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Earthquakes

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Earthquakes

  1. 1. WHAT HAPPENED HERE?
  2. 2. THIS HAPPENEDStart
  3. 3. THIS HAPPENEDStart
  4. 4. THIS HAPPENEDStart
  5. 5. THIS HAPPENEDStart
  6. 6. THERE ARE 4 TYPES OF WAVES
  7. 7. THERE ARE 4 TYPES OF WAVES
  8. 8. THERE ARE 4 TYPES OF WAVES
  9. 9. THERE ARE 4 TYPES OF WAVES
  10. 10. THERE ARE 4 TYPES OF WAVES
  11. 11. MAYBE NOT. Your exploratory activity:using your slinky, try to create at least 2 different waves associated with earthquakes
  12. 12. BODY WAVESThese travel through theinterior of the earth• P-wave• S-wave
  13. 13. These travel through theinterior of the earth BODY WAVES• P-wave• S-wave These are Primary Waves They travel the fastest out of the 4 waves They are a pressure wave
  14. 14. These travel through theinterior of the earth•• P-wave S-wave BODY WAVES These are Secondary Waves They travel the slower than pressure waves They are a shear wave They dont travel through liquids P- and S-wave videos
  15. 15. These travel through theinterior of the earth BODY WAVES• P-wave• S-wave These waves travel faster in denser layers Why does the s-wave speed drop to zero in the outer core?
  16. 16. SHADOW ZONE
  17. 17. SHADOW ZONE• P-WAVE SHADOW ZONE• WAVES TAKE A TURN INTO DENSER MATERIAL
  18. 18. SHADOW ZONE• S-WAVE SHADOW ZONE• WAVES DONT PROPAGATE THROUGH LIQUID
  19. 19. TWO DIFFERENT WAYSWE USE THESE WAVESTRIANGULATION AND SEISMIC PROFILES
  20. 20. TRIANGULATION• What is told to us by this graph?
  21. 21. 3 seismographs• San Pedro, Mexico• Juneau, Alaska• San Gallegos, Argentina
  22. 22. 3 seismographs• San Pedro, Mexico• Juneau, Alaska• San Gallegos, Argentina
  23. 23. 3 seismographs• San Pedro, Mexico• Juneau, Alaska• San Gallegos, Argentina
  24. 24. 3 seismographs• San Pedro, Mexico• Juneau, Alaska• San Gallegos, Argentina
  25. 25. YOUR TURN TOTRIANGULATE
  26. 26. TRIANGULATION
  27. 27. TRIANGULATIONSo let’s try this!Using the Time Travel Graph, figure out howfar away the earthquake was from theseseismographs: 8 minutes between P and S wave arrivals 9.75 minutes 3 minutes
  28. 28. TRIANGULATION
  29. 29. TRIANGULATIONNow lets triangulate! Find the distance from the epicenter using the Time Travel Graph Adjust your compass so that the radius of your circle is the same as the distance to the epicenter Draw a circle with the compass Do the same for the second and third
  30. 30. TRIANGULATIONHartford, CT 6 minutesDallas, TX 3.4 minutesFt. Wayne, IN 4.8 minutesWhere is the shaking going on?
  31. 31. TRIANGULATION• We call the origin of the shaking an epicenter
  32. 32. TRIANGULATIONWhat are three things thatdetermine how much shakinggoes on?• Lets talk in groups!
  33. 33. TRIANGULATION• Distance from epicenter• Depth of focus• Magnitude of energy Whats going on in this picture?
  34. 34. THE 2ND PIECE OF THE PUZZLE Surface waves
  35. 35. SURFACE WAVES• This wave causes the ground to move side to side• Thedeeper into the ground, the weaker it gets
  36. 36. SURFACE WAVES• Thiswave causes the ground to roll like waves on the water• Causes the greatest shaking felt in an earthquake• Thedeeper into the ground, the weaker it gets
  37. 37. December 26th, 2004Sumatran megathrust eventMagnitude 9.3 at a convergentboundary230,000 people dead
  38. 38. SUMATRAN TSUNAMIHow this happenedvideo on wave propagation and the flood and wave propagation
  39. 39. SUMATRAN TSUNAMIHow this happenedvideo on wave propagation and the flood and wave propagation
  40. 40. SUMATRAN TSUNAMIHow this happenedvideo on wave propagation and the flood and wave propagation
  41. 41. LIQUEFACTION Whhhaaattt?
  42. 42. LIQUEFACTION How?!
  43. 43. LIQUEFACTIONGrains are shakenuntil they aresuspended in water
  44. 44. LIQUEFACTIONThis can be a major problemfor some places very close to home
  45. 45. WHAT WOULD YOU HAVE DONE DIFFERENTLY?As a leader of a country bordering the ocean, I want you to makea plan of action of what you would have done in this situation:• Yourassignment is to write a two paragraph essay about what those who ran the countries that were affected by the tsunami did wrong, and what would you have done to prevent the amount of death and destruction to your country?• Some things to consider are: building design, where to build (i.e. topography of the land), escape plans, early warning devices, etc.
  46. 46. EARTHQUAKES CAN ALSO BE BENEFICIAL
  47. 47. SEISMIC PROFILES• Seismologistsuse explosive sources, earthquakes, pounding machines, etc to create body waves to measure
  48. 48. SEISMIC PROFILES
  49. 49. SEISMIC PROFILES
  50. 50. SEISMIC PROFILES
  51. 51. SEISMIC PROFILES
  52. 52. SEISMIC PROFILES Seismologists can even use it toestimate how thick the crust is
  53. 53. BELLWORK• What did you learn last week?• What weighs more: 100 lbs of lead or 100 lbs of feathers?• Which is denser?• Railroad crossing, without any cars. Can you spell that without any Rs?• The nearest galaxy to us is the Andromeda Galaxy. Its 2.5 million light years away and moving towards us at 300 km/s. How many years will it take to hit our galaxy? I want you to set up the dimensional analysis for this question using the following conversions• 3.26 light years= 1 parsec• 1 parsec = 31 trillion km

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