The Age of OilThis powerpoint covers oil, urbanization, the reform movement, and WWI.
Oil Background 1866 – Melrose Petrolium Oil Company drilled the first successful oil well. 1894 – Oil was found in Corsicana, TX. Although there wasn’t much demand for oil at that time, more people begin drilling in East Texas. Railroads began using oil for fuel in the 1880s.
In Beaumont, TX near Spindletop Hill, Anthony Lucas hits the largest reserve of oil the world had ever seen on January 10th, 1901. The Spindletop Discovery began the first of many oil booms in Texas.
Led to the creation of Texaco, Gulf, and Mobile oil companies. By the 1920s, Texas was one of the world’s leading oil producers.
Beaumont, TxLocated at the red dot Spindletop Gusher
Oil Boom after Spindletop Population, new industries, and economy grew quickly. The search for oil expanded into East, Central, and North Texas. Boomtowns started around successful oil wells. Howard Hughes invents the rotary drill bit, which can break through rock ten times faster than former bits. Houston, Midland, Corpus Christi, and Beaumont have many oil companies. The increase in cars and trucks caused the government to improve roads and build
Galveston , TX In the late 1800s, Galveston was a major city with around 38,000 people. The city stands along the Gulf of Mexico, making it a major center of trade in Texas. Galveston was only 8 to 10 feet above sea level.
Hurricane of 1900 September 8, 1900, the city of Galveston was devastated by a hurricane. Estimated 6,000 to 8,000 killed. 3, 636 homes destroyed. To avoid a repeat of this tragedy, residents pumped in sand from the floor of the Gulf of Mexico to increase Galveston’s elevation. A 17-kilometer seawall was built to protect against future storms.
Houston Ship Channel Houston Ship Channel –Built in 1914, it connected Houston with the Gulf of Mexico to improve the economy of Houston. Since then it has been widen and deepened. Environmental results: an increase in pollution, collisions, explosions, and oil spills.
Women’s Suffrage In the 1900s, women were becoming more involved in politics. 19th amendment granted women the right to vote. The Texas Equal Suffrage Association supported the passage of this amendment.
Prohibition A national movement to ban the manufacture, sale, transportation, or use of alcoholic beverages. believed it would reduce crime, poverty, and family violence. organizations led the temperance (avoidance of alcohol) movement. The United Friends of Temperance and the Baptist General Convention of Texas spoke against the use of alcohol.
Populists and Labor Unions Populism – Nationwide movement of rural citizens who had not benefited from urbanization The people’s Party (or Populist Party) consisted of farmers, ranchers, and farm workers. They wanted the government to protect the interests of common people. Grange Patrons of Husbandry – farming group that pushed for cooperation in business, happier home lives, and better educational opportunities. Texas Farmers Union (TFU) – This was organized in 1902 after the fall of the Populist party. The TFU was active in agricultural and rural public policies.
What led to reform? More Texans moved from rural (country) to urban (city) areas to find jobs. New Industries – oil and gas. Also, new technology in agriculture and ranching. Transportation - Railroads, cars trucks, roads, highways
African Americans and Reform Many African Americans were not included in the reform movement. 1902 Poll Tax – African Americans and poor whites couldn’t afford it, therefore, couldn’t vote. 1910 – Jim Crow Laws. Railroad cars, water fountains, restrooms, schools, restaurants, etc. were segregated (separated by race).
Germans anger Americans In 1917 Zimmerman (a German secretary) sent a telegram to the Mexican government letting Mexico know if they helped Germany in the war, Germany would grant Mexico all the land the U.S. had taken from them in the mid to late 1800’s
Germans anger Americans Lusitania: A British ocean liner the Germans believed to be carrying weapons for the British navy. The Germans sunk the passenger ship killing 128 Americans In April 1917 Congress declared war on Germany
Texas’s Contributions Nearly 198,000 Texans served in the armed forces, including 450 female nurses Edward M. House – This Texas man was a close advisor to president Wilson regarding foreign affairs and peace negotiations with Europe during the war. Four major military camps were set up – Camp Bowie in Ft. Worth, Camp Travis in San Antonio, Camp Logan in Houston, Camp MacArthur in Waco.
U.S. and the Great War Many civilians bought War bonds (a low-interest loan by civilians to the government. Also called Liberty Bonds). The oil industry began to boom because of the demand for gasoline for tanks, jeeps, and planes.
U.S. and the Great War Women rolled bandages and worked in factories to make important wartime products Families cut back on food in order to support the war effort. This is called rationing.