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### Fem

1. 1. Foundations of MeasurementGermaine Harley Hamilton Cruz<br />
2. 2. Introduction to Measurement<br />What is Measurement?<br />What is Evaluation?<br />What is Assessment?<br />
3. 3. What’s measurement?<br />
4. 4. What’s measurement?<br />A number to indicate values of variables or it may refer to quantitative data collection.<br />
5. 5. What’s Evaluation<br />
6. 6. What’s evaluation?<br />Procedures used for collecting information and using the information to make decisions.<br />
7. 7. What’s Assessment?<br />The entire process of measurement, evaluation, and finally use of the information by teachers and students.<br />
8. 8. How are measurement, evaluation, and assessment different? How are they related?<br />Mary writes …<br /> They are each a separate entity, yet are interrelated in how they fit into a whole picture.<br />Measurement is the assignment of numbers to specify the values of variables.<br />Evaluation is the process of making decisions based on the measurements, essentially the uses of the results of measurement. <br />Assessment incorporates the entire processes of measurements, evaluations, and applications of the results.<br />
9. 9. How are measurement, evaluation, and assessment different? How are they related?<br />Kristen writes…<br />Measurement is the assignment of numbers to indicate different values of a variable.<br />Evaluation is the procedures for collecting information and what is done with that information. <br />Assessment refers to the entire process of measurement and evaluation. Sometimes evaluation and measurement are used interchangeably, however, evaluation is a decision based on the measurement.<br /> Also, assessment can sometimes refer to either measurement or evaluation.<br />
10. 10. What’s the Purpose of Measurement for Research?<br />
11. 11. The Purpose of Measurement for Research<br />To obtain information about the variables being studied.<br />
12. 12. Variable information<br />ACE<br />Accurate<br />Compatible<br />Exhibits traits that are normally distributed.<br />
13. 13. Scales of Measurement<br />Nominal<br />Ordinal<br />Interval<br />Nominal<br />
14. 14. Summary: Scales of Measurement<br />
15. 15. Principles of Descriptive Statistics for Understanding Measurement <br />Definitions<br />Statistics: mathematical data used to summarize and analyze data.<br />Descriptive statistics: transforms a set of numbers into indices that summarize characteristics of a sample.<br />
16. 16. Descriptive Statistics<br />Frequency Distribution<br />The number of times each score is obtain<br />
17. 17. Frequency Distribution <br />Frequency polygon<br />Histogram<br />
18. 18. Frequency Distribution <br />
19. 19. Frequency Distribution <br />
20. 20. Measures of Central Tendency<br />
21. 21. Activity: Determining a mean, mode, median<br />
22. 22. Principles of Descriptive Statistics for Understanding Measurement <br />Measures of Variability<br />Range<br />Standard deviation<br />Percentile rank<br />
23. 23. Normal Probability Curve<br />
24. 24. Measurement of Variability<br />
25. 25. Principles of Descriptive Statistics for Understanding Measurement <br />Correlation<br />Correlation<br />Positive correlation<br />Correlation coefficient<br />Negative correlation<br />
26. 26. What are positive and negative correlation?<br />Mary writes ….<br />Positive correlation refers to how an increase in one variable will result in an increase in another variable. For example, an increase in age is related to an increase in maturity. <br />Negative correlation has an inverse effect in the relationship of the variables. For example, an abundance of free meals may result in a decrease of the perceived value to the individual. <br />
27. 27. What are positive and negative correlation?<br />Kristen writes …<br />A positive correlation is where an increase in one variable is accompanied by an increase in the other variable. An example would be more time studying generally yields higher grades.<br /> A negative correlation is where an increase in one variable is accompanied by a decrease in the other variable, creating an inverse relationship. An example could be the more time spent watching TV or playing games, the more a student's grades suffer.<br />
28. 28. Validity of Measurement<br />What is Validity?<br />Sources of Validity Evidence<br />Effect of Validity on Research<br />
29. 29. Validity and Reliability<br />U-tube clip<br />
30. 30. Validity of Measurement<br />What is validity?<br />The extent to which interferences are appropriate and meaningful.<br />
31. 31. Validity of Measurement<br />Sources of Validity Evidence<br />Evidence Based on Test Content<br />Evidence Based ion Internal Structure<br />Evidence Based on relationship to other variables<br />
32. 32. Validity of Measurement<br />Effects of Validity on Research<br />
33. 33. Reliability of Measurement<br />Types of Reliability<br />Effect of Reliability Research<br />
34. 34. Reliability of Measurement<br />Reliability<br />Stability<br />Equivalence<br />Equivalence and Stability<br />Internal Consistency<br />Agreement<br />