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Dev Psych.ch2.keynote

  1. 1. A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT John W. Santrock Chapter Two: Biological Beginnings
  2. 2. The Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>Natural selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary process where the best adapted individuals in a species survive and reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural selection and adaptive behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Darwin: On the Origin of Species (1859) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All organisms must adapt in life </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>Evolutionary psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes adaptation, reproduction, and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution explains human physical features and behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>Evolutionary developmental psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explaining humans and their behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger brains and more complex societies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes longest of all mammals to mature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some evolved mechanisms of adaptation not compatible with modern society </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>Evolution and life-span development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits decrease with age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failures: harmful conditions and non-adaptive characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As adults weaken biologically, culture-based needs increase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative: bi-directional view </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fig. 2.2 Baltes’ View of Evolution and Culture Across the Life Span
  7. 7. Genetic Foundations of Development <ul><li>The collaborative gene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus of a human cell: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomes — thread-like structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA — double helix-shaped molecule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genes — units of hereditary information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Genome Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20,500 genes in humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic expression and inherited traits </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cells, Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA Fig. 2.3 Nucleus (center of cell) contains chromosomes and genes Chromosomes are threadlike structures composed of DNA molecules Gene : a segment of DNA (spiraled double chain) containing the hereditary code
  9. 9. Genetic Foundations of Development <ul><li>Genes and chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitosis — cell nucleus duplicates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meiosis — cell division forms gametes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilization — egg and sperm form zygote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic variability in the population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X and Y chromosomes determine sex </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Genetic Foundations of Development <ul><li>Genes and chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of variability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each zygote is unique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identical and fraternal twins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muted genes due to environmental agent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genotype: all of one’s genetic makeup </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phenotype: observable characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Genetic Foundations of Development <ul><li>Genetic principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant and recessive genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex-linked genes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X-linked inheritance for males and female </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic imprinting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imprinted gene dominates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poly-genetically determined characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many genes interact to influence a trait </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. b b B b B b B B b B Blond hair Brown hair How brown-haired parents can have a blond-haired child: the gene for blond hair is recessive Mother B b Father B b
  13. 13. Genetic Foundations of Development <ul><li>Chromosomal and gene-linked abnormalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Down syndrome: 2 copies of chromosome 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex-linked abnormalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Klinefelter syndrome: XXY instead of XY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fragile X syndrome: X in boys is fragile, breaks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turner syndrome: girl is XO instead of XX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>XYY syndrome: link to criminal males unproven </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Genetic Foundations of Development <ul><li>Chromosomal and gene-linked abnormalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gene-linked abnormalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phenylketonuria (PKU) – treated by diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sickle-cell anemia – red blood cells affected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cystic fibrosis, diabetes, hemophilia, spina bifida, Tay-sachs and Huntington diseases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can sometimes be compensated for by other genes or events </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate <ul><li>Behavior genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies genetic impact on traits and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests for genetic/environmental influences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twin studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shared and nonshared factors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of biological and adoptive parents </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate <ul><li>Heredity-environment correlations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive genotype-environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents provide/guide child’s interests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evocative genotype-environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some traits elicit more adult responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child seeks/selects favorable environments </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate <ul><li>Heredity-environment correlations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity directs environmental experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In infancy, environment mostly parent-controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As child ages, experiences extend beyond family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some environments can mute or strengthen genetic traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critics: heredity gets too much credit </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Heredity and Environment Interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate <ul><li>Epigenetic view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development is ongoing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-directional interchange of heredity/environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive and negative environmental experiences can modify genetic activity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Heredity-Environment and Epigenetic Views Fig. 2.9
  20. 20. Prenatal Development <ul><li>Course of prenatal development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germinal period: creation of fertilized egg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic period: cell differentiation of embryo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endoderm – digestive/respiratory systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ectoderm – nervous system, sensory receptors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mesoderm – circulatory, bones, muscles, excretory and reproductive systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organagenesis : organ formation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Prenatal Development <ul><li>Course of prenatal development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal period: lasts for 7 months, 3 trimesters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100 billion neurons (nerve cells) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neural tube formed from ectoderm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birth defects can cause death, retardation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neurogenesis – new cells formed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neuronal migration – cell specialization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Three Trimesters of Prenatal Development Fig. 2.10 First trimester 0-4 weeks Less than 1/10th of inch long 8 weeks Less than 1 inch long 12 weeks 3 inches long, wt: 1 ounce Second trimester 16 weeks 5.5 inches long, wt: 4 ounces 20 weeks 10-12 inches, wt: ½ -1 lbs 24 weeks 11-14 inches, wt: 1-1½ lbs Third trimester 28 weeks 14-17 inches, wt: 2½ -3 lbs 32 weeks 16½ -18 inches, wt: 4-5 lbs 36-38 weeks 19 inches, wt: 6 lbs
  23. 23. Prenatal Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Tests for abnormality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultrasound sonography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal MRI : better than ultrasound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chorionic villus sampling : samples placenta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amniocentesis : samples amniotic fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal blood screening (triple screen test) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) : tests fetal cells (DNA) in mother’s blood </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Hazards to Prenatal Development <ul><li>Teratogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agents causing birth defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severity of damage affected by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic susceptibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time of exposure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescription, nonprescription drugs </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Hazards to Prenatal Development <ul><li>Teratogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoactive drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caffeine, cocaine, methamphetamines, marijuana, and heroin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nicotine’s link to SIDS, ADHD, low birth weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paternal smoking during pregnancy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Fig. 2.12 Teratogens and Timing of Their Effects on Prenatal Development
  27. 27. Hazards to Prenatal Development <ul><li>Other prenatal factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatible blood types ( Rh factor ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STDs, HIV and AIDS; Rubella measles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet and nutrition (vitamins, folic acid); weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toxins in foods, mercury in fish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal age, emotional states, and stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental hazards (toxins, waste) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Prenatal Care <ul><li>Prenatal care varies around the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of medical care visits, education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-birth weight and infant mortality rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside the United States: free/low cost prenatal care, liberal maternity leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of cultural/ethnic beliefs about pregnancy </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Birth <ul><li>Birth process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labor occurs in three stages: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine contractions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baby’s head begins to enter birth canal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Afterbirth (shortest stage) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth attendants vary across cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midwifery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doula </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Birth <ul><li>Methods of childbirth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural childbirth : reduce maternal pain through education (breathing, relaxation techniques) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepared childbirth : Lamaze method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonmedicated techniques to reduce pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waterbirth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Massage, acupuncture, hypnosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Music therapy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Birth <ul><li>Methods of childbirth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cesarean delivery (surgical procedure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breech position birth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits and risks continue being debated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>From fetus to newborn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vernix caseosa (protective skin grease at birth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baby must withstand stress of birth </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Birth <ul><li>Assessing the newborn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apgar Scale : heart, reflexes, and color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A sensitive index of neurological competence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Fig. 2.14 The Apgar Scale
  34. 34. Birth <ul><li>Low birth weight and preterm infants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low birth weight: less than 5 ½ lbs at birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very low: less than 3 lbs at birth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely low: under 2 lbs at birth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preterm: born in 35 weeks or less after conception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small for date ( small for gestational age infants ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birth weight below normal for gestational age </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Birth <ul><li>Low birth weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incidences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not all preterm babies are low birth weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High rates in developing countries from poverty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rates increasing in the United States in last two decades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest rates in Nordic countries </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Birth <ul><li>Low birth weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor maternal health and nutrition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal diseases and infections </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cigarette smoking is leading cause </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weekly hormone injections can lower rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning difficulties, more behavioral problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Birth <ul><li>Nurturing preterm infants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive enrichment (medical, educational) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kangaroo care: skin-to-skin contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizes bodily functions (ie: breathing) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better sleep, weight gain, more alertness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Massage therapy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Birth <ul><li>Bonding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special part of parent-infant relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to occur shortly after birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early emotional attachments may create healthy interactions after leaving hospital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rooming-in arrangements offered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massages and tactile stimulation for premature infants affect development </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. The End

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