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Semantische Herausforderungen elektronischen Datenaustauschs

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Semantische Herausforderungen elektronischen Datenaustauschs

  1. 1. Ich spreche mit dir,doch du nicht mit mirSemantische Herausforderungenelektronischen Datenaustauschs Johann Höchtl Donau Universität Krems Zentrum für E-GovernmentForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  2. 2. Die große Verwirrung Pieter Breugel, der Ältere:Der Turmbau zu Babel - 1563, im Kunsthistorischen Museum in WienForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  3. 3. Was ist Semantik? • Chinesische Schriftzeichen – Unterschiedliche Aussprache – Eine gemeinsame semantische Bedeutung • ChinesInnen können sich vielleicht nicht gemeinsam unterhalten (sprechen), aber sie können die selbe Zeitung lesen Semantik – Über die Bedeutung von „Zeichen“; Nicht nur Schrift-zeichen, sondern alles was „begriffen“ werden kann © /cocoarmani@FlickrNatalie Behring-Chisholm/Getty Images für Life MagazineForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  4. 4. Sprachprobleme Unsere Weine lassen nichts zu wünschen übrig! “Our wines leave you nothing to hope for” Bei unseren Weinen besteht keine Hoffnung !? Wir versenden Ihr Gepäck überall hin! “We take your Bags and send them in all directions” Wir nehmen Ihre Koffer und verschicken sie in alle Richtungen !? The Beatles:Magical Mystery Tour (1967) I say hello Hello, hello I dont know why you say goodbye I say helloForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  5. 5. Brücken Konzepte.Verbinden Brücken Weizen vs. Reis Rotwein vs. Sake Istanbul Surströmming vs. Tausenjährige Eier Lederhosen vs. Sari Europa Asien Bachblüten vs. Reiki . . Map by Openstreetmap.orgForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  6. 6. Super / Sub - Concepts Weizen vs. Reis Rotwein vs. Sake Essen Surströmming vs. Tausendjährige Eier Kohlenhydrate Alkohol Natürlich konserviert Bekleidung Lederhosen vs. Sari Natürliche Materialien Medizin Bachblüten vs. Reiki Alternative Medizin Finanz kaufen Logistik lagern Experte in “eh-Alles” vs. Superconcept / Higher Ontology bereichspezifisches Wissen Sub-Concept / Lower OntologyForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  7. 7. Wer wir sind und was wir tun • Zentrum für E-Government – Vereinfachung von Abläufen innerhalb und zwischen behördlichen Institutionen sowie zu Bürgern, der Wirtschaft, … , unter Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken. • Forschungsschwerpunkt: Elektronische Beteiligung im Administrations- und Gesetzgebungsprozess und die Auswirkungen auf die Gesellschaft – www.donau-uni.ac.at/egov/ – http://digitalgovernment.wordpress.com – Journal of E-Democrcy and Open Government http://www.jedem.orgForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  8. 8. Warum ist E-Kooperation notwendig für E-Government? • Zuerst: Was sind die Funktionen des „Government“? – Staatliche Aufgaben wahrnehmen – Prämissen der Aufgabenerfüllung: effektiv, effizient, sparsam, zweckmäßig, verhältnismäßig • Letztendlich geht es darum, Österreich als lebenswerten und zukunftstauglichen Staat zu erhalten – unter rechtlichen, … , Einschränkungen (Innerstaatlich, EU) • Treiber ist Konvergenz vieler Faktoren – Fall der physischen Mauer(n) (Berliner Mauer) – Fall der virtuellen Mauern (Zölle, Handelsbeschränkungen) – Fall der Preise für elektronische Kommunikation (Speicher, Geschwindigkeit • Ergebnis: wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit geprägt von globalem Denken und HandelnForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  9. 9. E-Zusammenarbeit: Warum tut sich ein Staat schwer(er) dabei? • Staat ist Monopolist – In vielen Bereichen konkurrenzlos, daher keine Notwendigkeit zu wettbewerbsorientierten agieren – Jurisdiktion, Grunderwerb, Heirat, (Firmengründung), (Straßenbau), [Telekomunikationsnetzwerke] • staatliche Hoheit als „sicherer Hafen“ – Überbetonung hegemonialen Handelns: Sicherheitszölle • + innerstaatliche Souveränität (Föderalismus) – fördert Vielfalt – aber – staatliche Strukturen folgen nur sehr langsam den geänderten Rahmenbedingungen • Idee: Privatisierung! – New Public Management, Reagan/Thatcher ~ 1980Forschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  10. 10. E-Zusammenarbeit: Voraussetzung gegenseitiges „Verstehen“ http://healthbase.netbase.comForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  11. 11. E-Zusammenarbeit: Voraussetzung gegenseitiges „Verstehen“ “The tragi-comic failure of Netbase can teach a lot to every company in the Semantic space.” Lesson 1: Don’t even try to boil the ocean of the WWW with these technologies. [The] Internet is full of valuable information but crap (or opinions) is 90% [of Reddit: it] , the cost of getting rid of this crap and save only the good stuff is very high Lesson 2: Linguistic approaches are likely going to fail because search engines (and machines) can’t distinguish joke/seriousness, sarcasm/shame and sentiments in general. The semantic meaning is right there not in the words of a text. Lesson 3: If you choose to apply such approaches to one specific topic like Medicine (good choice) then stick to that topic , that means accept as INPUT only medical terms and provide as OUTPUTS only medical terms. This last point requires human intervention and predefined taxonomies/ontologies but Netbase claims that they don’t need them both, ]i.e., that] their engine is fully automatic the failure too.” Source: http://marklogic.blogspot.com/2009/09/netbase- tragicomedy-perils-of-magic-and.htmlForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  12. 12. Ähnlichkeitsprobleme • Wie kann ein Computersystem zwei Konzepte als “ähnlich” erkennen? • Ausgangspunkt: Transformation in etwas “Berechenbares” – Computer können nur mit „Zahlen“ umgehen – Die geeignete Datenstruktur ist die Matrix, X and Y-Dimension enthalten identifizierte Konzepte und ihre Ähnlichkeit zueinander – Visualisierung als Baum oder gerichtete, azyklische Graphen • Rechenaufwand ist sehr hoch! – Zwei Dokumente vergleichen: Jedes Wort mit jedem Wort vergleichen – Treiber: Bio-Medizin! – Neue Methoden aus der Genetik: Gensequenzierung • Der Mensch ist im Erkennen von Ähnlichkeiten und Mustern unübertroffen!Forschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  13. 13. Arten von Ähnlichkeiten • Strukturelle Ähnlichkeit – „Was ähnlich Aussieht, ist auch ähnlich“ • Element-basierte Ähnlichkeit – „Was ähnlich heißt, ist auch ähnlich“ ZielFlughafen  ZielFlghafen • Möglichkeiten um Ähnlichkeiten (computerbasiert) festzustellen – Ähnliche Schreibweise – Ähnlicher „Klang“ (Aussprache) • Problem! Sprache!!! – Was ähnlich „kling“, muss nicht ähnliche Bedeutung habenForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  14. 14. Dem Computer „Verständnis“ beibringen • Computer können nicht denken und selbsttätig Schlüsse ziehen – „Eine Frage der Erziehung“ – Verstehen: Begriffe („Wörtern“) Gewichte bezüglich Ihrer Verwandtschaft untereinander (zu)ordnen – In riesigen Datenbanken (vor allem für Englisch) sind diese Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen abgelegt. • ABER: Abkürzungen, Kunstworte (AnkunftsZeitA, AnkunftsZeitB) Suffixe/Präfixe (hatName), fehlerhafte Wörter, frei erfundene Wörter lassen keine automatisierte Verarbeitung zu. – Eingriff des Menschen ist notwendigForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  15. 15. Beispiel: Das Auto und seine Verwandten Quelle: www.Opencyc.orgForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  16. 16. Anwendungen computerunterstützen semantischen Verstehens im E-GovernmentForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  17. 17. Unsere Station: N – A18Forschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  18. 18. Danke für die Aufmerksamkeit! Unser Stand: N - A18 1. StockForschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems
  19. 19. Links • Gerti Kappel, Horst Kargl, Gerhard Kramler, Andrea Schauerhuber, Martina Seidl, Michael Strommer, and Manuel Wimmer, “Matching Metamodels with Semantic Systems - An Experience Report,” Mainz, 2007, pp. 38-52. • Fabien Duchateau and Zohra Bellahsène, “Designing a Benchmark for the Assessment of XML Schema Matching Tools,” Vienna, Austria: ACM, 2007. • Hong-Hai Do and Erhard Rahm, “Matching large schemas: Approaches and evaluation,” Science Direct, 2007, pp. 857-885. • www.opencyc.org • http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/Forschungskongress Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009 © 2009 Johann Höchtl, Donau Universität Krems

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