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Dev Psych.ch4.keynote

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Dev Psych.ch4.keynote

  1. 1. A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Chapter Four: </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul>John W. Santrock
  2. 2. Health, Illness, and Disease <ul><li>Children’s health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing patterns of illness are of concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two areas of focus: poverty, prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immunization, efforts to avoid accidents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caregivers’ roles important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects motor, cognitive, socioemotional development </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Health, Illness, and Disease <ul><li>Children’s health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7% of US children receive no health care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11 million US preschool children malnourished </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-income families at highest risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malnutrition causes poor resistance to disease </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Recommended Immunization Schedule of Normal Infants and Children Fig. 4.1 AGE IMMUNIZATION 2 months Diphtheria, polio, influenza 4 months Diphtheria, polio, influenza 6 months Diphtheria, influenza 1 year TB test 15 months Measles, mumps, Rubella, influenza 18 mos, 4-6 yrs Diphtheria, polio 11-12 years Measles, mumps, Rubella 14-16 years Tetanus-diphtheria
  5. 5. Health, Illness, and Disease <ul><li>Adolescents’ health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many factors and lifestyle linked to both poor health habits and early death in the adult years begin during adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important models: peers, family, social contexts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving adolescent health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce risky behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage healthy behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Health, Illness, and Disease <ul><li>Emerging and young adults’ health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2x higher mortality rate of adolescents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer chronic health problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer colds, respiratory problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little thought about lifestyle’s links to health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor lifestyles associated with poor health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impacts on life satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative effects of abusing the body </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Health, Illness, and Disease <ul><li>Health and aging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alzheimer’s disease linked to aging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17% of US adults aged 65 to 74 have a disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of US adults are free of disability until age 85 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chronic disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow onset, long duration, higher rates for males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arthritis, heart conditions, diabetes, asthma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types vary by gender in middle age </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Fig. 4.3 Increasing Disabilities with Age
  9. 9. Health, Illness, and Disease <ul><li>Health and aging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive bone tissue loss; affects walking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80% of US cases: females, broken bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White, thin, small-framed women </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affects 66% of women over age 60 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy diet, exercise, medications reduce risks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Health, Illness, and Disease <ul><li>Health and aging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dementia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neurological disorder; mental functioning loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% of all over age 80 have dementia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alzheimer disease (form of dementia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive, irreversible, gradual loss to death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2008: about 5.2 million Americans affected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Onset varies: age, genes, lifestyle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Health, Illness, and Disease <ul><li>Health and aging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early detection of Alzheimer disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal cognitive changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MRI, other brain scans, medication treatments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caring for Alzheimer patients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Professionals and support systems necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Care is emotionally draining; depression </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respite care: temporary relief </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Health, Illness, and Disease <ul><li>Health and aging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parkinson disease (a type of dementia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic, progressive, muscle tremors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitter (dopamine) loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug treatments in early stages; loss of effect over time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep brain stimulation shows promise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dementia causes unknown; no cures to date </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Health, Illness, and Disease <ul><li>Health treatment for older adults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative home, community-based care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing homes used less; need increases as person ages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing homes: Quality varies enormously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems : failed inspections, minimal standards, over 1/3 have serious deficits, patient rights issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best care promotes ‘patient self-control’ </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Fig. 4.5 Percentage of Older Adults of Different Ages In U.S. Nursing Homes
  15. 15. Health, Illness, and Disease <ul><li>Health treatment for older adults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rodin and Langer study: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-control in care linked to longevity, activity level, alertness, happiness, needs satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choices: food eaten, movies seen, who enters their rooms, when to see visitors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caring, kind, helpful staff necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>18-month increase in life span </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Perceived Control and Mortality Fig. 4.7
  17. 17. Nutrition and Eating Habits <ul><li>Infancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition important for development and growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breastfeeding versus bottle feeding: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controversial; breast feeding appears better </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rate has increased in US since 1970 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits: fewer gastro/respiratory infections; reduces risks of asthma, diabetes, SIDS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowers risk of ear/skin infections </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits mother: lowers risk of diseases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Fig. 4.8 U.S. Breastfeeding Trends
  19. 19. Nutrition and Eating Habits <ul><li>Infancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When breastfeeding is avoided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical difficulties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyle conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HIV virus, taking unsafe drugs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor, developing countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Few/no alternatives, unsanitary health risks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death rates linked to bottle-feeding </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Nutrition and Eating Habits <ul><li>Malnutrition in infancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marasmus — wasting away of body tissues in first year; severe protein-calorie deficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kwashiorkor — deficiency in protein; child’s abdomen and feet swollen with water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional supplements linked to long-term effects on cognitive development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest SES groups benefited most </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Nutrition and Eating Habits <ul><li>Childhood nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor nutrition is special concern for children of many low-income, less educated families in United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower intake of fresh foods, olive oil cooking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher intake of processed, canned foods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WIC program serves 7.5 million in United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive influences on participants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to lower risk of being overweight </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Nutrition and Eating Habits <ul><li>Eating behavior and parental feeding styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diets worsen as children age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating behavior strongly affected by caregivers’ behaviors (scheduling, presence of distractions during meal times, restrictive feeding styles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good diet can have long-term effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overweight children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity is a serious problem – measured by BMI </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Nutrition and Eating Habits <ul><li>Overweight children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At-risk children dramatically increasing worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood obesity linked to adult obesity (girls more at risk) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child obesity unrecognized by most parents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors affecting weight: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity/genetics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environment: availability of food, exercise, ‘electronic’ entertainment, leisure time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Nutrition and Eating Habits <ul><li>Consequences of obesity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical and psychological problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower SES at more risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem, depression, exclusion by peers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment of obesity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet, exercise, behavior modification programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention at home, school: educate about healthy and active lifestyle </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Nutrition and Eating Habits <ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition and being overweight are key problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eat more junk food; parents affect food choices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overweight adolescents increasing: 11% to 17% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher percentage for females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic variations exist: African American girls, Latino boys at highest risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interventions: clinical approaches, exercise, behavior therapy, calorie restriction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Nutrition and Eating Habits <ul><li>Eating disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anorexia nervosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relentless to be thin by starvation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serious disorder; can lead to death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affects females 10x more; 1% of those dieting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are white females from well-educated, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>middle- and upper-income families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family values: high standards, competitive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media and American culture fashion image </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Nutrition and Eating Habits <ul><li>Eating disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulimia nervosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binge-and-purge eating pattern; use of laxatives or self-induced vomiting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preoccupied with food; depressed/anxious, fear of being overweight, low self-esteem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overvalue their body weight and shape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90% are women, onset in late adolescence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binge eating often begins in dieting episode </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Nutrition and Eating Habits <ul><li>Adult development and aging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition and eating behavior are important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity is a problem; 32% of U.S. adults in 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being overweight increases risk of middle age death — 40% higher </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide: rates for women increasing faster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environment has dramatic effect — greater access to food/higher fat content </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Nutrition and Eating Habits <ul><li>Adult development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercising and diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most effective weight loss/control is exercise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30 minutes a day, healthy meal planning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daily weighing; keep a food diary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight loss from diets may pose health risks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid/very low cal diets affect gallbladder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Successful weight loss; less depressed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Nutrition and Eating Habits <ul><li>Adult development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversy over vitamins and aging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recent research: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antioxidants may slow aging </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No evidence of extending the life span </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others: vitamins reduce risk of frail/ill life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possible link: vitamins to cognitive performance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Exercise <ul><li>Childhood and adolescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All children need daily exercise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronics, computers, TV deter activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recent study : preschools vary in physical activity, methods of teaching influence activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic exercise linked to increased cognitive activity (planning) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Exercise <ul><li>Childhood and adolescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity usually decreases in adolescence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended: exercise 1 hour per day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boys more active than girls; body image issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood habits continue in adolescence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rates vary by gender: white boys exercise most, African American girls exercise least </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop ways to encourage exercise </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Exercise <ul><li>Adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate/intense exercise may have physical and psychological gains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention of heart disease, live longer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic exercise : sustained activity that stimulates heart/lung functioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burn 2,000 calories a week to cut heart attack risk by two-thirds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise aids mental and physical health </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Exercise <ul><li>Ways to exercise more </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce TV time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chart your progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get rid of excuses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate “I don’t have time” by making exercise a priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagine the alternative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn more about exercise </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Exercise <ul><li>Aging and exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to increased longevity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to prevention of common chronic diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves older adults’ cellular functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with improvement in disease treatments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce decline of motor skills during aging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective in treatment/reduce risk of mental health problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to improved cognitive/brain functioning </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Fig. 4.17 Physical Fitness and Mortality
  37. 37. Substance Use <ul><li>Adolescence and emerging adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy lifestyle: exercise, avoid substance use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cigarette use — onset in childhood/adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many alcoholics — onset in high school/college </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The earlier the use; the more long-term harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend studies: University of Michigan research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annually: 50,000 students, 400 schools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders surveyed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Substance Use <ul><li>Adolescence and emerging adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend studies: University of Michigan research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States — still one of highest use rates worldwide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declines in alcohol use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 th graders: 26% (1996) to 16% (2007) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 th graders: 39% (2001) to 33% (2007) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 th graders: 72% (1980) to 44% (2007) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binge drinking: 5 or more drinks in 2 weeks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Binge Drinking in the Adolescence — Early Adulthood Transition Fig. 4.20
  40. 40. Age and Binge Drinking Fig. 4.21
  41. 41. Substance Use <ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cigarette smoking – decline since 1996/1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2007 percentage of surveyed still smoking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 th graders: 7%, 10 th graders: 14%,12 th graders: 22% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk factors: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Having friends who smokes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weak academic orientation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low parental support </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Substance Use <ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarming recent trend: prescription painkiller use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vicodin, Oxycontin – narcotics, highly addictive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescents access home medicine cabinet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents, peers, social support have role in preventing substance use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family mealtimes together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonuse by friends in school social network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educational success is good buffer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Substance Use <ul><li>Emerging adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical transition from adolescence to college </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol use is common among many </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binge drinking problems at colleges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic increase among females </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to unprotected sex practices </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol/drug use declines in mid-20s </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Substance Use <ul><li>Older adults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority over 65 abstain from alcohol use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance use — “invisible epidemic” among elderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Undetected: illicit and prescription drugs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences of abuse: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depression, psychological conditions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate nutrition, frequent falls </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congestive heart failure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Substance Use <ul><li>Older adults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate use of red wine linked to longevity, better physical and mental health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More open socially, self-mastery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowers stress, lower heart disease risk </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. The End

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