10 S11  Diameter is an IP based protocol “ LTE - Uu ” Serving Gateway standardized by IETFUE E-UTRAN S1-U Home routed traffic-using GTP-based S8 WWW.IMOBIX.COM
  14. 14. Roaming Network Architecture Impact LTE was originally thought to be a purely IP based cellular data service. Recently defined standards for of Voice and SMS services over LTE (VoLTE) are under revision due to Roaming feasibility. Major impact was identified with:  Calls handover between networks with multiple technologies  Optimal Routing for Roaming voice calls  Security and Fraud threat audit  Increased need for VoLTE quality Flexibility of LTE implementation options represents a threat to interoperability. Solutions implemented today might need substantial assessment for future impacts on interoperability and IMR.WWW.IMOBIX.COM
  15. 15. Roaming Network Architecture Impact:The Path Forward Mobile Operators need to monitor on-going changes in LTE standards and ensure Roaming requirements are taken into account during the planning phase LTE implementation option(s) should be submitted for expert review and Roaming requirements should be considered Current LTE Roaming standards are still subject to dynamic changes. Mobile Operators need to keep up-to-date with developments during the current planning phase LTE network capacity planning must be reviewed with LTE Roaming deployment in mindWWW.IMOBIX.COM
  16. 16. Roaming Management Impact
  17. 17. Roaming Management Impact New interfaces will have to be integrated into the Roaming Agreements: The new environment requires legal framework assessment and the creation of new documents Requirements and capabilities associated with roaming hubbing are being analyzed Mandatory Automated Agreements (technical & commercial details) update procedure (also called RAEX) does not currently support LTE Major efforts are being invested across the GSM Association Working Groups to upgrade/assess all Permanent Reference Documents (PRDs) related to the Roaming contractsWWW.IMOBIX.COM
  18. 18. Roaming Agreements Impact:The Path Forward MVNOs should support GSMAs initiative for developments of standards and minimize interoperability risks by ensuring GSMA standards implementation Review current Roaming Operational procedures and verify scalability to an LTE Roaming environment Vendor services contracts should be reviewed and analyzed for LTE scalability ASAP (especially related to SLAs, volume based pricing, long term committments)WWW.IMOBIX.COM
  19. 19. Roaming Business Model
  20. 20. Roaming Business Models Impact Current LTE architecture does not support certain Roaming scenarios, thus restricting business models options. The recently adopted ‘Activity based’ retail charging (f.i. Facebook, Youtube, Google browsing included in a bundle) may not be feasible in an LTE Roaming environment In this LTE migration phase, operators tend to keep a conservative approach towards wholesale business models so that charging principles will not present major changes Revenue Assurance mechanisms and required reporting will have to be assessed for the new LTE environmentWWW.IMOBIX.COM
  21. 21. Fraud & Security
  22. 22. Fraud & Security Impact The merger of mobile, fixed and internet networks are now opening a once protected infrastructure Development of Internet Innovations such as Social Networking will enable access to ‘vulnerable’ operators contact and Network Privileges SIM server technology used in GSM gateway (SIM box) bypass could be used to relocate SIM cards in an international extension of fraud Major risks are associated to Premium Rate Numbers usage in a VoLTE environment (IRSF)WWW.IMOBIX.COM
  23. 23. Fraud & Security Impact Fraud reduction measures are currently under discussion. Current procedures (Near Real Time Roaming Data Exchange) might be adapted but a debate on alternative solutions is still ongoing. NRTRDE CONs NRTRDE PROs  Home Operator has full control  NRTRDE principles and on traffic so that Anti Fraud framework are ready procedures can be easily  Vendors promise small costs implemented ‘in-network’ impact  Alternative solutions present  NRTRDE is commonly out- gaps in case of CS-LTE calls sourced to a vendor thus with a handover negative impact on general costsWWW.IMOBIX.COM
  24. 24. Fraud & Security Impact Current GSM and UMTS security measures & methods are being reviewed Newer security algorithms, longer keys are needed Extended key hierarchy is required New features, addressing new scenarios:  Home evolved Node B  Relay Node New topics  Machine-Type Communication, Single Sign-On, Protection against Unsolicited Communication over IMSWWW.IMOBIX.COM
  25. 25. Conclusion
  26. 26. Conclusion A large number of implementation options are planned for LTE based on current standards. This flexibility constitutes a threat to interoperability which fully depends on set-up and migration compatibility. While LTE Data Roaming Framework can be finalized soon, VoLte Roaming standardization, which is planned for March 2012, will be subjected to further delays. Current wholesale and retail roaming pricing paradigms to not support the potential shift of services and volumes for LTE roaming. Potential customer impacts (similar to what happened with migration from 2G to 3G), but with much higher degree of technical complexity, greater difficulty to resolve, and larger potential commercial impact.WWW.IMOBIX.COM
  27. 27. ConclusionOperators are very concerned about LTE Roaming commercialimpacts, such as: Additional complexities recently discovered related to VoLTE that were not taken into account during initial standards planning Required 3GPP LTE architecture changes are on-going while over 20 operators have already launched LTE services. New assessments will be required for those operators that are/will be LTE provisioned before 2012 Due to the general trend in deceasing roaming prices (regulation etc. …) and consequent budget cuts, many operators are choosing to delay or freeze LTE roaming launchWWW.IMOBIX.COM
  28. 28. Contact IMOBIX WWW.IMOBIX.COM Jeff Hunter Mobile: +1 (954) 865-8832 Main: +1 (954) 323-6767 jhunter@imobix.com WWW.IMOBIX.COM

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