Linked Open Data as Element of Public Administration Information Management

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Presentation for IRIS Conference, 2011 Salzburg, Austria

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Linked Open Data as Element of Public Administration Information Management

  1. 1. Political Mindset
  2. 2.  Transparency  Participation  Collaboration“My Administration is committed to creating anUnprecedented level of openness in Government.“ Barack Obama, “Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies - Transparency and Open Government,” Jan. 2009.
  3. 3. Open Data CataloguesState / Federal Private data.gov  data.worldbank.org/ datasf.org data-catalog data.edmonton.ca/  www.undata- api.org/wiki/datasets data.gov.uk  gov.opendata.at data.london.gov.uk  data.reegle.info digitaliser.dk  OpenBelgium.be geodata.gov.gr  opengovdata.ru data.suomi.fi
  4. 4. Why Open Data? More information might lead to more informed and better decisions Higher degree of effectiveness & efficiency ● P. Weiss, "Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Public Sector Information Policies and their Economic Impacts," ed: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2004. Strengthen trust in establishment ● R. Marcella and G. Baxter, "Information need, information seeking behaviour and participation, with special reference to needs related to citizenship: results of a national survey," Journal of Documentation, vol. 56, pp. 136-160, 2002. Leverage benefits of peer production New business models “Peoples right to know”
  5. 5. Open Data im Policy Cycle E--Participation Chance, Erfolg oder Misserfolg Initiierung der Politik zu Erkennen, Open Data Konsultation auf Foren, Wikis zu Bewerten Evaluation Formulierung und Vorschläge einzubringen Koproduktion ImplementierungM. Sengens, M.G. Löhe, P. Müller, J.H. Weitzmann, and H. Lesch, Offene Staatskunst - Bessere Politik durch »Open Government«?Berlin: Internet & Gesellschaft Co:llaboratory, 2010.
  6. 6. Open Government DataDefinitions & Principles
  7. 7. Open Government DataOpen Government Data are data setsreleased by the government on publicinterest. Usage is unconstrained withthe right to re-share and re-purpose without further notice.
  8. 8. Open Data Principles  Complete  Primary  Timely  Easily Accessible  Machine Processable  Non-Discriminating  Using Open Standards  Liberal Licencing  Reliable  Free of Charge OR Non-Discriminating feesvon Lucke and C.P. Geiger, “Open Government Data - Frei verfügbare Daten des öffentlichen Sektors,” Dec. 2010.
  9. 9. Open Government DataElement of Public Administration Information Management
  10. 10. Information Management (EN) Collection and management of information Organization of and control over the structure, processing and delivery of information
  11. 11. Informationsmanagement (DE) Beschaffung und Bereitstellung von Information Planung, Beschaffung und Bereitstellung der dafür erforderlichen Informations- und IT- Infrastruktur und notwendiger, personeller Ressourcen ● Informationsmanagement wird in der deutschsprachigen Literatur überwiegend als Informationsgenerierung und Informationsbeschaffung behandelt
  12. 12. Open Government Data Architecture Model
  13. 13. Architecture Model  Five level saturation model by Tim Berners-Lee ★ Available on the web (whatever format), but with an open licence ★★ Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. excel instead of image scan of a table) ★★★ as (2) plus non-proprietary format (e.g. CSV instead of excel)★★★★ All the above plus, Use open standards from W3C (RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff★★★★★ All the above, plus: Link your data to other people’s data to provide context
  14. 14. URIs for everything Naming scheme respects federal principle of subsidiarity and autonomy http://{sector}.{federallevel}.data.gv.at/ {concept}/IDENTIFIKATION {.rdf|html} ● http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/ 4711
  15. 15. Ontologies for Non- Information Resources (NIR) Enable computer systems to reason about reality Automated service discovery Optimal resource allocation for processes Ontologies about NIRs classify Open Linked Data about Information Resources (IR)
  16. 16. Open Data API Reduce server resources by optimal query strategy Querying data originator rather than local storage prevents data inconsistencies Extern-facing API by means of RESTful serives ● Integrates seamlessly with web browsers ● Well understood and supported standard technology ● JSON serialization less verbose and more web friendly than XML ● “Simple” compared to wsdl:SOAP Eliminates asymmetry of Open Data by enabling information in-flow
  17. 17. Open Government Data Register  Topic of researchC. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Globalintegration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010.
  18. 18. [0] Identify an Open Data Set
  19. 19. [0] Identify an Open Data Set[1] Browse Url / Uri (eg. http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711)
  20. 20. [0] Identify an Open Data Set[1] Browse Url / Uri (eg. http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711)[2] Transfer minimal Web Page with Javascript RDF-Browser
  21. 21. [0] Identify an Open Data Set[1] Browse Url / Uri (eg. http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711)[2] Transfer minimal Web Page with Javascript RDF-Browser[3] Retrieve Data using OGD API
  22. 22. Architecture (4)[4] Query RDF-Database
  23. 23. [4] Use HTTP-Proxy to Query Databases outside Internet Domain
  24. 24. Big picture
  25. 25. Next steps Identify already released data or uncritical data sets; grab for the low hanging fruits Release as XML, CSV Create an online-catalogue of Open Data Go semantic: Enrich with meta data, create URI infrastructure, identify open source components Extend government enterprise architecture with Linked Data elements
  26. 26. Links and further readingPapers & Literature:C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Global integration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010.F. Ortiz-Rodríguez, J.C. Pelaez, and F.J. Pascual, “Semantic model approach for eGovernment to improve sharing, retrieving andexchanging documentation across back-office,” Proceedings of the 10th Annual International Conference on Digital GovernmentResearch: Social Networks: Making Connections between Citizens, Data and Government, Digital Government Society of NorthAmerica, 2009, pp. 319–320.S.K. Goudos, V. Peristeras, and K. Tarabanis, “Reengineering Public Administration through Semantic Technologies and a ReferenceDomain Ontology,” Semantic Web for eGovernment 2006, p. 25.C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Global integration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010.P. Salhofer, “Ontology Driven E-Government,” eGovernment Review, Jan. 2009, pp. 22-23.J. Sheridan and J. Tennison, “Linking UK government data,” Proc. of the WWW Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, 2010.D. Wood, Linking Enterprise Data, Springer, 2010.F. Servant, “Linking Enterprise Data,” CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Bejing: 2008.F. Maali, R. Cyganiak, and V. Peristeras, “Enabling Interoperability of Government Data Catalogues,” Lecture Notes in ComputerScience, Lausanne, Switzerland: Springer, 2010, pp. 339-350.P.N. Weiss, “Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Public Sector Information Policies and their Economic Impacts,” Public sectorinformation in the digital age: between markets, public management and citizens rights, 2004, p. 137.E. Hornes, A. Jansen, and Ø. Langeland, “How to Develop an Open and Flexible Information Infrastructure for the Public Sector,”Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Lausanne, Switzerland: Springer, 2010, pp. 301-314.. von Lucke and C.P. Geiger, “Open Government Data - Frei verfügbare Daten des öffentlichen Sektors,” Dec. 2010.Web Links:Empowering the empowered: http://gurstein.wordpress.com/2010/09/02/open-data-empowering-the-empowered-or-effective-data-use-for-everyone/Cool URIs for the semantic web: http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/Re-use HTTP-Header Response Codes for the Semantic Web: http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/doc/httpRange-14/2007-05-31/HttpRange-14Licenses: http://www.opendatacommons.org/CKAN Semantic Web Software: http://ckan.org/Tabulator Library to render RDF as (X)HTML: http://semanticweb.org/wiki/TabulatorAPIs: http://open311.org/, http://www.odata.org/ http://services.sunlightlabs.com/docs/Sunlight_Congress_API/SKOS recommendation to create thesauri: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/Tools and Software recommended by the W3C to deal with RDF and the Semantic Web: http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/wiki/Tools

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