Fagacea (Beech family)
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =21   <ul><li>American chestnut   Fagaceae   Castanea  den...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =47   <ul><li>American beech   Fagaceae   Fagus  grandifol...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =215   <ul><li>tanoak   Fagaceae   Lithocarpus  densifloru...
 
http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus2/factsheet.cfm?ID=548   <ul><li>coast live oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  agrifol...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =35   <ul><li>white oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  alba   </li>...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =313   <ul><li>swamp white oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  bicol...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =239   <ul><li>canyon live oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  chrys...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =314   <ul><li>blue oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  douglasii   ...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =68   <ul><li>southern red oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  falca...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =240   <ul><li>Oregon white oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  garr...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =70   <ul><li>shingle oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  imbricaria...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =242   <ul><li>California black oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  ...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =72   <ul><li>bur oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  macrocarpa   <...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =244   <ul><li>chinkapin oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  muehlen...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =74   <ul><li>pin oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  palustris   </...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =76   <ul><li>chestnut oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  prinus   ...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =38   <ul><li>northern red oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  rubra...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =39   <ul><li>black oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  velutina   <...
 
http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =78   <ul><li>live oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  virginiana   ...
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Fagaceae

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Fagaceae

  1. 1. Fagacea (Beech family)
  2. 3. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =21 <ul><li>American chestnut   Fagaceae   Castanea  dentata </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, oblong to lanceolate, 5 to 8 inches long, pinnately veined, sharply and coarsely serrated with each serration bearing a bristle tip, dark green above and paler below. Both sides are hairless.  Flower:  Monoecious; many small, pale green (nearly white) male flowers found tightly occuring along 6 to 8 inch catkins; females found near base of catkins (near twig), appearing in late spring to early summer.  Fruit:  Large, round spiny husk (very sharp), 2 to 2 1/2 inch in diameter, enclosing 2 to 3 shiny, chestnut brown nuts, 1/2 to 1 inch in diameter, mostly round but flattened on 1 or 2 sides ripen in early fall.  Twig:  Moderately stout, hairless, chestnut- to orange-brown in color, numerous lighter lenticels; buds are orange-brown, 1/4 inch long, covered with 2 or 3 scales (they somewhat resemble a kernel of wheat), buds are set slightly off center from semicircular leaf scar.  Bark:  Smooth and chestnut-brown in color when young, later shallowly fissured into flat ridges, older trees develop distictive large, interlacing ridges and furrows. Blight infested bark is sunken and split, often with orange fungal fruiting bodies.  Form:  Once a very tall, well formed, massive tree reaching over 100 feet tall. The chestnut is now found mostly as stump sprouts, less than 20 feet tall. Larger stems are often deformed by blight and sprouting below cankers.    </li></ul><ul><li>377E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  3. 5. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =47 <ul><li>American beech   Fagaceae   Fagus  grandifolia </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, elliptical to oblong-ovate, 2 1/2 to 5 1/2 inches long, pinnately-veined, 11-14 pairs of veins, with each vein ending in a sharp distinct tooth, shiny green above, very waxy and smooth, slightly paler below.  Flower:  Monoecious; male flowers borne on globose heads hanging from a slender 1 inch stalk, female flowers borne on shorter spikes, appearing just after leaves in the spring.  Fruit:  Nuts are irregularly triangular, shiny brown and edible, found in pairs within a woody husk covered with spines, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, maturing in the fall.  Twig:  Very slender, zigzag, light brown in color; buds are long (3/4 inch), light brown, and slender, covered with overlapping scales (best described as &quot;cigar-shaped&quot;), widely divergent from the stems, almost looking like long thorns.  Bark:  The bark is smooth, thin, and gray in color even on the largest stems. Beech bark diseases severely deforms the smooth bark.  Form:  A medium to large tree up to 100 feet tall with a rounded crown. Often found in thickets produced by root suckering. Old trees may be surrounded by a ring of young beech.       </li></ul><ul><li>380E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  4. 7. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =215 <ul><li>tanoak   Fagaceae   Lithocarpus  densiflorus   </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Simple, alternate, persistent for 3 to 4 years, oblong, 3 to 5 inches long, stiff and leathery, margins may be entire or coarsely toothed and are often revolute. Young leaves are densely pubescent, mature leaves are dark green above and bluish white underneath and have lost most of their pubescence.  Flower:  Monoecious; imperfect with separate sexes borne in erect aments; female aments are borne on the basal portion of an otherwise male ament, appearing with the leaves.  Fruit:  Single or paired acorns about 1 inch long, caps are shallow and covered with dense bristles, the insides of the caps and the exposed portion of the nut are densely pubescent. Acorns take 2 seasons to mature.  Twig:  Stout, round, covered with dense rust-colored pubescence for the first or second year, reddish brown; pith is stellate.  Bark:  Mature bark is moderately thick (3/4 to 1 1/2 inches) with narrow furrows and rounded, flattened ridges sometimes breaking into square plates; reddish brown.  Form:  A moderate sized tree (60 to 100 feet tall and 1 to 5 feet in diameter), commonly growing in clumps with multiple stems due to sprouts arising from underground burls. In the open, the crown is dense and rounded, in the shade it can be narrow and spire-like.     </li></ul><ul><li>390W </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  5. 9. http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus2/factsheet.cfm?ID=548 <ul><li>coast live oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  agrifolia </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, evergreen, simple, elliptical to oblong, 1 to 2 1/2 inches long, thick and leathery, convex with edges turning down, spiny margins (holly-like), shiny green above, duller with fuzz in vein axils below.  Flower:  Monoecious; males in long (2 to 4 inches) narrow drooping catkins, yellow-green; females inconspicuous reddish green spike in leaf axils.  Fruit:  An elongated, narrow, light brown acorn, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, pointy ends, often distinctly cone-shaped; scaly, gray-brown cap covers 1/4 to 1/3 of acorn, matures in one year in early fall.  Twig:  Slender to moderate, initially quite fuzzy but later often completely smooth and gray-brown; end buds clustered, reddish brown, broadest at the base with a rounded tip.  Bark:  Smooth, gray-brown when young, with age becomes darker with broad, lighter gray ridges.  Form:  An evergreen, large (up to 100 feet tall) tree with a short trunk and numerous large, crooked, spreading branches. Crown spread often exceeds its height.      </li></ul><ul><li>391W </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  6. 11. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =35 <ul><li>white oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  alba </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, oblong to ovate in shape, 4 to 7 inches long; 7 to 10 rounded, finger-like lobes, sinus depth varies from deep to shallow, apex is rounded and the base is wedge-shaped, green to blue-green above and whitish below.  Flower:  Monoecious; male flowers are yellow-green, borne in naked, slender catkins, 2 to 4 inches long; female flowers are reddish green and appear as very small single spikes; appearing with the leaves in mid-spring.  Fruit:  Ovoid to oblong acorn, cap is warty and bowl-shaped, covers 1/4 of the fruit; cap always detaches at maturity; matures in one growing season in the early fall.  Twig:  Red-brown to somewhat gray, even a bit purple at times, hairless and often shiny; multiple terminal buds are red-brown, small, rounded (globose) and hairless.  Bark:  Whitish or ashy gray, varying from scaly on smaller stems to irregularly platy or blocky on large stems. On older trees smooth patches are not uncommon.  Form:  A very large tree; when open grown, white oaks have rugged, irregular crowns that are wide spreading, with a stocky bole. In the forest crowns are upright and oval with trees reaching up to 100 feet tall and several feet in diameter.        </li></ul><ul><li>382E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  7. 13. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =313 <ul><li>swamp white oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  bicolor   </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, obovate, 3 to 7 inches long, margin with large irregular blunt teeth, 2 to 4 1/2 inches wide, dark green and shiny above, very pale below.  Flower:  Monoecious; male flowers are yellow-green long catkins (2 to 4 inches long); females are green to red, very small in leaf axils; appearing in mid-spring with the leaves.  Fruit:  Acorn, 1 inch long, tan, borne singly or double on a long stalk (2 inches), bowl-shaped cap covers about 1/3 of nut.  Twig:  Moderately stout, light brown, terminal buds short, blunt and light brown, thread-like stipules often present around terminal bud.  Bark:  Gray and scaly, later developing irregular fissures and ridges.  Form:  Medium size tree reaching heights of 80 feet, irregular crown, often with lower limbs remaining.     </li></ul><ul><li>384E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  8. 15. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =239 <ul><li>canyon live oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  chrysolepis </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, persistent; variable shape, oblong to elliptical, thick and leathery, small (1 to 3 1/2 inches long), margins may be entire or spinose (holly-like) on the same branch, initially fuzzy but becoming smooth and green above and smooth and bluish-white below.  Flower:  Monoecious; inconspicuous; male flowers borne in aments (catkins); female flowers borne solitary or in short spikes, appearing with the leaves.  Fruit:  An elongated acorn with a shallow, scaly cap, 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches long, requires 2 seasons to mature.  Twig:  Slender, rigid or flexible, fuzzy when young but becoming smooth and reddish to grayish brown with age.  Bark:  Thin (about 1 inch) and mostly smooth; may develop small, tight scales with age; gray-brown.  Form:  Grows both as a tree (to 80 feet tall and 2 feet in diameter) and as a dense shrub up to 15 feet tall.       </li></ul><ul><li>393W </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  9. 17. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =314 <ul><li>blue oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  douglasii </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, and usually deciduous (although trees on moist sites may retain their leaves); 1 to 3 inches long; margins are usually wavy, but are sometimes shallowly and irregularly lobed; the upper side of the leaf is distinctly bluish-green, especially later in the growing season, while the lower surface is pale green.  Flower:  Monoecious; males are borne in pendent yellow-green catkins (aments); females are small, often solitary, and occur in the axils of leaves on current year's twigs; appearing in spring.  Fruit:  Acorns; oval to gently tapering; 3/4 to 1 1/2 inches long; shallow caps with warty scales; ripen in a single year.  Twig:  Stout, brittle, and gray to reddish brown.  Bark:  Mature bark is light gray and checkered.  Form:  A small to medium sized deciduous tree; seldom more than 60 feet tall and 2 feet in diameter. Open grown canopies are typically rounded with many crooked branches.   </li></ul><ul><li>394W </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  10. 19. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =68 <ul><li>southern red oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  falcata </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, 5 to 9 inches long and roughly obovate in outline with bristle tipped lobes. Two forms are common: 3 lobes with shallow sinuses (common on younger trees) or 5 to 7 lobes with deeper sinuses. Often resembles a turkey foot with one very long hooked terminal lobe with two shorter lobes on the sides. Shiny green above, paler and fuzzy below.  Flower:  Monoecious; males yellow-green (tinged with red) borne on long thread like catkins; females reddish and borne on short spikes, both appearing in spring with the leaves.  Fruit:  Acorns are 1/2 inch long, orange-brown and pubescent. The cap covers less than 1/3 of the nut and is quite thin and flattened; cap scales are orange-brown, appressed and slightly pubescent; matures after two years, ripens in the fall.  Twig:  Reddish brown in color, may be gray-pubescent (particularly rapidly growing stems such as stump sprouts) or glabrous; multiple terminal buds are dark reddish brown, pubescent, pointed and only 1/8 to 1/4 inch long, laterals buds are similar, but shorter.  Bark:  Dark in color, thick, with broad, scaly ridges separated by deep, narrow furrows. Resembles Q. velutina, but the inner bark is only slightly yellow.  Form:  A medium sized tree up to 90 feet tall with a rounded crown.      </li></ul><ul><li>388E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  11. 21. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =240 <ul><li>Oregon white oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  garryana </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, deciduous, pinnately lobed with 5 to 9 irregular rounded lobes, lobes often touch or overlap, 3 to 6 inches long and 2 to 4 1/2 inches wide, dark green and shiny above and paler below, leathery but not persistent.  Flower:  Monoecious; inconspicuous, male and female flowers borne in separate aments (catkins) on current year's twigs, male flowers borne in hanging catkins, female flowers borne in small clusters, appearing with the leaves.  Fruit:  Solitary or paired acorns on current year's growth; about 1 inch long, light brown, cap is shallow and bowl-like, covering only about 1/3 of the nut, mature in a single season.  Twig:  Stout, originally hairy but becoming smooth and reddish brown to gray; buds are densely hairy and are covered with imbricate scales, terminal buds are clustered.  Bark:  Mature bark is thin (less than 1 inch), light gray to gray-brown, shallow irregular furrows separating short, broad ridges.  Form:  A deciduous broad-leaved tree growing 40 to 80 feet tall and 2 to 3 feet in diameter (sometimes larger). In the open, it has a dense, rounded crown; when grown in stands, its crown is narrow and irregular.   </li></ul><ul><li>399W </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  12. 23. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =70 <ul><li>shingle oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  imbricaria </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, 3 to 7 inches long, broadly lanceolate, unlobed with a single, terminal bristle-tip, somewhat leathery, shiny dark green above and paler and fuzzy below.  Flower:  Monoecious; male flowers borne on hanging slender catkins; females borne on short spikes, appearing with the leaves in spring.  Fruit:  Acorns are 5/8 inch long, 1/3 to 1/2 covered by a thin, bowl-shaped cap with appressed light brown scales, matures in the fall after two years.  Twig:  Slender, olive-green to orange-brown, quite lustrous with conical, pointed, red-brown buds.  Bark:  Gray-brown, tight and quite hard, with broad, irregular ridges and very shallow furrows.  Form:  A medium sized tree to 70 feet with pyramidal to oval and later rounded crown. Lateral lower branches often droop.    403W </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  13. 25. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =242 <ul><li>California black oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  kelloggii </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, deciduous; pinnately lobed (usually 7 lobes), each lobe is 3-toothed and bristle-tipped, sinuses may be shallow or deep; oblong or obovate in shape, 3 to 6 inches long; yellow-green, smooth and lustrous above and paler below.  Flower:  Monoecious; inconspicuous, male and female flowers borne in separate aments (catkins), appearing with the leaves.  Fruit:  Acorn, 1 to 2 1/2 inches long, reddish brown; cap is deep, covering about half the nut. Require 2 seasons to mature.  Twig:  Reddish brown, ridged, smooth or minutely pubescent; terminal buds are large, pointed and clustered at the ends of the twigs.  Bark:  Initially smooth and dark gray or black; when mature turning dark brown to black, broad, irregularly plated ridges, about 1 inch thick.  Form:  A medium sized broad-leaved deciduous tree (40 to 80 feet tall and 1 to 2 1/2 feet in diameter) with an open, rounded top. At high elevations, it may occur as a large shrub.   </li></ul><ul><li>403W </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  14. 27. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =72 <ul><li>bur oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  macrocarpa </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, 6 to 12 inches long, roughly obovate in shape, with many lobes. The two middle sinuses nearly reach the midrib dividing leaf nearly in half. The lobes near the tip resemble a crown, green above and paler, fuzzy below.  Flower:  Monoecious; male flowers are yellow-green, borne in long, drooping slender catkins, 2 to 4 inches long; female flowers are green tinged in red and appear as single, short spikes, both appear shortly after the leaves.  Fruit:  Acorns are quite large (1 1/2 inches long) and 1/2 enclosed in a warty cap that has a long-fringed margin, maturing in one growing season in late summer and fall.  Twig:  Quite stout, yellow-brown, often with corky ridges; multiple terminal buds are small, round, and may be somewhat pubescent often surrounded by thread-like stipules; laterals are similar, but smaller.  Bark:  Ashy gray to brown in color and quite scaly, but noticeably ridged vertically on large trees.  Form:  A large tree that often reaches over 100 feet tall with a long clear bole. In the open it becomes a very wide, spreading tree.     </li></ul><ul><li>395E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  15. 29. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =244 <ul><li>chinkapin oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  muehlenbergii </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, obovate or oblong, large coarse gland tipped teeth on margin, 4 to 7 inches long, dark, shiny green above, much paler below.  Flower:  Monoecious; male flowers are yellow-green long catkins (3 to 4 inches long), females are green to reddish, very small in leaf axils. appearing with the leaves.  Fruit:  Acorn, nut 1/2 to 1 inch long, broadest below the middle, thin bowl-shaped cap covers about 1/3 of acorn and forms a tattered fringe on the margin of cap, dark brown when mature.  Twig:  Slender to moderate, orange-brown, buds cluster at branch tips, terminal buds 1/8 inch long, pointed, chestnut brown, individual scales with frosted edges.  Bark:  Thin, light gray, rough and flaky.  Form:  Medium sized tree to 60 feet, with a rounded crown. </li></ul><ul><li>399E 407W </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  16. 31. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =74 <ul><li>pin oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  palustris </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, 3 to 6 inches long, oval in outline with 5 to 9 bristle-tipped lobes and irregularly deep sinuses that extend nearly to the midrib. Major lobes form a U-shape. Bright green above and pale below with axillary tifts.  Flower:  Monoecious; male flowers borne on slender, drooping yellow-green catkins; females reddish green borne on short spikes in new leaf axils, appearing in the spring with the leaves.  Fruit:  Acorns are 1/2 inch long, striated, round (but flattened at the cap); thin and saucer-like cap, covered with red-brown appressed scales; matures after 2 years, dispersed fall to early winter.  Twig:  Slender, red-brown in color and quite lustrous with multiple terminal buds that are small, pointed, and chestnut brown.  Bark:  Gray-brown and very tight and thin; remains smooth for many years, eventually develops thin ridges and furrows.  Form:  A medium sized tree that is very pyramidal; lower branches are pendulous and middle branches grow at right angles; branches are studded with numerous branchlets that do not prune readily, resulting in a spiny appearance.  </li></ul><ul><li>403E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  17. 33. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =76 <ul><li>chestnut oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  prinus </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, 4 to 6 inches long, obovate to elliptical in shape with a crenate margin, shiny green above and paler below.  Flower:  Monoecious; male flowers are yellow-green, borne in naked catkins, 2 to 4 inches long; female flowers are reddish and appear as single spikes, appearing with the leaves in mid-spring.  Fruit:  Acorns are 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, ovoid in shape and separate from the cap when mature; cap is thin, warty and shaped like a teacup, edges of cap are very thin; matures in one growing season, ripening in the fall.  Twig:  Medium textured, lacking hair, orange-brown or grayish in color with chestnut brown multiple terminal buds that are pointed, narrowly conical and quite long.  Bark:  Gray-brown to brown, very smooth when young; developing hard and wide flat-topped ridges which later become thicker and more sharply pointed ridges; somewhat resembling the back of an alligator or ridge tops.  Form:  A medium sized tree to 80 feet tall that on better sites will develop a straight trunk and narrow crown; on drier ridge tops it is much smaller with a crooked stem.   </li></ul><ul><li>405E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  18. 35. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =38 <ul><li>northern red oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  rubra </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, 5 to 8 inches long, oblong in shape with 7 to 11 bristle-tipped lobes, sinuses extend 1/3 to 1/2 of the way to midvein, generally very uniform in shape, dull green to blue-green above and paler below.  Flower:  Monoecious; males in yellow-green slender, hanging catkins, 2 to 4 inches long; females are borne on short axiliary spikes, appearing with the leaves in spring.  Fruit:  Acorns are 3/4 to 1 inch long and nearly round; cap is flat and thick, covering about 1/4 or less of the acorn, resembling a beret; matures in 2 growing seasons, in late summer and fall.  Twig:  Quite stout, red-brown and glabrous; terminal buds multiple, quite large, conical, and covered with red-brown, mostly hairless scales but terminal scales may bear some frosty pubescence.  Bark:  On young stems, smooth; older bark develops wide, flat-topped ridges and shallow furrows. The shallow furrows form a pattern resembling ski tracts.  Form:  A medium sized to large tree that reaches up to 90 feet tall, develops a short trunk and round crown when open grown, straight with a clear, long bole when grown with competition.     </li></ul><ul><li>407E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  19. 37. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =39 <ul><li>black oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  velutina </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, 4 to 10 inches long, obovate or ovate in shape with 5 (mostly) to 7 bristle-tipped lobes; leaf shape is variable, with sun leaves having deep sinuses and shade leaves having very shallow sinuses, lustrous shiny green above, paler with a scruffy pubescence and axillary tufts below.  Flower:  Monecious, males borne on slender yellow-green catkins; females are reddish green and borne on short spikes in leaf axils, appearing in spring with the leaves.  Fruit:  Ovoid acorns, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, 1/3 to 1/2 enclosed in a bowl-shaped cap; cap scales are loosely appressed (particularly loose on edges of cap), light brown and fuzzy, matures in 2 years in late summer and fall.  Twig:  Stout and red-brown to gray-green, usually glabrous but rapidly growing twigs may be hairy; buds are very large (1/4 to 1/2 inch long), buff-colored, fuzzy, pointed and distinctly angular.  Bark:  At first gray and smooth, becoming thick and very rough, nearly black and deeply furrowed vertically with horizontal breaks. The inner bark is yellow-orange and very bitter tasting.  Form:  A medium sized tree to 80 feet with an irregular crown and a tapering, somewhat limby bole. </li></ul><ul><li>410E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  20. 39. http:// dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID =78 <ul><li>live oak   Fagaceae   Quercus  virginiana </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, evergreen, leathery, 2 to 5 inches long, oblong or elliptical in shape with an entire or spiny and revolute margin. The upper surface is lustrous, the lower is pale and pubescent. Generally, not bristle-tipped.  Flower:  Staminate flowers borne on catkins. Pistillate flowers borne on spikes, appearing spring.  Fruit:  Acorns in clusters of 3 to 5, dark nut, 3/4 inch long and covered 1/3 by the cap; cap is bowl-shaped, turbinate, and warty; maturing in early fall of the first year.  Twig:  Slender, gray and pubescent, with small, blunt, multiple terminal buds.  Bark:  Rapidly developing red-brown furrows with small surface scales; later becoming black and very blocky.  Form:  A medium sized tree that can grow to massive proportions. Open-grown trees develop a huge rounded crown. The largest crowns may be 150 feet across.  </li></ul><ul><li>410E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>

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