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HORIZONS
Grade 10
Learner’s Materials
Music and Arts Appreciation
for Young Filipinos
Raul M. Sunico, Ph.D.
Evelyn F. Ca...
ii
HORIZONS Grade 10
Learner’s Materials
Music and Arts Appreciation for Young Filipinos
ISBN 978-971-793-023-7
Philippine...
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
MUSIC
Quarter I MUSIC OF THE 20th CENTURY ............................................... 2
Impressi...
iv
Quarter IV 20th and 21st MULTIMEDIA FORMS ........................................ 141
Opera in the Philippines...........
v
Quarter III MEDIA-BASED ARTS AND DESIGN
IN THE PHILIPPINES ............................................................ ...
vi
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic...
MUSIC
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electro...
MUSIC  Quarter I
2
Quarter I: MUSIC OF THE 20TH CENTURY
CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner demonstrates understanding of...
1....
Music of the 20th Century
3
Quarter I: MUSIC OFTHE 20TH CENTURY
The start of the 20th century saw the rise of distinct mus...
MUSIC  Quarter I
4
The impressionistic movement in music had its foremost proponents in the French
composers Claude Debus...
Music of the 20th Century
5
The creative style of Debussy was characterized by his unique approach to the various
musical ...
MUSIC  Quarter I
6
MAURICE RAVEL (1875–1937)
Joseph Maurice Ravel was born in Ciboure,
France to a Basque mother and a Sw...
Music of the 20th Century
7
 Daphnis et Chloe (1912), a ballet commissioned by master choreographer
Sergei Diaghilev that...
MUSIC  Quarter I
8
Comparative Styles of Debussy and Ravel
As the two major exponents of French Impressionism in music, D...
Music of the 20th Century
9
THREE PIANO PIECES, OP. 11, NO. 1
(Excerpt)
Arnold Schoenberg
Copyright by everynote.com
All r...
MUSIC  Quarter I
10
IGOR STRAVINSKY (1882–1971)
Igor Stravinsky stands alongside fellow-composer Schoenberg, painter Pabl...
Music of the 20th Century
11
RUSSIAN DANCE FROM “PETROUCHKA”
(Excerpt)
Igor Stravinsky
All rights reserved. No part of thi...
MUSIC  Quarter I
12
BELA BARTOK (1881–1945)
Bela Bartok was born in Nagyszentmiklos, Hungary (now Romania) on March 25, 1...
Music of the 20th Century
13
DUET FOR PIPES
(Excerpt)
Bela Bartok
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be rep...
MUSIC  Quarter I
14
Neo-Classicism
Neo-classicism was a moderating factor between the emotional excesses of the
Romantic ...
Music of the 20th Century
15
Prokofieff’s musical compositions include concerti, chamber music, film scores, operas,
balle...
MUSIC  Quarter I
16
FRANCIS POULENC (1899–1963)
One of the relatively few composers born into wealth and a privileged soc...
Music of the 20th Century
17
PERPETUAL MOTION, NO. 1
(Excerpt)
Francis Poulenc
Avant Garde Music
Closely associated with e...
MUSIC  Quarter I
18
From the United States, there were avant garde composers such as George Gershwin
and John Cage with t...
Music of the 20th Century
19
SUMMERTIME
(Excerpt)
George Gershwin
LEONARD BERNSTEIN (1918–1990)
Born in Massachussetts, US...
MUSIC  Quarter I
20
He composed the music for the film On the Waterfront (1954).As a lecturer, Bernstein is
fondly rememb...
Music of the 20th Century
21
PHILIP GLASS (1937– )
One of the most commercially successful minimalist composer is Philip G...
MUSIC  Quarter I
22
Modern Nationalism
Alooser form of 20th century music development focused on nationalist composers
an...
Music of the 20th Century
23
21ST CENTURY MUSIC TRENDS
Music scholars predict that the innovative and experimental develop...
MUSIC  Quarter I
24
A number of outstanding composers of the 20th century each made their own distinctive
mark on the con...
Music of the 20th Century
25
20TH CENTURY MUSICAL STYLES:
ELECTRONIC and CHANCE MUSIC
The musical styles that evolved in t...
MUSIC  Quarter I
26
SYNCHRONISMS NO. 5
(For Five Percussion Players and Tape / Excerpt)
Mario Davidovsky
Example of Elect...
Music of the 20th Century
27
POÈME ÉLECTRONIQUE
Edgard Varese
Copyright by Philips International B.V.
Varèse’s use of new ...
MUSIC  Quarter I
28
The climax of his compositional ambition came in 1977 when he announced the creation
of Licht (Light)...
Music of the 20th Century
29
JOHN CAGE (1912–1992)
John Cage was known as one of the 20th century composers
with the wides...
MUSIC  Quarter I
30
He became famous for his composition Four Minutes and 33 Seconds (4’33"), a chance
musical work that ...
Music of the 20th Century
31
WHAT TO KNOW
1. Who was the French composer known as the “Father of Electronic Music?
2. What...
MUSIC  Quarter I
32
2. Listen carefully to each excerpt and be able to recognize the distinct musical
style of each compo...
Music of the 20th Century
33
B. Performance Activity 2:
Original Chance and Electronic Music
Rate scores are based on the ...
MUSIC  Quarter I
34
3. Sing or hum some melodic fragments (portion only) of any of the following
excerpts of 20th century...
Music of the 20th Century
35
f. Sound and musical direction
g. Script / screenplay
h. Props, costumes, lighting
4. Did you...
MUSIC  Quarter I
36
c. Play the recorded performance or show the music video to your
classmates and choose the “Best Perf...
Quarter II: AFRO-LATIN AMERICAN
AND POPULAR MUSIC
CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner demonstrates understanding of...
1. Charac...
MUSIC  Quarter II
38
MUSIC OFAFRICA
Music has always been an important part in the daily life of theAfrican, whether for
...
Afro-Latin American and Popular Music
39
Axe
Axe is a popular musical genre from Salvador, Bahia, and Brazil. It fuses the...
MUSIC  Quarter II
40
Kwassa Kwassa
Kwassa Kwassa is a dance style begun in Zaire
in the late 1980’s, popularized by Kanda...
Afro-Latin American and Popular Music
41
Samba
Samba is the basic underlying rhythm that typifies most Brazilian music. It...
MUSIC  Quarter II
42
VOCAL FORMS OF AFRICAN MUSIC
Maracatu
Maracatu first surfaced in the
African state of Pernambuco,
co...
Afro-Latin American and Popular Music
43
Blues
The blues is a musical form of the late 19th century that has had deep root...
MUSIC  Quarter II
44
Spiritual
The term spiritual, normally associated with a deeply religious person, refers here to a
N...
Afro-Latin American and Popular Music
45
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OFAFRICA
African music includes all the major instrumental ge...
MUSIC  Quarter II
46
7. Shekere - The shekere is a type of gourd and shell megaphonefrom West
Africa, consisting of a dri...
Afro-Latin American and Popular Music
47
Luna
B. Membranophones
Membranophones are instruments which have vibrating animal...
MUSIC  Quarter II
48
C. Lamellaphone
One of the most popular African percussion
instruments is the lamellaphone, which is...
Afro-Latin American and Popular Music
49
A more advanced form of ground bow is made from a log, half a gourd, a
flat piece...
MUSIC  Quarter II
50
E. Aerophones
Aerophones are instruments which are produced initially bytrapped vibrating air
column...
Afro-Latin American and Popular Music
51
Kudu horn - This is one type of horn made from the
horn of the kudu antelope. It ...
MUSIC  Quarter II
52
African Musical Instruments from the Environment
Many instruments ofAfrica are made from natural ele...
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MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module   Quarter 1 to 4 complete
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MUSIC and ARTS Gr. 10 Learner's Module Quarter 1 to 4 complete

  1. 1. i HORIZONS Grade 10 Learner’s Materials Music and Arts Appreciation for Young Filipinos Raul M. Sunico, Ph.D. Evelyn F. Cabanban Melissa Y. Moran GOVERNMENT PROPERTY NOT FOR SALE ALLOTTED TO District/ School: ____________________________________________________________ Division: ____________________________________________________________ First Year of Use:____________________________________________________________ Source of Fund (year included): ______________________________________________ Department of Education Republic of the Philippines All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  2. 2. ii HORIZONS Grade 10 Learner’s Materials Music and Arts Appreciation for Young Filipinos ISBN 978-971-793-023-7 Philippine Copyright 2015 by Tawid Publications All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system without prior written permission from the publisher. Published by Tawid Publications 102 B. Gonzales St., Xavierville II Loyola Heights, Quezon City 1108 Metro Manila, Philippines (+63-2) 453-7918 tawidcorp@yahoo.com; tawidpub@gmail.com Editorial Board Editors: Evelyn F. Cabanban Melissa Y. Moran Milagros P. Valdez, language reader Coordinator: Evelyn F. Cabanban Cover Design: Rowena E. Cabanban Cover Art and Divider Art: Joe Dureza All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  3. 3. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS MUSIC Quarter I MUSIC OF THE 20th CENTURY ............................................... 2 Impressionism ............................................................. 3 Primitivism ............................................................. 10 Neo Classicism ............................................................. 14 Avant Garde Music ............................................................. 17 Modern Nationalism ............................................................. 22 Electronic Music ............................................................. 25 Chance Music ............................................................. 28 Quarter II AFRO-LATIN AND POPULAR MUSIC ..................................... 37 Music of Africa ............................................................. 38 Music of Latin American ............................................................. 53 Jazz Music ............................................................. 65 Popular Music ............................................................. 68 Philippine Popular Music ............................................................. 76 Quarter III CONTEMPORARY PHILIPPINE MUSIC................................. 88 Traditional Composers ............................................................. 89 New Music Composers ............................................................. 110 Song Composers ............................................................. 125 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  4. 4. iv Quarter IV 20th and 21st MULTIMEDIA FORMS ........................................ 141 Opera in the Philippines.................................................................... 142 Ballet in the Philippines .................................................................... 156 Musical Plays .................................................................................... 163 Musical Plays in the Philippines ....................................................... 167 ARTS Quarter I MODERN ART............................................................................... 188 Impressionism: Origins of the Movement......................................... 190 Impressionism: A Break from Past Painting Traditions.................... 192 Impressionism: Works of Manet, Monet, and Renoir....................... 194 Post-Impressionism: Works of Cezanne and Van Gogh................... 197 Expressionism: A Bold New Movement........................................... 203 Abstractionism .................................................................................. 208 Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, Op Art......................................... 214 Contemporary Art Forms: Installation Art, Performance Art........... 223 Quarter II TECHNOLOGY-BASED ART ................................................... 231 Computer / Digital Arts ................................................... 232 Mobile Phone Art / Computer-generated Images ............................. 239 Digital Photography ................................................... 246 Video Games / Digital Painting / Imaging Videos............................ 251 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  5. 5. v Quarter III MEDIA-BASED ARTS AND DESIGN IN THE PHILIPPINES ............................................................ 257 Photography ...................................................................................... 259 Film................................................................................................... 265 Animation.......................................................................................... 274 Print Media: Advertising, Comics, Book Design and Illustration .... 278 Innovation in Product and Industrial Design..................................... 289 Quarter IV ORIGINAL PERFORMANCE WITH THE USE OF MEDIA ................................................... 299 Philippine Theater and Performing Groups ...................................... 300 Roles in a Stage Production ............................................................. 308 Culminating Activity: Staging an Original Performance.................. 313 Music Glossary ........................................................................................................ 317 Music Pronunciation Guide ..................................................................................... 320 Arts Glossary .......................................................................................................... 321 Arts Pronunciation Guide ........................................................................................ 324 Music Bibliography ................................................................................................. 325 Arts Bibliography .................................................................................................... 326 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  6. 6. vi All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  7. 7. MUSIC All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  8. 8. MUSIC  Quarter I 2 Quarter I: MUSIC OF THE 20TH CENTURY CONTENT STANDARDS The learner demonstrates understanding of... 1. The 20th century music styles and characteristic features. PERFORMANCE STANDARDS The learner... 1. Creates musical pieces using a particular style of the 20th century. LEARNING COMPETENCIES The learner... 1. Listens perceptively to selected 20th century music. 2. Describes distinctive musical elements of given pieces in 20th century styles. 3. Relates 20th century music to its historical and cultural background. 4. Explains the performance practice (setting, composition, role of composers/performers, and audience) of 20th century music. 5. Sings melodic fragments of given Impressionism period pieces. 6. Explores other arts and media that portray 20th century elements through video films or live performances. 7. Creates short electronic and chance music pieces using knowledge of 20th century styles. From the Department of Education curriculum for MUSIC Grade 10 (2014) All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  9. 9. Music of the 20th Century 3 Quarter I: MUSIC OFTHE 20TH CENTURY The start of the 20th century saw the rise of distinct musical styles that reflected a move away from the conventions of earlier classical music. These new styles were: impressionism, expressionism, neo-classicism, avant garde music, and modern nationalism. The distinct musical styles of the 20th century would not have developed if not for the musical genius of individual composers such as Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel,Arnold Schoenberg, Bela Bartok, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofieff, and George Gershwin stand out as the moving forces behind the innovative and experimental styles mentioned above. Coming from different nations—France,Austria, Hungary, Russia, and the United States— these composers clearly reflected the growing globalization of musical styles in the 20th century. IMPRESSIONISM One of the earlier but concrete forms declaring the entry of 20th century music was known as impressionism. It is a French movement in the late 19th and early 20th century. The sentimental melodies and dramatic emotionalism of the preceding Romantic Period (their themes and melody are easy to recognize and enjoy) were being replaced in favor of moods and impressions. There is an extensive use of colors and effects, vague melodies, and innovative chords and progressions leading to mild dissonances. Sublime moods and melodic suggestions replaced highly expressive and program music, or music that contained visual imagery.With this trend came new combinations of extended chords, harmonies, whole tone, chromatic scales, and pentatonic scales. Impressionism was an attempt not to depict reality, but merely to suggest it. It was meant to create an emotional mood rather than a specific picture. In terms of imagery, impressionistic forms were translucent and hazy, as if trying to see through a rain-drenched window. In impressionism, the sounds of different chords overlapped lightly with each other to produce new subtle musical colors. Chords did not have a definite order and a sense of clear resolution. Other features include the lack of a tonic-dominant relationship which normally gives the feeling of finality to a piece, moods and textures, harmonic vagueness about the structure of certain chords, and use of the whole-tone scale. Most of the impressionist works centered on nature and its beauty, lightness, and brilliance.Anumber of outstanding impressionists created works on this subject. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  10. 10. MUSIC  Quarter I 4 The impressionistic movement in music had its foremost proponents in the French composers Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel. Both had developed a particular style of composing adopted bymany20th centurycomposers.Among the most famous luminaries in other countries were Ottorino Respighi (Italy), Manuel de Falla and Isaac Albeniz (Spain), and Ralph Vaughan Williams (England). CLAUDE DEBUSSY (1862–1918) One of the most important and influential of the 20th century composers was Claude Debussy. He was the primaryexponent of the impressionist movement and the focal point for other impressionist composers. He changed the course of musical development bydissolving traditional rules and conventions into a new language of possibilities in harmony, rhythm, form, texture, and color. Debussy was born in St. Germain-en-Laye in France onAugust 22, 1862. His early musical talents were channeled into piano lessons. He entered the Paris Conservatory in 1873. He gained a reputation as an erratic pianist and a rebel in theory and harmony. He added other systems of musical composition because of his musical training. In 1884, he won the top prize at the Prix de Rome competition with his composition L’ Enfant Prodigue (The Prodigal Son). This enabled him to study for two years in Rome, where he got exposed to the music of Richard Wagner, specifically his opera Tristan und Isolde, although he did not share the latter’s grandiose style. Debussy’s mature creative period was represented by the following works:  Ariettes Oubliees  Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun  String Quartet  Pelleas et Melisande (1895)—his famous operatic work that drew mixed extreme reactions for its innovative harmonies and textural treatments.  La Mer (1905)—a highly imaginative and atmospheric symphonic work for orchestra about the sea  Images, Suite Bergamasque, and Estampes—his most popular piano compositions; a set of lightly textured pieces containing his signature work Claire de Lune (Moonlight) His musical compositions total more or less 227 which include orchestral music, chamber music, piano music, operas, ballets, songs, and other vocal music. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  11. 11. Music of the 20th Century 5 The creative style of Debussy was characterized by his unique approach to the various musical elements. Debussy’s compositions deviated from the Romantic Period and is clearly seen by the way he avoided metric pulses and preferred free form and developed his themes. Debussy’s western influences came from composers Franz Liszt and Giuseppe Verdi. From the East, he was fascinated by the Javanese gamelan that he had heard at the 1889 Paris Exposition. The gamelan is an ensemble with bells, gongs, xylophone, and occasional vocal parts which he later used in his works to achieve a new sound. From the visual arts, Debussy was influenced by Monet, Pissarro, Manet, Degas, and Renoir; and from the literary arts, by Mallarme, Verlaine, and Rimbaud. Most of his close friends were painters and poets who significantlyinfluenced his compositions. His role as the “Father of the Modern School of Composition” made its mark in the styles of the later 20th century composers like Igor Stravinsky, Edgar Varese, and Olivier Messiaen. Debussy spent the remaining years of his life as a critic, composer, and performer. He died in Paris on March 25, 1918 of cancer at the height of the First World War. CLAIRE DE LUNE (MOONLIGHT) Suite Bergamasque (Excerpt) Claude Debussy Copyright by everynote.com All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  12. 12. MUSIC  Quarter I 6 MAURICE RAVEL (1875–1937) Joseph Maurice Ravel was born in Ciboure, France to a Basque mother and a Swiss father. He entered the Paris Conservatory at the age of 14 where he studied with the eminent French composer Gabriel Faure. During his stint with the school where he stayed until his early 20’s, he had composed a number of masterpieces. The compositional style of Ravel is mainly characterized by its uniquely innovative but not atonal style of harmonic treatment. It is defined with intricate and sometimes modal melodies and extended chordal components. It demands considerable technical virtuosity from the performer which is the character, ability, or skill of a virtuoso—a person who excels in musical technique or execution. The harmonic progressions and modulations are not only musically satisfying but also pleasantly dissonant and elegantly sophisticated. His refined delicacyand color, contrasts and effects add to the difficulty in the proper execution of the musical passages. These are extensively used in his works of a programmatic nature, wherein visual imagery is either suggested or portrayed. Many of his works deal with water in its flowing or stormy moods as well as with human characterizations. Ravel’s works include the following:  Pavane for a Dead Princess (1899), a slow but lyrical requiem  Jeux d’Eau or Water Fountains (1901)  String Quartet (1903)  Sonatine for Piano (c.1904)  Miroirs (Mirrors), 1905, a work for piano known for its harmonic evolution and imagination,  Gaspard de la Nuit (1908), a set of demonic-inspired pieces based on the poems ofAloysius Bertrand which is arguably the most difficult piece in the piano repertoire.  These were followed by a number of his other significant works, including Valses Nobles et Sentimentales (1911)  Le Tombeau de Couperin (c.1917), a commemoration of the musical advocacies of the early 18th century French composer Francois Couperin,  Rhapsodie Espagnole  Bolero All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  13. 13. Music of the 20th Century 7  Daphnis et Chloe (1912), a ballet commissioned by master choreographer Sergei Diaghilev that contained rhythmic diversity, evocation of nature, and choral ensemble  La Valse (1920), a waltz with a frightening undertone that had been composed for ballet and arranged as well as for solo and duo piano.  The two piano concerti composed in 1929 as well as the violin virtuosic piece Tzigane (1922) total the relatively meager compositional output of Ravel, approximating 60 pieces for piano, chamber music, song cycles, ballet, and opera. Ravel was a perfectionist and every bit a musical craftsman. He strongly adhered to the classical form, specifically its ternary structure. A strong advocate of Russian music, he also admired the music of Chopin, Liszt, Schubert, and Mendelssohn. He died in Paris in 1937. BOLERO Transcriptions for Two Pianos (Excerpt) Maurice Ravel Copyright by everynote.com All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  14. 14. MUSIC  Quarter I 8 Comparative Styles of Debussy and Ravel As the two major exponents of French Impressionism in music, Debussy and Ravel had crossed paths during their lifetime although Debussy was thirteen years older than Ravel. While their musical works sound quite similar in terms of their harmonic and textural characteristics, the two differed greatly in their personalities and approach to music. Whereas Debussy was more spontaneous and liberal in form, Ravel was very attentive to the classical norms of musical structure and the compositional craftsmanship. Whereas Debussy was more casual in his portrayal of visual imagery, Ravel was more formal and exacting in the development of his motive ideas. ARNOLD SCHOENBERG (1874–1951) Arnold Schoenberg was born in a working-class suburb ofVienna,Austria on September 13, 1874. He taught himself music theory, but took lessons in counterpoint. German composer Richard Wagner influenced his work as evidenced by his symphonic poem Pelleas et Melisande, Op 5 (1903), a counterpoint of Debussy’s opera of the same title. Schoenberg’s style was constantly undergoing development. From the early influences of Wagner, his tonal preference gradually turned to the dissonant and atonal, as he explored the use of chromatic harmonies. Although full of melodic and lyrical interest, his music is also extremely complex, creating heavy demands on the listener. His works were met with extreme reactions, either strong hostility from the general public or enthusiastic acclaim from his supporters. Schoenberg is credited with the establishment of the twelve-tone system. His works include the following:  Verklarte Nacht, Three Pieces for Piano, op. 11  Pierrot Lunaire,  Gurreleider  Verklarte Nacht (Transfigured Night, 1899), one of his earliest successful pieces, blends the lyricism, instrumentation, and melodic beauty of Brahms with the chromaticism and construction of Wagner. His musical compositions total more or less 213 which include concerti, orchestral music, piano music, operas, choral music, songs, and other instrumental music. Schoenberg died on July 13, 1951 in Los Angeles, California, USAwhere he had settled since 1934. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  15. 15. Music of the 20th Century 9 THREE PIANO PIECES, OP. 11, NO. 1 (Excerpt) Arnold Schoenberg Copyright by everynote.com All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  16. 16. MUSIC  Quarter I 10 IGOR STRAVINSKY (1882–1971) Igor Stravinsky stands alongside fellow-composer Schoenberg, painter Pablo Picasso, and literary figure James Joyce as one of the great trendsetters of the 20th century. He was born in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov), Russia on June 17, 1882. Stravinsky’s early music reflected the influence of his teacher, the Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. But in his first successful masterpiece, The Firebird Suite (1910), composed for Diaghilev’s Russian Ballet, his skillful handling of material and rhythmic inventiveness went beyond anything composed by his Russian predecessors. He added a new ingredient to his nationalistic musical style. The Rite of Spring (1913) was another outstanding work.Anew level of dissonance was reached and the sense of tonality was practicallyabandoned. Asymmetrical rhythms successfully portrayed the character of a solemn pagan rite. When he left the country for the United States in 1939, Stravinsky slowly turned his back on Russian nationalism and cultivated his neo-classical style. Stravinsky adapted the forms of the 18th century with his contemporary style of writing. Despite its “shocking” modernity, his music is also very structured, precise, controlled, full of artifice, and theatricality. Other outstanding works include the ballet Petrouchka (1911), featuring shifting rhythms and polytonality, a signature device of the composer. The Rake’s Progress (1951), a full-length opera, alludes heavily to the Baroque and Classical styles of Bach and Mozart through the use of the harpsichord, small orchestra, solo and ensemble numbers with recitatives stringing together the different songs. Stravinsky’s musical output approximates 127 works, includingconcerti, orchestral music, instrumental music, operas, ballets, solo vocal, and choral music. He died in New York City on April 6, 1971. OTHER MUSICAL STYLES Primitivism Primitivistic music is tonal through the asserting of one note as more important than the others. New sounds are synthesized from old ones by juxtaposing two simple events to create a more complex new event. Primitivism has links to Exoticism through the use of materials from other cultures, Nationalism through the use of materials indigenous to specific countries, and Ethnicism through the use of materials from European ethnic groups. Two well-known proponents of this style were Stravinsky and Bela Bartok. It eventually evolved into Neo-classicism. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  17. 17. Music of the 20th Century 11 RUSSIAN DANCE FROM “PETROUCHKA” (Excerpt) Igor Stravinsky All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  18. 18. MUSIC  Quarter I 12 BELA BARTOK (1881–1945) Bela Bartok was born in Nagyszentmiklos, Hungary (now Romania) on March 25, 1881, to musical parents. He started piano lessons with his mother and later entered Budapest RoyalAcademyof Music in 1899. He was inspired bythe performance of Richard Strauss’s Also Sprach Zarathustra to write his first nationalistic poem, Kossuth in 1903. He was a concert pianist as he travelled exploring the music of Hungarian peasants. In 1906, with his fellow composer Kodaly, Bartok published his first collection of 20 Hungarian folk songs. For the next decade, although his music was being badly received in his country, he continued to explore Magyar folk songs. Later, he resumed his career as a concert pianist, while composing several works for his own use. As a neo-classicist, primitivist, and nationalist composer, Bartok used Hungarian folk themes and rhythms. He also utilized changing meters and strong syncopations. His compositions were successful because of their rich melodies and livelyrhythms. He admired themusical styles of Liszt, Strauss, Debussy, and Stravinsky. He eventually shed their influences in favor of Hungarian folk and peasant themes. These later became a major source of the themes of his works. Bartok is most famous for his Six String Quartets (1908–1938). It represents the greatest achievement of his creative life, spanning a full 30 years for their completion. The six works combine difficult and dissonant music with mysterious sounds. The Concerto for Orchestra (1943), a five-movement work composed late in Bartok’s life, features the exceptional talents of its various soloists in an intricately constructed piece. The short and popular Allegro Barbaro (1911) for solo piano is punctuated with swirling rhythms and percussive chords, while Mikrokosmos (1926–1939), a set of six books containing progressive technical piano pieces, introduced and familiarized the piano student with contemporary harmony and rhythm. His musical compositions total more or less 695 which include concerti, orchestral music, piano music, instrumental music, dramatic music, choral music, and songs. In 1940, the political developments in Hungary led Bartok to migrate to the United States, where he died on September 26, 1945 in New York City, USA. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  19. 19. Music of the 20th Century 13 DUET FOR PIPES (Excerpt) Bela Bartok All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  20. 20. MUSIC  Quarter I 14 Neo-Classicism Neo-classicism was a moderating factor between the emotional excesses of the Romantic period and the violent impulses of the soul in expressionism. It was, in essence, a partial return to an earlier style of writing, particularly the tightly-knit form of the Classical period, while combining tonal harmonies with slight dissonances. It also adopted a modern, freer use of the seven-note diatonic scale. Examples of neo-classicism are Bela Bartok’s Song of the Bagpipe and Piano Sonata. In this latter piece, the classical three-movement format is combined with ever-shifting time signatures, complex but exciting rhythmic patterns, as well as harmonic dissonances that produce harsh chords. The neo-classicist style was also used bycomposers such as Francis Poulenc, Bela Bartok, Igor Stravinsky, Paul Hindemith, and Sergei Prokofieff. SERGEI PROKOFIEFF (1891–1953) Sergei Prokofieff is regarded today as a combination of neo-classicist, nationalist, and avant garde composer. His style is uniquely recognizable for its progressive technique, pulsating rhythms, melodic directness, and a resolving dissonance. Born in the Ukraine in 1891, Prokofieff set out for the St. Petersburg Conservatory equipped with his great talent as a composer and pianist. His early compositions were branded as avant garde and were not approved of by his elders, he continued to follow his stylistic path as he fled to other places for hopefully better acceptance of his creativity. His contacts with Diaghilev and Stravinsky gave him the chance to write music for the ballet and opera, notably the ballet Romeo and Juliet and the opera War and Peace. Much of Prokofieff’s opera was left unfinished, due in part to resistance by the performers themselves to the seemingly offensive musical content. He became prolific in writing symphonies, chamber music, concerti, and solo instrumental music. He also wrote Peter and the Wolf, a lighthearted orchestral work intended for children, to appease the continuing government crackdown on avant garde composers at the time. He was highly successful in his piano music, as evidenced by the wide acceptance of his piano concerti and sonatas, featuring toccata-like rhythms and biting harmonic dissonance within a classical form and structure. Other significant compositions include the Symphony no. 1 (also called Classical Symphony), his most accessible orchestral work linked to the combined styles of classicists Haydn and Mozart and neo-classicist Stravinsky. He also composed violin sonatas, some of which are also performed on the flute, two highly regarded violin concerti, and two string quartets inspired by Beethoven. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  21. 21. Music of the 20th Century 15 Prokofieff’s musical compositions include concerti, chamber music, film scores, operas, ballets, and official pieces for state occasions. He died in Moscow on March 15, 1953. CONCERTO IN C MAJOR, OP. 26, NO. 3 (Excerpt) Sergei Prokofieff Copyright by everynote.com All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  22. 22. MUSIC  Quarter I 16 FRANCIS POULENC (1899–1963) One of the relatively few composers born into wealth and a privileged social position, the neo-classicist Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc was a member of the group of young French composers known as “Les Six.” He rejected the heavy romanticism of Wagner and the so-called imprecision of Debussyand Ravel. His compositions had a coolly elegant modernity, tempered by a classical sense of proportion. Poulenc was also fond of the witty approach of Satie, as well as the early neo-classical works of Stravinsky. Poulenc was a successful composer for piano, voice, and choral music. His output included the harpsichord concerto, known as Concert Champetre (1928); the Concerto for Two Pianos (1932), which combined the classical touches of Mozart with a refreshing mixture of wit and exoticism in the style of Ravel; and a Concerto for Solo Piano (1949) written for the Boston SymphonyOrchestra. Poulenc’s vocal output, meanwhile, revealed his strength as alyrical melodist. His opera works included Les Mamelles de Tiresias (1944), which revealed his light-hearted character; Dialogues des Carmelites (1956), which highlighted his conservative writing style; and La Voix Humane (1958), which reflected his own turbulent emotional life. Poulenc’s choral works tended to be more somber and solemn, as portrayed by Litanies a la vierge noire (Litanies of the Black Madonna, 1936), with its monophony, simple harmony, and startling dissonance; and Stabat Mater (1950), which carried a Baroque solemnity with a prevailing style of unison singing and repetition. Poulenc’s musical compositions total around 185 which include solo piano works, as well as vocal solos, known as melodies, which highlighted many aspects of his temperament in his avant garde style. He died in Paris on January 30, 1963. Other members of “Les Six” Georges Auric (1899–1983) wrote music for the movies and rhythmic music with lots of energy. Louis Durey (1888–1979) used traditional ways of composing and wrote in his own, personal way, not wanting to follow form. Arthur Honegger (1882–1955) liked chamber music and the symphony. His popular piece Pacific 231 describes a train journey on the Canadian Pacific Railway. Darius Milhaud (1892–1974) was a very talented composer who wrote in several different styles. Some of his music uses bitonality and polytonality (writing in two or more keys at the same time). His love of jazz can be heard in popular pieces like Le Boeuf sur le Toit which he called a cinema-symphony. Germaine Tailleferre (1892–1983) was the only female in the group. She liked to use dance rhythms. She loved children and animals and wrote many works about them. She also wrote operas, concerti, and many works for the piano. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  23. 23. Music of the 20th Century 17 PERPETUAL MOTION, NO. 1 (Excerpt) Francis Poulenc Avant Garde Music Closely associated with electronic music, the avant garde movement dealt with the parameters or the dimensions of sound in space. The avant garde style exhibited a new attitude toward musical mobility, whereby the order of note groups could be varied so that musical continuity could be altered. Improvisation was a necessity in this style, for the musical scores were not necessarily followed as written. For example, one could expect a piece to be read by a performer from left to right or vice versa. Or the performer might turn the score over, and go on dabbling indefinitely in whatever order before returning to the starting point. Copyright by everynote.com All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  24. 24. MUSIC  Quarter I 18 From the United States, there were avant garde composers such as George Gershwin and John Cage with their truly unconventional composition techniques; Leonard Bernstein with his famed stage musicals and his music lectures for young people; and Philip Glass with his minimalist compositions. Through their works, these composers truly extended the boundaries of what music was thought to be in earlier periods. The unconventional methods of sound and form, as well as the absence of traditional rules governing harmony, melody, and rhythm, make the whole concept of avant garde music still so strange to ears accustomed to traditional compositions. Composers who used this style include Olivier Messiaen, John Cage, Phillip Glass, Leonard Bernstein, George Gershwin, and Pierre Boulez. GEORGE GERSHWIN (1898–1937) George Gershwin was born in NewYork to Russian Jewish immigrants. His older brother Ira was his artistic collaborator who wrote the lyrics of his songs. His first song was written in 1916 and his first Broadway musical La La Lucille in 1919. From that time on, Gershwin’s name became a fixture on Broadway. He also composed Rhapsody in Blue (1924) and An American in Paris (1928), which incorporated jazz rhythms with classical forms. His opera Porgy and Bess (1934) remains to this day the onlyAmerican opera to be included in the established repertory of this genre. In spite of his commercial success, Gershwin was more fascinated with classical music. He was influenced byRavel, Stravinsky, Berg, and Schoenberg, as well as the group of contemporaryFrench composers known as “Les Six” that would shape the character of his major works— half jazz and half classical. Gershwin’s melodic gift was considered phenomenal, as evidenced byhis numerous songs of wide appeal. He is a true “crossover artist,” in the sense that his serious compositions remain highly popular in the classical repertoire, as his stage and film songs continue to be jazz and vocal standards. Considered the “Father of American Jazz,” his “mixture of the primitive and the sophisticated” gave his music an appeal that has lasted long after his death. His musical compositions total around 369 which include orchestral music, chamber music, musical theatre, film musicals, operas, and songs. He died in Hollywood, California, U.S.A. on July 11, 1937. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  25. 25. Music of the 20th Century 19 SUMMERTIME (Excerpt) George Gershwin LEONARD BERNSTEIN (1918–1990) Born in Massachussetts, USA, Leonard Bernstein endeared himselfto his manyfollowers as a charismatic conductor, pianist, composer, and lecturer. His big break came when he was asked to substitute for the ailing Bruno Walter in conducting the New York Philharmonic Orchestra in a concert on November 14, 1943. The overnight success of this event started his reputation as a great interpreter of the classics as well as of the more complex works of Gustav Mahler. Bernstein’s philosophy was that the universal language of music is basicallyrooted in tonality. This came under fire from the radical young musicians who espoused the serialist principles of that time. Although he never relinquished his musical values as a composer, he later turned to conducting and lecturing in order to safeguard his principles as to what he believed was best in music. He achieved pre-eminence in two fields: conducting and composing for Broadwaymusicals, dance shows, and concert music. Bernstein is best known for his compositions for the stage. Foremost among these is the musical West Side Story (1957), anAmerican version of Romeo and Juliet, which displays a tuneful, off-beat, and highly atonal approach to the songs. Other outputs include another Broadway hit Candide (1956) and the much-celebrated Mass (1971), which he wrote for the opening of the John F. Kennedy Center for the PerformingArts in Washington, D.C. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  26. 26. MUSIC  Quarter I 20 He composed the music for the film On the Waterfront (1954).As a lecturer, Bernstein is fondly remembered for his television series “Young People’s Concerts” (1958–1973) that demonstrated the sounds of the various orchestral instruments and explained basic music principles to young audiences, as well as his “Harvardian Lectures,” a six-volume set of his papers on syntax, musical theories, and philosophical insights delivered to his students at Harvard University. His musical compositions total around 90. He died in New York City, USA on October 14, 1990. TONIGHT From “West Side Story” (Excerpt) Leonard Bernstein, with lyrics by Stephen Sondheim All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  27. 27. Music of the 20th Century 21 PHILIP GLASS (1937– ) One of the most commercially successful minimalist composer is Philip Glass who is also an avant garde composer. He explored the territories of ballet, opera, theater, film, and even television jingles. His distinctive style involves cell-like phrases emanating from bright electronic sounds from the keyboard that progressed very slowly from one pattern to the next in a very repetitious fashion.Aided by soothing vocal effects and horn sounds, his music is often criticized as uneventful and shallow, yet startlingly effective for its hypnotic charm. Born in New York, USA of Jewish parentage, Glass became an accomplished violinist and flutist at the age of 15. In Paris, he became inspired by the music of the renowned Indian sitarist Ravi Shankar. He assisted Shankar in the soundtrack recording for Conrad Rooks’ film Chappaqua. He formed the Philip Glass Ensemble and produced works such as Music in Similar Motion (1969) and Music in Changing Parts (1970), which combined rock- type grooves with perpetual patterns played at extreme volumes. Glass collaborated with theater conceptualist Robert Wilson to produce the four-hour opera Einstein on the Beach (1976), an instant sell-out at the New York Metropolitan Opera House. It put minimalism in the mainstream of 20th century music. He completed the trilogy with the operas Satyagraha (1980) and Akhnaten (1984), based on the lives of Mahatma Gandhi, Leo Tolstoy, Martin Luther King, and an Egyptian pharaoh. Here, he combined his signature repetitive and overlapping style with theatrical grandeur on stage. His musical compositions total around 170. Today, Glass lives alternately in Nova Scotia, Canada and New York, USA. MUSIC IN FIFTHS (Excerpt) Philip Glass All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  28. 28. MUSIC  Quarter I 22 Modern Nationalism Alooser form of 20th century music development focused on nationalist composers and musical innovators who sought to combine modern techniques with folk materials. However, this common ground stopped there, for the different breeds of nationalists formed their own styles of writing. In Eastern Europe, prominent figures included the Hungarian Bela Bartok and the Russian Sergei Prokofieff, who were neo-classicists to a certain extent. Bartok infused Classical techniques into his own brand of cross rhythms and shifting meters to demonstrate many barbaric and primitive themes that were Hungarian—particularly gypsy—in origin. Prokofieff used striking dissonances and Russian themes, and his music was generallywitty, bold, and at times colored with humor. Together with Bartok, Prokofieff made extensive use of polytonality, a kind of atonality that uses two or more tonal centers simultaneously. An example of this style is Prokofieff’s Visions Fugitive. In Russia, a highly gifted generation of creative individuals known as the “Russian Five” —Modest Mussorgsky, Mili Balakirev,AlexanderBorodin, Cesar Cui, and Nikolai Rimsky Korsakov—infused chromatic harmonyand incorporated Russian folk music and liturgical chant in their thematic materials. Nikolai Rimsky Korsakov VISIONS FUGITIVE (Excerpt) Sergei Prokofieff Example of Modern Nationalism All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  29. 29. Music of the 20th Century 23 21ST CENTURY MUSIC TRENDS Music scholars predict that the innovative and experimental developments of 20th century classical music will continue to influence the music of the 21st century. With so many technical and stylistic choices open to today’s composers, it seems there is no obstacle to their creativity and to the limits of their imagination. And yet, this same freedom that has allowed such varied musical experimentation in recent years has also caused contemporary classical music—or music utilizing the classical techniques of composition—to lose touch with its audience and to lose its clear role in today’s society. Presently, modern technology and gadgets put a great impact on all types of music. However, what still remains to be seen is when this trend will shift, and what the distinct qualities of emerging classical works will be. SUMMARY The early half of the 20th century also gave rise to new musical styles, which were not quite as extreme as the electronic, chance, and minimalist styles that arose later. These new styles were impressionism, expressionism, neo-classicism, avant garde music, and modern nationalism. Impressionism made use of the whole-tone scale. It also applied suggested, rather than depicted, reality. It created a mood rather than a definite picture. It had a translucent and hazy texture; lacking a dominant-tonic relationship. It made use of overlapping chords, with 4th, 5th, octaves, and 9th intervals, resulting in a non-traditional harmonic order and resolution. Expressionism revealed the composer’s mind, instead of presenting an impression of the environment. It used atonality and the twelve-tone scale, lacking stable and conventional harmonies. It served as a medium for expressing strong emotions, such as anxiety, rage, and alienation. Neo-classicism was a partial return to a classical form of writing music with carefully modulated dissonances. It made use of a freer seven-note diatonic scale. The avant garde style was associated with electronic music and dealt with the parameters or dimensions of sound in space. It made use of variations of self-contained note groups to change musical continuity, and improvisation, with an absence of traditional rules on harmony, melody, and rhythm. Modern nationalism is a looser form of 20th century music development focused on nationalist composers and musical innovators who sought to combine modern techniques with folk materials. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  30. 30. MUSIC  Quarter I 24 A number of outstanding composers of the 20th century each made their own distinctive mark on the contemporary classical music styles that developed. Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel were the primaryexponents of impressionism, while Arnold Schoenberg was the primary exponent of expressionism, with the use of the twelve-tone scale and atonality. Bela Bartok was a neo-classical, modern nationalist, and a primitivist composer who adopted Hungarian folk themes to introduce rhythms with changing meters and heavy syncopation. Igor Stravinsky was also an expressionist and a neo-classical composer. He incorporated nationalistic elements in his music, known for his skillful handling of materials and his rhythmic inventiveness. WHAT TO KNOW 1. What group of people inspired many of Bartok’s compositions? 2. Which Russian composer created the music for the ballet The Firebird? 3. Who is considered the foremost impressionist? 4. What kind of musical style is attributed to Schoenberg and Stravinsky? 5. Who was the target audience of Prokofieff’s Peter and the Wolf? 6. Give an example of a musical work of Debussy, Ravel, Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Bartok, Prokofieff, Poulenc, Gershwin, Glass, and Bernstein. Write your answers in the table below. Composer Musical Work Debussy Ravel Schoenberg Stravinsky Bartok Prokofieff Poulenc Gershwin Glass Bernstein All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  31. 31. Music of the 20th Century 25 20TH CENTURY MUSICAL STYLES: ELECTRONIC and CHANCE MUSIC The musical styles that evolved in the modern era were varied. Some of these were short-lived, being experimental and too radical in nature, while others found an active blend between the old and the new. New inventions and discoveries ofscienceand technologylead to continuing developments in the field of music. Technology has produced electronic music devices such as cassette tape recorders, compact discs and their variants, the video compact disc (VCD) and the digital video disc (DVD), MP3, MP4, ipod, iphone, karaoke players, mobile phones and synthesizers. These devices are used for creating and recording music to add to or to replace acoustical sounds. NEW MUSICAL STYLES Electronic Music The capacity of electronic machines such as synthesizers, amplifiers, tape recorders, and loudspeakers to create different sounds was given importance by 20th century composers like Edgar Varese, Karlheinz Stockhausen, and Mario Davidovsky. Music that uses the tape recorder is called musique concrete, or concrete music. The composer records different sounds that are heard in the environment such as the bustle of traffic, the sound of the wind, the barking of dogs, the strumming of a guitar, or the cry of an infant. These sounds are arranged by the composer in different ways like by playing the tape recorder in its fastest mode or in reverse. In musique concrete, the composer is able to experiment with different sounds that cannot be produced by regular musical instruments such as the piano or the violin. Synthesizer All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  32. 32. MUSIC  Quarter I 26 SYNCHRONISMS NO. 5 (For Five Percussion Players and Tape / Excerpt) Mario Davidovsky Example of Electronic Music Copyright by Edward B. Marks Music Corporation EDGARD VARESE (1883–1965) Edgard (also spelled Edgar) Varèse was born on December 22, 1883. He was considered an “innovative French-born composer.” However, he spent the greater part of his life and career in the United States, where he pioneered and created new sounds that bordered between music and noise. The musical compositions of Varese are characterized by an emphasis on timbre and rhythm. He invented the term “organized sound,” which means that certain timbres and rhythms can be grouped together in order to capture a whole new definition of sound.Although his completesurviving works are scarce, he has been recognized to have influenced several major composers of the late 20th century. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  33. 33. Music of the 20th Century 27 POÈME ÉLECTRONIQUE Edgard Varese Copyright by Philips International B.V. Varèse’s use of new instruments and electronic resources made him the “Father of Electronic Music” and he was described as the “Stratospheric Colossus of Sound.” His musical compositions total around 50, with his advances in tape-based sound proving revolutionary during his time. He died on November 6, 1965. KARLHEINZ STOCKHAUSEN (1928– ) Karlheinz Stockhausen is a central figure in the realm of electronic music. Born in Cologne, Germany, he had the opportunity to meet Messiaen, Schoenberg, and Webern, the principal innovators at the time. Together with Pierre Boulez, Stockhausen drew inspiration from these composers as hedeveloped his style of total serialism. Stockhausen’s music was initially met with resistance due to its heavily atonal content with practically no clear melodic or rhythmic sense. Still, he continued to experiment with musique concrete. Some of his works include Gruppen (1957), a piece for three orchestras that moved music through time and space; Kontakte (1960), a work that pushed the tape machine to its limits; and the epic Hymnen (1965), an ambitious two-hour work of 40 juxtaposed songs and anthems from around the world. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  34. 34. MUSIC  Quarter I 28 The climax of his compositional ambition came in 1977 when he announced the creation of Licht (Light), a seven-part opera (one for each dayof the week) for a gigantic ensemble of solo voices, solo instruments, solo dancers, choirs, orchestras, mimes, and electronics. His recent Helicopter String Quartet, in which a string quartet performs whilst airborne in four different helicopters, develops his long-standing fascination with music which moves in space. It has led him to dream of concert halls in which the sound attacks the listener from every direction. Stockhausen’s works total around 31. He presently resides in Germany. Chance Music Chance music refers to a style wherein the piece always sounds different at every performance because of the random techniques of production, including the use of ring modulators or natural elements that become a part of the music. Most of the sounds emanate from the surroundings, both natural and man-made, such as honking cars, rustling leaves, blowing wind, dripping water, or a ringing phone. As such, the combination of external sounds cannot be duplicated as each happens by chance. An example is John Cage’s Four Minutes and Thirty-Three Seconds (4’33") where the pianist merely opens the piano lid and keeps silent for the duration of the piece. The audience hears a variety of noises inside and outside the concert hall amidst the seeming silence. STUDY II (Excerpt) Karlheinz Stockhausen All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  35. 35. Music of the 20th Century 29 JOHN CAGE (1912–1992) John Cage was known as one of the 20th century composers with the widest array of sounds in his works. He was born in Los Angeles, California, USA on September 5, 1912 and became one of the most original composers in the history of western music. He challenged the very idea of music by manipulating musical instruments in order to achieve new sounds. He experimented with what came to be known as “chance music.” In one instance, Cage created a “prepared” piano, where screws and pieces of wood or paper were inserted between the piano strings to produce different percussive possibilities. The prepared piano style found its way into Cage’s Sonatas and Interludes (1946–1948), a cycle of pieces containing a wide range of sounds, rhythmic themes, and a hypnotic quality. His involvement with Zen Buddhism inspired him to compose Music of Changes (1951), written for conventional piano, that employed chance compositional processes. CONCERT FOR PIANO AND ORCHESTRA, 1958 (Cover, instruction sheet, and pages 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9) John Cage Copyright Edition Peters All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  36. 36. MUSIC  Quarter I 30 He became famous for his composition Four Minutes and 33 Seconds (4’33"), a chance musical work that instructed the pianist to merely open the piano lid and remain silent for the length of time indicated bythe title. The work was intended to conveythe impossibility of achieving total silence, since surrounding sounds can still be heard amidst the silence of the piano performance. Cage also advocated bringing real-life experiences into the concert hall. This reached its extreme when he composed a work that required him to fry mushrooms on stage in order to derive the sounds from the cooking process. As a result of his often irrational ideas like this, he developed a following in the 1960s. However, he gradually returned to the more organized methods of composition in the last 20 years of his life. More than any other modern composer, Cage influenced the development of modern music since the 1950s. He was considered more of a musical philosopher than a composer. His conception of what music can and should be has had a profound impact upon his contemporaries. He was active as a writer presenting his musical views with both wit and intelligence. Cage was an important force in other artistic areas especially dance and musical theater. His musical compositions total around 229. Cage died in NewYork City on August 12, 1992. SUMMARY The new musical styles created by 20th century classical composers were truly unique and innovative. They experimented with the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, tempo, and timbre in daring ways never attempted before. Some even made use of electronic devices such as synthesizers, tape recorders, amplifiers, and the like to introduce and enhance sounds beyond those available with traditional instruments. Among the resulting new styles were electronic music and chance music. These expanded the concept of music far beyond the conventions of earlier periods, and challenged both the new composers and the listening public. As the 20th century progressed, so did the innovations in musical styles as seen in the works of these composers. From France, Edgard Varese’s use of new instruments and electronic resources led to his being known as the “Father of Electronic Music” and a description of him as “The Stratospheric Colossus of Sound.” From Germany, there was Karlheinz Stockhausen, who further experimented with electronic music and musique concrete. Stockhausen’s electronic sounds revealed the rich musical potential of modern technology. From the United States, there was John Cage with his truly unconventional composition techniques. Cage’s works feature the widest array of sounds from the most inventive sources. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  37. 37. Music of the 20th Century 31 WHAT TO KNOW 1. Who was the French composer known as the “Father of Electronic Music? 2. What are some of the new musical approaches of Cage? 3. What is meant by musique concrete used by Stockhausen? 4. Give an example of a musical work by Varese, Stockhausen, and Cage. Write your answers in the table below. Composer Musical Work Varese Stockhausen Cage WHAT TO PROCESS Listening Activity: Works of 20th Century Composers 1. Your teacher will play excerpts of any (one) of the following musical examples: Debussy – Claire de Lune, La Mer, Children’s Corner Suite Ravel – Miroirs, Sonatine, Daphnis et Chloe, Jeux d’Eau, Bolero Schoenberg – Verklarte Nacht, Violin Concerto, Piano Concerto, Gurrelieder Bartok – String Quartet no. 4, Allegro, Mikrokosmos, Barbaro, Music for Strings Stravinsky – The Rite of Spring, Petrouchka, The Firebird Suite Prokofieff – Romeo and Juliet (ballet), Piano Sonatas Gershwin – An American in Paris, Porgy and Bess, Rhapsody in Blue, Someone to Watch Over Me Bernstein – Tonight from West Side Story, Clarinet Sonata Glass – Einstein on the Beach, Satyagraha, Akhnaten Poulenc – Concerto for Two Pianos, Dialogues des Carmelites Cage – 4’33"; Metamorphosis, for piano; Five Songs, for contralto soloist and piano; Music for Wind Instruments, for wind quintet Stockhausen – Etude, Electronic STUDIES I and II, Gesang der Junglinge, Kontakte, Momente, Hymnen Varese – Hyperprism for wind and percussion, Octandre for seven wind instruments and double bass, Intégrales for wind and percussion, Ionisation for 13 percussion players All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  38. 38. MUSIC  Quarter I 32 2. Listen carefully to each excerpt and be able to recognize the distinct musical style of each composer. 3. Choose a composition that you like. Write a short reaction paper on it. WHAT TO UNDERSTAND A. Name the Composer, Title of the Music, Musical Style, and Description 1. After the Listening Activity, your teacher will prepare selected excerpts of compositions byDebussy, Ravel, Schoenberg, Bartok, Stravinsky, Prokofieff, Poulenc, Stockhausen, Glass, Cage, Bernstein, Varese, and Gershwin. 2. The class will be divided into four teams, with each team forming a line. 3. As your teacher plays a few measures of the first excerpt, the first student in each line goes to the board and writes the name of the composer. The second student will write the title of the music. The third student will write the musical style. Then, the fourth student will write a description of the music in one phrase. 4. The team that writes the correct answers first scores four (4) points. 5. The same procedure goes on until all the students in the line have had their turn. 6. One student will be assigned as the scorer. The team with the highest score is the winner. In case of a tie, the first team to finish is the winner. 7. The scorer will announce the winners and then ask them this question: What was the most significant thing that you have learned from this activity? WHAT TO PERFORM A. Activity 1: Experimentation with the Sounds of 20th Century Music Systems 1. Chance Music – Put small items inside a bag. Include coins, pens, pins, small bells, and other articles with percussive sounds. Pour the bag’s contents on a hard surface and record the sounds that are produced with a cellphone or other available device. Put the items back in the bag, and unload the same while once again recording the sounds being produced. Note the changes between the two sets of sounds recorded. 2. Electronic Music – Create short electronic music pieces using your knowledge of 20th century musical styles. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  39. 39. Music of the 20th Century 33 B. Performance Activity 2: Original Chance and Electronic Music Rate scores are based on the elements of music such as rhythm, melodic appeal, harmony and texture, tempo and dynamics, timbre, and overall musical structure. 1. The class will be divided into four groups. 2. Each group will create an original five-minute performanceof Chance Music and Electronic Music (if available) to be performed in class. 3. Those who are not performing will act as judges for the performance evaluation. 4. Judges will have five placards or score cards or paper marked: BEST, BETTER, GOOD, FAIR, NEEDS FOLLOW UP. 5. Judges will display a score card after evaluating the performance. 6. One student may be assigned to tabulate the scores after the performance. 7. Your teacher will announce the “Best Performance” award. 8. What was the role of the audience in the performance of Chance music? Explain your answers. C. Performance Activity 3: Group Activity Video Clips 1. You will be divided into four groups by counting off from 1 to 4. 2. Create and explore other arts (multi-media) that portray20th centurymusical style (chance, electronic, jazz, avant garde) through a 10-minute video clip or MTV using your digital cameras or mobile phones. 3. Show and discuss your video works in class. Live / TV Performances 1. Watch live performances of musical concerts, if available in your area or watch live concerts recorded on TV. 2. Re-enact in class what you watched. 3. Make a 10-minute audio video presentation while you re-enact what you have seen on live concerts and on TV. 4. Show and discuss your video works in class. D. Performance Activity 4: Singing or Humming Musical Fragments 1. Your teacher will play several musical excerpts of selected 20th century composers and will briefly discuss the title, composer, musical style, and brief description of how he or she feels about the music. 2. Listen carefullyto each excerpt and be able to recognize the distinct musical style of each composer. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  40. 40. MUSIC  Quarter I 34 3. Sing or hum some melodic fragments (portion only) of any of the following excerpts of 20th century music, together with the recordings: a. Claude Debussy’s Claire de Lune b. Leonard Bernstein’s West Side Story c. George Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue d. Ravel’s Bolero e. Any work of minimalist composers, Philip Glass or Meredith Monk f. Any work of nationalist composers, Erik Satie or Bela Bartok. 4. Based on the melodic fragments of the excerpts that you sang or hummed, you should be able to aurally identify the different selected works of the composers of the 20th century. 5. Choose a composition that you like. Write a brief profile about the composer and give your personal reaction about the music on a 1/2 sheet of paper. Submit it in class next meeting. Evaluation Activity: “Drawing Lots” 1. After the above singing or humming activity, your teacher will prepare a box containing slips of paper with the names of Debussy, Ravel, Gershwin, Bernstein, Glass, Monk, Satie, and Bartok written on them. 2. The class will be divided into four groups. Each group will choose four representatives who will be assigned as contestants. 3. Each contestant will draw out a composer’s name from the box and must say three sentences about his compositional technique or musical style, his major contribution to modern music, and one work that shows his compositional style. 4. The rest of the groups will evaluate each contestant’s answer by flashing a card or paper marked “CORRECT” or “WRONG.” Each correct answer earns a point. 5. The group with the highest number of points wins the contest. E. Performance Activity 5: Film Showing or Video Watching 1. Research on the 20th centurymusical playWest Side Story written byLeonard Bernstein. 2. Watch any video clip of West Side Story on the internet or You Tube. 3. Write a reaction paper explaining the following elements of the performance: a. Setting b. Musical compositions c. Role of composer and lyricist d. Role of performers (actors, actresses) e. Role of audience (yourself) All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  41. 41. Music of the 20th Century 35 f. Sound and musical direction g. Script / screenplay h. Props, costumes, lighting 4. Did you like what you watched? Why or why not? Explain your answers. F. Performance Activity 6: Singing Songs from West Side Story 1. You may opt to do this as an individual or group activity. Groups will be divided into four. 2. Listen to the songs Tonight, Maria, Somewhere, and America from video or recordings of West Side Story. You will be asked to draw lots for the song to sing. 3. Sing and perform the song in class with or without accompaniment. You may also sing with the recordings. 4. Those who are not performing will act as judges for the performance evaluation. 5. Judges will have five placards or score cards or paper marked: BEST, BETTER, GOOD, FAIR, NEEDS FOLLOW UP. 6. Judges will display a score card after evaluating the performance. 7. One student may be assigned to tabulate the scores after the performance. 8. Your teacher will announce the “Best Performance” award. G. Performance Activity 7: Live Concert or Recording or Music Video Choose the activity that you are interested in. 1. Class Concert – Live Performance a. You will be grouped into two. You choose your group if you will be doingthefollowing: singing, dancing,choreography, musical directing, playing an instrument (either as accompaniment to the song or dance or solo performance or as a band). Use props and costumes, if needed. b. Perform the concert in class in your own original interpretation of the songs from West Side Story. 2. Recording or Music Video: Individual or Group Activity a. You will be grouped into two and you will chooseyour group members. b. Record the performance of your classmates using a cassette recorder or make a music video using your cellular phone, digital camera, or video camera All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  42. 42. MUSIC  Quarter I 36 c. Play the recorded performance or show the music video to your classmates and choose the “Best Performers.” Evaluation of Performing Activities Rating scale: 5 = Very Good 4 = Good 3 = Fair 2 = Poor 1 = Needs Follow-up Rate scores are based on your performance quality. 1. How well did I perform the songs from West Side Story? ____________ 2 How well can I identify the different musical genres based on instrumentation, text, and purpose? ____________ 3. How well can I describe the characteristics of each through listening to their melody, harmony, rhythm, text, and mass appeal? ____________ 4. How well did I participate in the performance of the different activities? ____________ Teacher’s Rating of the Student’s Performance 1. Musicianship (60%) a. compositional concepts presented ____________ b. musical elements ____________ c. technique ____________ 2. Ensemble coordination (20%) ____________ 3. Ensemble organization (20%) ____________ All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  43. 43. Quarter II: AFRO-LATIN AMERICAN AND POPULAR MUSIC CONTENT STANDARDS The learner demonstrates understanding of... 1. Characteristic features of Afro-Latin American music and Popular music. PERFORMANCE STANDARDS The learner... 1. Performs vocal and dance forms of Afro-Latin American music and selections of Popular music. LEARNING COMPETENCIES The learner... 1. Observes dance styles, instruments, and rhythms of Afro Latin American and popular music through video, movies and live performances. 2. Describes the historical and cultural background of Afro-Latin American and popular music. 3. Listens perceptively to Afro-Latin American and popular music. 4. Dances to different selected styles ofAfro-LatinAmerican and popular music. 5. Analyzes musical characteristics ofAfro-LatinAmerican and popular music. 6. Sings selections of Afro-Latin American and popular music in appropriate pitch, rhythm, style, and expression. 7. Explores ways of creating sounds on a variety of sources suitable to chosen vocal and instrumental selections. 8. Improvises simple vocal/instrumental accompaniments to selected songs. 9. Choreographs a chosen dance music. 10. Evaluates music and music performances using knowledge of musical elements and style. From the Department of Education curriculum for MUSIC Grade 10 (2014) 37 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  44. 44. MUSIC  Quarter II 38 MUSIC OFAFRICA Music has always been an important part in the daily life of theAfrican, whether for work, religion, ceremonies, or even communication. Singing, dancing, hand clapping and the beating of drums are essential to many African ceremonies, including those for birth, death, initiation, marriage, and funerals. Music and danceare also important to religious expression and political events. However, because of its wide influences on global music that has permeated contemporary American, Latin American, and European styles, there has been a growing interest in its own cultural heritage and musical sources. Of particular subjects of researches are its rhythmic structures and spiritual characteristics that have led to the birth of jazz forms. African music has been a collective result from the cultural and musical diversity of the more than 50 countries of the continent. The organization of this continent is a colonial legacy from European rule of the different nations up to the end of the 19th century, whosevastness has enabled it to incorporateits music with language, environment, political developments, immigration, and cultural diversity. TRADITIONAL MUSIC OFAFRICA African traditional music is largely functional in nature, used primarily in ceremonial rites, such as birth, death, marriage, succession, worship, and spirit invocations. Others are work related or social in nature, while many traditional societies view their music as entertainment. Ithas abasicallyinterlockingstructural format, due mainlyto its overlapping and dense textural characteristics as well as its rhythmic complexity. Its many sources of stylistic influence have produced varied characteristics and genres. Some Types of African Music Afrobeat Afrobeat is a term used to describe the fusion of WestAfrican with blackAmerican music. Apala (Akpala) Apala is a musical genre from Nigeria in the Yoruba tribal style to wake up the worshippers after fasting during the Muslim holy feast of Ramadan. Percussion instrumentation includes the rattle (sekere), thumb piano (agidigbo), bell (agogo), and two or three talking drums. Yoruba Apala Musicians All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  45. 45. Afro-Latin American and Popular Music 39 Axe Axe is a popular musical genre from Salvador, Bahia, and Brazil. It fuses the Afro- Caribbean styles of the marcha, reggae, and calypso. Jit Jit is a hard and fast percussive Zimbabwean dance music played on drums with guitar accompaniment, influenced by mbira-based guitar styles. Jive Jive is a popular form of South African music featuring a lively and uninhibited variation of the jitterbug, a form of swing dance. Juju Juju is a popular music style from Nigeria that relies on the traditional Yoruba rhythms, where the instruments in Juju are more Western in origin. A drum kit, keyboard, pedal steel guitar, and accordion are used along with the traditional dun-dun (talking drum or squeeze drum). All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  46. 46. MUSIC  Quarter II 40 Kwassa Kwassa Kwassa Kwassa is a dance style begun in Zaire in the late 1980’s, popularized by Kanda Bongo Man. In this dance style, the hips move back and forth while the arms move following the hips. Marabi Marabi is a South African three-chord township music of the 1930s-1960s which evolved into African Jazz. Possessing a keyboard style combining American jazz, ragtime and blues withAfrican roots, it is characterized by simple chords in varying vamping patterns and repetitive harmony over an extended period of time to allow the dancers more time on the dance floor. LATIN AMERICAN MUSIC INFLUENCED BYAFRICAN MUSIC Reggae Reggae is a Jamaican sound dominated by bass guitar and drums. It refers to a particular music style that was strongly influenced by traditional mento and calypso music, as well asAmerican jazz, and rhythm and blues. The most recognizable musical elements of reggae are its offbeat rhythm and staccato chords. Salsa Salsa music is Cuban, Puerto Rican, and Colombian dance music. It comprises various musical genres including the Cuban son montuno, guaracha, chachacha, mambo and bolero. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  47. 47. Afro-Latin American and Popular Music 41 Samba Samba is the basic underlying rhythm that typifies most Brazilian music. It is a lively and rhythmical dance and music with three steps to every bar, making the Samba feel like a timed dance. There is a set of dances—rather than a single dance—that define the Samba dancing scene in Brazil. Thus, no one dance can be claimed with certaintyas the “original” Samba style. Soca Soca is a modern Trinidadian and Tobago pop music combining “soul” and “calypso” music. Were This is Muslim music performed often as a wake-up call for early breakfast and prayers during Ramadan celebrations. Relying on pre-arranged music, it fuses the African and European music styles with particular usage of the natural harmonic series. Zouk Zouk is fast, carnival-like hythmic music, from the Creole slang word for ‘party,’originating in the Carribean Islands of Guadaloupe and Martinique and popularized in the 1980’s. It has a pulsating beat supplied by the gwo ka and tambour bele drums, a tibwa rhythmic pattern played on the rim of the snare drum and its hi-hat, rhythm guitar, a horn section, and keyboard synthesizers. 4 4 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  48. 48. MUSIC  Quarter II 42 VOCAL FORMS OF AFRICAN MUSIC Maracatu Maracatu first surfaced in the African state of Pernambuco, combining the strong rhythms of African percussion instruments with Portuguese melodies. The maracatu groups were called “nacoes” (nations) who paraded with a drumming ensemble numbering up to 100, accompanied by a singer, chorus, and a coterie of dancers. Musical instruments used in Maracatu The Maracatu uses mostly percussion instruments such as the alfaia, tarol and caixa-de- guerra, gongue, agbe, and miniero. The alfaia is a large wooden drum that is rope-tuned, complemented by the tarol which is a shallow snare drum and the caixa-de-guerra which is a war-like snare. Providing the clanging sound is the gongue, a metal cowbell. The shakers are represented by the agbe, a gourd shaker covered by beads, and the miniero or ganza, a metal cylindrical shaker filled with metal shot or small dried seeds called “Lagrima fre Nossa Senhora.” Maracatu dance Alfaia Drum Agbe Sakere Miniero or GanzaCaixa Gongue Tarol All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  49. 49. Afro-Latin American and Popular Music 43 Blues The blues is a musical form of the late 19th century that has had deep roots in African- American communities. These communities are located in the so-called “Deep South” of the United States. The slaves and their descendants used to sing as they worked in the cotton and vegetable fields. The notes of the blues create an expressive and soulful sound. The feelings that are evoked are normally associated with slight degrees of misfortune, lost love, frustration, or loneliness. From ecstatic joy to deep sadness, the blues can communicate various emotions more effectively than other musical forms. Noted performers of the Rhythm and Blues genre are Ray Charles, James Brown, Cab Calloway, Aretha Franklin, and John Lee Hooker; as well as B.B. King, Bo Diddley, Erykah Badu, Eric Clapton, Steve Winwood, CharlieMusselwhite, BluesTraveler, Jimmie Vaughan, and Jeff Baxter. Examples of blues music are the following: Early Mornin’, A House is Not a Home and Billie’s Blues. Soul Soul music was a popular music genre of the 1950’s and 1960’s. It originated in the United States. It combines elements ofAfrican-American gospel music, rhythm and blues, and often jazz. The catchy rhythms are accompanied by handclaps and extemporaneous body moves which are among its important features. Other characteristics include “call and response” between the soloist and the chorus, and an especially tense and powerful vocal sound. Some important innovators whose recordings in the 1950s contributed to the emergence of soul music included Clyde McPhatter, Hank Ballard, and Etta James. Ray Charles and Little Richard (who inspired Otis Redding) and James Brown were equally influential. Brown was known as the “Godfather of Soul,” while Sam Cooke and Jackie Wilson are also often acknowledged as “soul forefathers.” Examples of soul music are the following: Ain’t No Mountain High Enough, Ben, All I Could Do is Cry, Soul to Soul, and Becha by Golly, Wow. Ray Charles James Brown Etta James All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  50. 50. MUSIC  Quarter II 44 Spiritual The term spiritual, normally associated with a deeply religious person, refers here to a Negro spiritual, a song form byAfrican migrants toAmerica who became enslaved by its white communities. This musical form became their outlet to vent their loneliness and anger, and is a result of the interaction of music and religion from Africa with that of America.Thetexts are mainlyreligious, sometimes taken from psalmsof Biblical passages, while the music utilizes deep bass voices. The vocal inflections, Negro accents, and dramatic dynamicchanges add to themusical interest and effectiveness of the performance. Examples of spiritual music are the following: We are Climbing Jacob’s Ladder, Rock My Soul, When the Saints Go Marching In, and Peace Be Still. Call and Response The call and response method is a succession of two distinct musical phrases usually rendered by different musicians, where the second phrase acts as a direct commentary on or response to the first. Much like the question and answer sequence in human communication, it also forms a strong resemblance to the verse-chorus form in many vocal compositions. Examples of call and response songs are the following: Mannish Boy, one of the signature songs by MuddyWaters; and School Day - Ring, Ring Goes the Bell by Chuck Berry. WHAT TO KNOW 1. Which African music is usually heard on the radios today? 2. Among the types ofAfrican music, which is usually known as a type of music that has originated from Brazil? 3. Which type of music was popularized by Bob Marley? 4. What is the music that is a New York Puerto Rican adaptation of Afro-Cuban music? 5. What are the different musical instruments included in the maracatu? All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  51. 51. Afro-Latin American and Popular Music 45 MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OFAFRICA African music includes all the major instrumental genres of western music, including strings, winds, and percussion, along with a tremendous variety of specificAfrican musical instruments for solo or ensemble playing. Classification of Traditional African Instruments A. Idiophones These are percussion instruments that are either struck with a mallet or against one another. 1. Balafon - The balafon is a West African xylophone. It is a pitched percussion instrument with bars made from logs or bamboo. ThexylophoneisoriginallyanAsian instrument that follows the structure of a piano. It came from Madagascar to Africa, then to the Americas and Europe. 2. Rattles - Rattles are made of seashells, tin, basketry, animal hoofs, horn, wood, metal bells, cocoons, palm kernels, or tortoise shells. These rattling vessels may range from single to several objects that are either joined or suspended in such a way as they hit each other. 3. Agogo - The agogo is a single bell or multiple bells that had its origins in traditional Yoruba music and also in thesamba baterias (percussion) ensembles. The agogo may be called “the oldest samba instrument based on West African Yoruba single or double bells.” It has the highest pitch of any of the bateria instruments. 4. Atingting Kon - These are slit gongs used to communicate between villages.Theywere carved out of wood to resemble ancestors and had a “slit opening” at the bottom. In certain cases, their sound could carry for miles through the forest and even across water to neighboring islands.Aseries of gong “languages” were composed of beats and pauses, making it possible to send highly specific messages. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  52. 52. MUSIC  Quarter II 46 7. Shekere - The shekere is a type of gourd and shell megaphonefrom West Africa, consisting of a dried gourd with beads woven into a net covering the gourd. Theagbe is another gourd drum with cowrie shells usually strung with white cotton thread. The axatse is a small gourd, held by the neck and placed between hand and leg. 8. Rasp - A rasp, or scraper, is a hand percussion instrument whose sound is produced by scraping the notches on a piece of wood (sometimes elaborately carved) with a stick, creating a series of rattling effects. Gourd shekere 5. Slit drum - The slit drum is a hollow percussion instrument. Although known as a drum, it is not a true drum but is an idiophone. It is usuallycarved or constructed from bamboo or wood into a box with one or more slits in the top. Most slit drums have one slit, though two and three slits (cut into the shape of an “H”) occur. If the resultant tongues are different in width or thicknesses, the drum will produce two different pitches. 6. Djembe - The West Africandjembe (pronounced zhem-bay) is one of the best-known African drums is. It is shaped like a large goblet and played with bare hands. The body is carved from a hollowed trunk and is covered in goat skin. Log drums come in different shapes and sizes as well: tubular drums, bowl-shaped drums, and friction drums. Some have one head, others have two heads. The bigger the drum, the lower the tone or pitch. The more tension in the drum head, the higher the tone produced.These drums are played using hands or sticks or both; and sometimes have rattling metal and jingles attached to the outside or seeds and beads placed inside the drum. They are sometimes held under the armpit or with a sling. Antique wooden rasp All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  53. 53. Afro-Latin American and Popular Music 47 Luna B. Membranophones Membranophones are instruments which have vibrating animal membranes used in drums. Their shapes may be conical, cylindrical, barrel, hour-glass, globular, or kettle, and are played with sticks, hands, or a combination of both.African drums are usuallycarved from a single wooden log, and mayalso be made from ceramics, gourds, tin cans, and oil drums. Examples of these are found in the different localities – entenga (Ganda), dundun (Yoruba), atumpan (Akan), and ngoma (Shona), while some are constructed with wooden staves and hoops. 1. Body percussion - Africans frequently use their bodies as musical instruments.Aside from their voices, where manyof them are superb singers, the body also serves as a drum as people clap their hands, slap their thighs, pound their upper arms or chests, or shuffle their feet. This bodypercussion creates exciting rhythms which also stir them to action. Moreover, the wearing of rattles or bells on their wrists, ankles, arms, and waists enhances their emotional response. 2. Talking drum - The talking drum is used to send messages to announce births, deaths, marriages, sporting events, dances, initiation, or war. Sometimes it may also contain gossip or jokes. It is believed that the drums can carry direct messages to the spirits after the death of a loved one. However, learning to play messages on drums is extremely difficult, resulting in its waning popularity.An example of the talking drum is the luna. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  54. 54. MUSIC  Quarter II 48 C. Lamellaphone One of the most popular African percussion instruments is the lamellaphone, which is a set of plucked tongues or keys mounted on a sound board. It is known bydifferent names accordingto the regions such as mbira, karimba, kisaanj, and likembe. Mbira (hand piano or thumb piano) -The thumb piano or finger xylophone is of African origin and is used throughout the continent. It consists of a wooden board with attached staggered metal tines (a series of wooden, metal, or rattan tongues), plus an additional resonator to increase its volume. It is played by holding the instrument in the hands and plucking the tines with the thumbs, producing a soft plucked sound. D. Chordophones Chordophones are instruments which produce sounds from thevibration of strings. These include bows, harps, lutes, zithers, and lyres of various sizes. 1. Musical bow - The musical bow is the ancestor of all string instruments. It is the oldest and one of the most widely-used string instruments of Africa. It consists of a single string attached to each end of a curved stick, similar to a bow and arrow. The string is either plucked or struck with another stick, producing a per-cussive yet delicate sound. The earth bow, the mouth bow, and the resonator-bow are the principal types of musical bows. The earth bow, ground bow, or pit harp consist of a hole in the ground, a piece of flexible wood and a piece of chord. The musician plucks the taut string to accompany his singing. When the half gourd is not buried, the performer holds the instrument very tightly under his knee flat side down, so that the chord puts enough tension on the wood to bend it into the shape of a hunting bow. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  55. 55. Afro-Latin American and Popular Music 49 A more advanced form of ground bow is made from a log, half a gourd, a flat piece of wood, and cord. The wooden strip is driven firmlyinto one end of the log and the half gourd is fastened to the log about 2 feet away from the wooden strip. The cord, fastened from the wooden strip to the gourd, is stretched so tightly into the shape of a bow. The player holds the instrument on the ground by placing one leg across the log between the resonating gourd and the wooden strip. 2. Lute (konting, khalam, and the nkoni )- The lute, originating from the Arabic states, is shaped like the modern guitar and played in similar fashion. It has a resonating body, a neck, and one or more strings which stretch across the length of its body and neck. The player tunes the strings by tightening or loosening the pegs at the top of the lute’s neck. WestAfrican plucked lutes include the konting, khalam, and the nkoni. 3. Kora - The kora is Africa's most sophisticated harp, while also having features similar to a lute. Its body is made from a gourd or calabash.Asupport for the bridge is set across the opening and covered with a skin that is held in place with studs. The leather rings around the neck are used to tighten the 21 strings that givethe instrument a range of over three octaves. The kora is held upright and played with the fingers. 4. Zither - The zither is a stringed instrument with varying sizes and shapes whose strings are stretched along its body. Among the types of African zither are the raft or Inanga zither from Burundi, the tubular or Valiha zither from Malagasy, and the harp or Mvet zither from Cameroon. Nkoni Raft zither African kora All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  56. 56. MUSIC  Quarter II 50 E. Aerophones Aerophones are instruments which are produced initially bytrapped vibrating air columns or which enclose a body of vibrating air. Flutes in various sizes and shapes, horns, panpipes, whistle types, gourd and shell megaphones, oboe, clarinet, animal horn and wooden trumpets fall under this category. 1. Flutes - Flutes are widely used throughout Africa and either vertical or side-blown. Theyare usually fashioned from a single tube closed at one end and blown like a bottle. Panpipes consist of cane pipes of different lengths tied in a row or in a bundle held together by wax or cord, and generally closed at the bottom. They are blown across the top, each providing a different note. Atenteben (Ghana) Fulani Flutes 5. Zeze - The zeze is an African fiddle played with a bow, a small wooden stick, or plucked with the fingers. It has one or two strings, made of steel or bicycle brake wire. It is from Sub-Saharan Africa. It is also known by the names tzetze and dzendze, izeze and endingidi; and on Madagascar is called lokanga (or lokango) voatavo. 2. Horns - Horns and trumpets, found almost everywhere in Africa, are commonly made from elephant tusks and animal horns. With their varied attractive shapes, these instruments are end-blown or side-blown and range in size from the small signal whistle of the southern cattle herders to the large ivory horns of the tribal chiefs of the interior. One trumpet variety, the wooden trumpet, maybe simple or artisticallycarved, sometimes resembling a crocodile’s head. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  57. 57. Afro-Latin American and Popular Music 51 Kudu horn - This is one type of horn made from the horn of the kudu antelope. It releases a mellow and warm sound that adds a unique African accent to the music. This instrument, which comes in aset of six horns, reflects the cross of musical traditions in Africa. Today, the kudu horn can also be seen in football matches, where fans blow it to cheer for their favourite teams. 3. Reed pipes - There are single-reed pipes made from hollow guinea corn or sorghum stems, where the reed is a flap partially cut from the stem near one end. It is the vibration of this reed that causes the air within the hollow instrument to vibrate, thus creating the sound. There are also cone-shaped double-reed instruments similar to the oboe or shawm. The most well-known is the rhaita or ghaita, an oboe-like double reed instrument from northwestAfrica. It is one of the primary instruments used by traditional music ensembles from Morocco. The rhaita was even featured in the Lord of the Rings soundtrack, specifically in the Mordor theme. 4. Whistles - Whistles found throughout the continent may be made of wood or other materials. Short pieces of horn serve as whistles, often with a short tube inserted into the mouthpiece. Clay can be molded into whistles of many shapes and forms and then baked. Pottery whistles are sometimes shaped in the form of a head, similar to the Aztec whistles of CentralAmerica and Mexico. 5. Trumpets - African trumpets are made of wood, metal, animal horns, elephant tusks, and gourds with skins from snakes, zebras, leopards, crocodiles and animal hide as ornaments to the instrument. They are mostly ceremonial in nature, often used to announce the arrival or departure of important guests. In religion and witchcraft, some tribes believe in the magical powers of trumpets to frighten away evil spirits, cure diseases, and protect warriors and hunters from harm. African whistle All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  58. 58. MUSIC  Quarter II 52 African Musical Instruments from the Environment Many instruments ofAfrica are made from natural elements like wood, metal, animal, skin and horns, as well as improvised ones like tin cans and bottles. These are mainly used to provide rhythmic sounds, which are the most defining element ofAfrican music. Africans make musical instruments from the materials in the environment, like forest areas from where they make large wooden drums. Drums may also be made of clay, metal, tortoise shells, or gourds. Xylophones are made of lumber or bamboo, while flutes can be constructed wherever reeds or bamboo grow. Animal horns are used as trumpets while animal hides, lizard skins, and snake skins can function as decorations as well as provide the membranes for drum heads. Laces made of hides and skins are used for the strings of harps, fiddles, and lutes. On the other hand, bamboo was used to form the tongues of thumb pianos, the frames of stringed instruments, and stamping tubes. Strips of bamboo are even clashed together rhythmically. Gourds, seeds, stones, shells, palm leaves, and the hard-shelled fruit of the calabash tree are made into rattles. Ancient Africans even made musical instruments from human skulls decorated with human hair while singers use their body movements to accompany their singing. Modern Africans make use of recycled waste materials such as strips of roofing metal, empty oil drums, and tin cans. These people, bursting with rhythm, make music with everything and anything. At present, new materials that are more easily accessible, such as soda cans and bottles, are becoming increasingly important for the construction of percussion instruments. Some rhythmic instruments like scrapers, bells, and rattles also provide the pitch and timbre when played in an ensemble to provide contrasts in tone quality and character. WHAT TO KNOW 1. What are the classifications ofAfrican music? 2. What are the characteristics of each classification ofAfrican music? 3. Name someAfrican musical instruments under the following categories: a. idiophones b. chordophones c. membranophones d. aerophones 4. Describe how African musical instruments are sourced from the environment. Give examples. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
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