Process orientation - Focus on “HOW” and “WHY”.
Data gathered first, then synthesized to form generalizations.
Focus on participants’ perspectives and understanding.
Research design evolves and changes throughout the study.</li></li></ul><li>Question #1<br />Name the four types of qualitative research and give an example of each in an educational research context.<br />
Types of Qualitative Research<br /><ul><li> Ethnographic Studies
Grounded Theory Studies</li></li></ul><li>Ethnographic Studies<br />In-depth descriptions and interpretations of cultural patterns and meanings within a culture or social group. Researchers observe a culture for an extended period of time, interacting with and interviewing members of the culture, gaining knowledge through the analysis of documents and artifacts.<br />Identifying and Entering the Research Site<br /><ul><li> Gaining Permission & Establishing Rapport</li></ul>Selecting Participants<br />Data Collection<br /> - Observations<br /> - Interviews – Types<br /> - Document Analysis<br />Data Analysis<br /> - Emic<br /> - Etic<br /> - Codes<br />
Ethnographic Studies<br />Examples: <br /> Mary - a study of new mathematics teachers' attitudes of using manipulatives.<br />Ham - comparison of children from three different cultures attending kindergarten.<br />
Case Studies<br />An in-depth investigation of one entity, which is carefully defined and characterized by time and place. <br />Types of Case Studies<br /> - Historical Organizational, Observational, Life History, Situation analysis, Multicase, Multisite<br />Research Problem Statement<br />Entering the Site & Selecting Participants<br />Data Collection<br /> - Observations<br /> - Interviews – Types<br /> - Document Analysis<br />Data Analysis<br /> - Transcripts and field notes need to be coded, organized, summarized, etc.<br /> - Similar to ethnographic studies<br />
Case Studies<br />Examples: <br /> Mary - a with-in study of a instructional strategy at a single school<br />Ham - study of a situation analysis on how peer pressure effects the choices that kids make.<br />
Phenomenological Studies<br />To describe and interpret the experiences of participants in order to understand the essence of the experience as perceived by the participants.<br />Focuses on the consciousness of human experiences.<br />Examples: <br /> Mary - a study of the relationship between peer tutors and tutoree<br />Ham - on the influence of television on student study habits.<br />
Grounded Theory Studies<br />The intent of a grounded theory study is to discover or generate a theory.<br />Data Collection:<br /> - Interviews<br />Data Analysis:<br /> - Coding to constantly compare findings to themes<br />Reporting of Results:<br /> - As a set of propositions, hypotheses, or theories <br />Examples: <br />Mary -a study of the effect of discipline during elementary school on the later adolescent success<br />Ham - collecting field data on how does exercise influence students grades, how does healthy food assist kids grades, how does outdoor play effect students grades.<br />
Activity: Types of Qualitative Research <br />Name the type of qualitative research for each example:<br /><ul><li> An investigation of 15 students’ perspectives on their experience in the high school band.
A with-in study of how a specific scheduling system works at a single school district.
Data collected to find out how elementary student’s involvement in physical education programs effect their overall school grades.
An in-depth study of Native American school children on the reservation.</li></li></ul><li>Credibility of Qualitative Research<br /><ul><li> Triangulation
External Validity</li></li></ul><li>Question # 2<br />Why is it important for researchers to use multiple methods of data collection?<br />Mary – It is important to yield richness of understanding the phenomenon being studied. In addition, interviews and document analysis could help to verify observations and explain a participant's point of view. <br />Ham - Using multiple methods enhance the credibility of results. Since, researchers judge credibility of results from a holistic perspective. If you are using different methods but get the same results the validity of the research is verified. <br />