Objective and subjective performance measures


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Objective and subjective performance measures

  1. 1. Objective and subjective performance measures Measuring and appraising the quality of a performance can be a challenging task particularly where the performance is not easily timed or measured. Performance can be measured for many purposes: determine the result of a competition to select individual players for a team diagnosis of strengths and weaknesses of players prediction of future performance results evaluation of the instruction methods. Skills can be appraised by objective or subjective measurements. Objective performance measures Objective performance measures are those that involve an impartial measurement, that is, without bias or prejudice. Objective performance measures include timing measures such as stopwatches or electronic timing devices, or distance measures such as measuring tapes to determine the winner of an event. In these situations the performance appraisal is not subject to personal opinion or interpretation of results and it is a clear objective measure. Subjective performance measures Subjective performance measures are influenced by the observer's personal judgment of how the skill was performed. These measures are often criticised and scrutinised as they are open to interpretation and opinion. Subjective measures often refer to the quality and style of performance such as scoring of dance and gymnastics. While a numerical score may be used it is open to interpretation of the judge not a clear cut measure. Objectivity and subjectivity can be seen as a continuum from highly objective to highly subjective. High jump measurements are highly objective whereas appraising sports like karate require interpretation of special rules. These sports measures are seen as a combination of objective and subjective. Team selections where a coach selects a team based on his or her opinion of a player's abilities is highly subjective. Measurements can be made more objective by using: measurement systems - electronic timers or touchpads checklists - that list elements required in the performance e.g. style and technical components rating scales - a degree-of-difficulty sheet that provides a marking scale for movements established criteria - a set of rules, procedures or guidelines of how to assess the performance. In order that the assignment will serve its purposes, it must be purposive; it is the paramount duty of the teacher to ensure that all assigned learning tasks are important and meaningful to the learners. There are a number of functions of assignments. These are: To set the goal or direction of the learning task: The learners are supposed to know what the learning activity is all about. The assigned task must be clear, definitive and purposive.
  2. 2. To stimulate logical and creative thinking: It is also an opportunity to train and develop good habits. To recall previous lessons in preparation for a long test or it may be recall for organization of ideas and concepts and other relevant information To motivate the learners and prepare them for the learning task to be done: The preparation includes giving the background, the coverage and difficulty of the activity, why they are supposed to do the assignment and the benefit they will experience. To determine and plan out learning activities to be undertaken: Interesting and challenging activities and within the capabilities of the learners that will answer their needs should be chosen by the teacher. These activities may involve practical exercises to reinforce what has been taught; completion of a project or an experiment began in class; collection of specimen for biology class, research work for the solution of a problem, preparation of arguments for a debate forum or research and preparation of materials and literature for a panel discussion. To provide directions and other requirements for the learning activity: for example, clear instructions as to steps and procedures, sources and availability of learning materials, and criteria for evaluation of the finished project. It may be noted that in some cases, many assignments are left unfinished because directions of how the learning exercise should be done are not clear and definite. Besides, some materials necessary for the completion of the project are not available. To develop attitude and establish desirable habits of studying regularly: The stimulation and urge to study once the habit has been formed, become powerful motivation especially when the learner realizes that doing the assignment is a natural growth of past and present lessons. It has been observed that, some pupils/students study only when they have homework or lessons to do. By giving regular assignments, will in effect, help them, realize its value and develop the habit of studying. robustfood:1 year ago The importance of a daily quiz, is to keep your brain sharp. If you have a quiz every day in a certain subject, you are more apt to study and remember what you have learned. Many educators believe that the best and most effective lesson plans are those which begin with the final assessment in mind. In other words, teachers should know what they want to test before creating their actual lesson content. A very important part of this lesson planning process should be creating pretests. Pretests are given to students before a lesson or unit to assess what they do in fact already know. These tests reveal many gems to the savvy teacher.
  3. 3. Lessons of Pretests 1. Pretests allow teachers to see if what is being covered in the lesson or unit is already mastered. For example, if you are teaching 9th grade geography, you might give a pretest to see how well students understand latitude and longitude. If they all know how to use these then the teacher can skip that lesson. If only a couple of students have a problem, then they can individualize their instruction to bring them up to speed. If the majority of students are struggling with the 2. information then they can continue with the lesson. Pretests help measure true learning. By comparing pre and posttests, teachers can see what students actually learned 3. from the lessons that were developed. Pretests can give students a preview of what will be expected of them. This helps students begin to focus on the key 4. topics that will be covered. Pretests can help generate ideas for future lesson. Depending on the way the pretests are created, teachers might find knowledge gaps that they did not expect. Armed with this knowledge they can make changes to lessons to include further instruction and review. Creating Pretests As you write pretests remember their purpose. If you are going to allow students to skip lessons, you will want to create very thorough pretests. If you are using your pretest for comparison to posttests, then you will want very similar (not the same) questions on both. If you are trying to find gaps in student knowledge, you will want to cover a broad range of topics. In other words, decide on your focus and how you will use the pretests before beginning their construction. Pretests can be extremely effective tools and are an excellent way for teachers to grow in their field. By providing kids with pretests and using that information wisely, you can give students better and more individualized instruction. Pre/Post-test: A Teacher Diagnostic Tool For More Effective Teaching of EFL Students Ads by Google Free K-12 Lesson Planswww.ePals.com/join Browse Lesson Plan ideas for K-12 classrooms, Join ePals for free! What Is A Pre/Post-test? This is the third year I have used pre/post-tests as assessment tools for measuring the preparedness and performance of my EFL students. In addition to measuring how much students have improved in one semester of study, the pre/post-test can be a valuable diagnostic tool for more effective teaching. A pre/post-test by design covers all of the topics which a student will be studying during a semester. While taking the pre-test at the beginning of a semester, students are not expected to know the answers to all of the questions; however, they should be expected to utilize previous knowledge to predict rational answers. When taking the same test called a post-test at the end of
  4. 4. a semester, students should be expected to answer more questions correctly based on an increase in knowledge and understanding. A pre/post-test should be designed to measure the amount of learning a student has acquired in a specific subject. To do this, questions concerning all of the topics covered during a semester must appear on the test. When grading the tests, the teacher assigns a numerical score to both the pre-test and the post-test. To demonstrate that student progress has been made during a given semester, the post-test score should be higher than the pre-test score. How Can A Pre/Post-test Be Used As A Teacher Diagnostic Tool? A pre/post-test functions as a teacher diagnostic tool in the following five ways: 1. It Identifies the Very Weak Students in a Class: Every time I grade a pre-test I am able to get a very good idea about the weak students in my class. In most cases their scores are close to the bottom of the class. Many of these weak students don't even finish answering all of the questions on the test. When these same students take the post-test, the improvement in their scores over the pre-test is much less than other students. 2. It Identifies the strongest students in a class: The students scoring more than 80 percent on the pre-test usually turn out to be the best students in my class. I have had a few pupils score 95 or above, and in most cases they have demonstrated gifted and talented characteristics. 3. It identifies topics which the students already know: If 75 - 80 percent of the students score above 80 on a certain topic, this would indicate that most of the students already know the subject matter. In fact, I once had a class in which 60 percent of the students scored more than 75 on the pre-test. 4. It identifies topics which the students don't know: I have just finished giving pre-tests to EFL students who are taking my reading and writing course. More than 70 percent of the students scored less than 50 on the mechanics of writing. This included capitalization, spelling, punctuation, verb tense usage, and other grammatical errors. This clearly identifies a topic which the students still don't know. 5. It identifies topics which the students have not learned: in comparing pre-test and post-test scores, a much higher post-test score should indicate that a student has learned certain topics. If the scores are about the same, or if the post-test score is lower than the pre-test score, in all indications this measures that topics were not learned in the course.
  5. 5. How Can A Pre/Post-test Be Used For More Effective Teaching? Pre/Post-tests can be used for more effective teaching in the following three ways: 1. Weak Students Should Be Given Remedial Instruction: After the pre-test identifies the weak students in a class, it is the teacher's responsibility to give extra remedial instruction. For example, if a student is not reading at the fifth grade level as measured by a post-test given at the end of fourth grade, the teacher should find instructional materials at a lower grade level. A dedicated teacher would then find time during his lunch hour or breaks during the day to give extra individual help to the student. The teacher would also encourage the student's parents to assist with remedial tutoring. 2. The Strong Or Gifted Students Must Be Given Extra Challenging Materials: After the strong or gifted and talented students are identified through a pre-test, it is the teacher's duty to give these students extra challenging materials. My school in Thailand does not have a special program or class for the gifted and talented. All students, even the ones with special education needs, are streamlined into one class. This being the case, it is even more important for the teacher to make sure the student works up to his ability. If this is not done, the student will become bored and maybe even present discipline problems. 3. Schemes of Work and Lesson Plans Should Be Revised: Most teachers draw up a semester scheme of work and individual class lesson plans well before the first day of class. The pre-test, however, is not given until the first week of class. If the results of the pre-test indicate that most students know a topic of instruction very well, a good teacher will be flexible and revise his scheme of work. The teacher would probably arrange to spend less time on the topic known very well, and he would most certainly arrange to spend more time on a topic which the students have no knowledge or understanding. If the post-test for a previous class showed that most students did not learn a topic, a wise teacher would revise his teaching method and perhaps use different teaching materials for the next class he teaches. Pre/Post-tests are a necessary teacher diagnostic tool for measuring the learning of EFL and other students. Teachers must remember to use them as a diagnostic instrument so that teaching can be more effective. Periodical Test font size Print For both A-Level and O-Level students, periodical tests will be conducted every 2-3 months regularly. The purpose of the test is to assess student's academic progress and evaluate the teaching plan. After each test, student know their strength and weakness, academic staff learn to adjust the teaching methods. Class arrangement will be modified after test, this is to group students at the same level for a better teaching
  6. 6. outcome. Teachers and students both benefit from it since teachers could teach in accordance thereafter. When actual A/O Level Examniations are coming, mock examinations will start to roll 2 months earlier at a high frequency. Student can experience the tension of actuall exams and as one of FIS' padagogy, this is to prepare students to achieve better results in the examinations. The Importance of Self Evaluation By Stanley C Loewen | Self Improvement Motivation | Rating: Self evaluation is important at any stage in your life. In today’s world, most organizations use self evaluation for any project and services they have in place. Furthermore, teachers are now actively encouraging their pupils to self evaluate. Self evaluation is an important part of being committed to lifelong learning – the understanding that you will never complete your learning journey and grab every opportunity to learn new skills. More and more workplaces now encourage their staff to be committed to lifelong learning, offering learning skills through formal and informal pathways. Self evaluation is particularly important when choosing learning through informal pathways, as formal assessments are less likely to take place in such settings. How to Perform Self Evaluation Anything you do, be it in business or work or your personal life, can go through a circular process. The process starts with you developing an idea. Following this, you should consult with those who will be influenced by your idea to think of the best way to implement this. You then implement your idea. You then spend some time monitoring how well it is going and then consult again. Following this consultation, your developed ideas will change and the process starts again with you consulting about proposed changes, implementing the changes, monitoring the changes, consulting again, and so on. A practical example is for example the decision to enroll on a new course. If you are thinking of starting a new course, this means you have an end goal in mind. The end goal could be a degree, for example. Hence, your starting idea is the degree. You should then consult by speaking to friends and families and colleges or universities about what courses are best suited to achieve this degree. Once you have done this, you would enroll on your course. Courses generally offer examinations, which is a great way to self evaluate as well as receive feedback from your tutors on how well you are performing. When you do receive feedback, ensure you read this properly and think of how to implement their suggestions in the rest of your learning career. When you reach the end of your specific course, you re-evaluate whether you are still on track towards achieving your end goal, or whether you need to revise your end goal. From that, you can choose your next course or plan of action, and so on.
  7. 7. Some of the questions you could, for example, ask yourself practically are: • How much effort did you put into the assignment and how long did it take you? • Where do you think you did very well and where do you think you could do better? • What could you do to improve? • What are the most important things you have learned from the assignment? Why Self Evaluation Is Important The idea behind self evaluation is that our judgment of what we think we are doing and what we actually are doing is not always the same. This is why it is so important to perform regular self evaluation. Did you know, for example, that fighter pilots, politicians and top athletes perform self evaluation? They do this by reviewing video footage of their performance and identifying where they could have improved. One way of performing self evaluation is by mirroring others. If you are out, for example, you could objectively look around and see if anyone else seems to behave the same way you normally do. Observe what this behavior really is, and how others around that person respond to the behavior. This will then show you how people respond to you and could give you some valuable advice on how to improve your behavior. How Self Evaluation Contributes to the Learning Journey of Pupils of All Ages As a student, regardless of your age, the formula for achievement is the sum of goal and effort. Once you know your achievements, you can self evaluate, leading to self judgment, leading to self reaction. This process and that is the true importance of self evaluation, in turn will lead to self confidence, by demonstrating how well you have done. Self confidence, in turn leads to new goals and more effort, and so the circle is repeated. How to Teach Self Evaluation in Four Stages As a teacher, you should firstly explain the importance of self evaluation and how it can benefit a learning journey. Once this has been achieved, you can teach the process of self evaluation in four stages. Firstly, involve your students into determining what specifics will define good performance. Tests have proven that students – or employees for that matter, as this can be implemented in the work place – perform better when they have a sense of fairness, achieved by being involved in agreeing what performance is expected. Secondly, teach your students how these specifics and criteria can be applied to their learning or performance. This can be achieved by providing examples. Ensure your examples fit into every different learning style and remember that some people prefer hearing to seeing, for example, so have both written examples and video examples. Again, this is fully applicable to the workplace.
  8. 8. Following this, provide regular feedback. Perception is an important concept and the perception of the criteria that were determined earlier will still differ. Ensure you have examples once again. Furthermore, be open to the possibility that the perception of your student may be better than yours, in which case you need to be able to self evaluate your own teaching methods and possibly adapt. Lastly, teach your pupils how to develop action plans – self evaluation is only useful if it leads to more, hence the data your students gather from self evaluating should be used to implement new goals. As said, all of these steps can and should be implemented in the work place. It has been scientifically proven that involvement increases performance, benefiting you as an organization, as well as personal development, benefiting the individual worker. For an organization to grow, the knowledge and skills of its workforce also needs to grow and one sure way to achieve this is through self evaluation. The importance of self evaluation, in conclusion, is that it allows you to further your own learning journey and career by allowing you to reflect on your own performance from an outside perspective, enabling you to really learn what your strengths and weaknesses are. This means you will be able to see what points you have that you can further cultivate and grow, and which points within you need further attention. This will allow you to further your career and stop you from being stuck in a rut. As a student, self evaluation is an important tool to help you stay on track with your learning goals, as well as adapt towards different paths if necessary. Being able to self evaluate will also help you in future, as most organizations now use processes of self evaluation. This means that being able to recognize the importance of self evaluation and being able to implement these steps is a very marketable skill that you can use to sell yourself to an organization once you start your career. By Greg C. Moriates From the moment you are born, you are tested by the doctor or nurse to make sure all functions are a go. Then your doctor has you perform milestone testing during each developmental period. School begins and your teacher tests your performance in subject matters and doctors test your biological functions. Testing, testing and more testing. That is what life is about. So if you are serious about fitness, training, endurance sports, etc., you need to track progress, ability and set training zones through proper testing. So why would testing be something that you put aside when you are training in endurance sports, such as triathlons, running, swimming, cycling, etc. When you are training for endurance sports, testing is just as important to your athletic performance and fitness as putting in the actual training time. Here are some basic requirements for testing: Depending on your training block, performing testing should be completed every six to eight weeks in every discipline that you are training for. Testing should be performed at the end of a rest/recovery week and should be able to be replicated so that each test performed can be compared to the previous one.
  9. 9. Testing should be completed in a controlled environment (i.e. treadmill, bike trainer, stationary bike, pool, track, etc.). There are many testing protocols available. However, I recommend performing a 30 minute time trial as follows: Warm Up 5 Minutes easy. Incorporating 3×1 minute hard efforts with 1 minute easy between sets. 5 Minutes Hard Effort (You need to put out the highest watts/effort/pace that you can sustain for the 5 minutes). 10 Minutes Easy The Test 30 Minute Hard Effort. After the first 10 minutes had passed, begin to record your data for the next 20 minutes. Focus on form to distract you from the pain (music helps). Cool Down 5-10 Minutes Easy Pedaling. Basically, go at a pace/effort that you can hold for 30 minutes at the highest level of pace/heart rate/power. The average power of heart rate of your 20 minute all-out effort will be your functional Lactate threshold (FTH) or the beginning of Zone 4. To determine your training zones, use the following table. Zone Description % Average Power % Average Heart Rate 2 Aerobic Endurance 56-75 69-83 3 Subthreshold/Muscular Endurance 76-90 84-94 4 Threshold 91-105 95-105 Notes: To calculate Zone 3 for someone who’s test results determined a FTH to be 300 watts multiply 300x.76=228 watts and 300x.90=270 watts. Therefore, the individuals Zone 3 range would be 228-270 watts. Less than Zone 2 is used for recovery and greater than Zone 4 is maximum anaerobic efforts. I want to make it clear that these training zones are dynamic. They will change from test to test and they will increase and decrease with training and de-training. If you are going a couple of watts over your calculated zones, but feel like you can hold that power, do so and reevaluate/adjust your training zones for next training session. Perform testing every six to eight weeks, adjust your training zones as needed and set yourself up for an epic year!