Q-What is random sampling? State the various
methods of Random sampling.
Ans : random sampling : random sampling is consider
as the best technique of selecting a “representative
various methods of Random sampling :
1. Simple Random Sampling
2.Systematic Random Sampling
6.Multi –stage Sampling
Simple Random Sampling: refers to the sampling
technique in which each and every item population is
given an equal chance of being included in sample.
To ensure randomness of selection one may adopt
any of the following two methods
•1 Lottery Method
•2 Table Random Method
Systematic Random Sampling : In Systematic
sampling, only the first unit is selected randomly and
the remaining units of the sample are selected at fixed
Stratified Sampling : Under stratified sampling the
population is divided into several sub-population that
are individually more homogeneous than the total
population and then we select items each stratum to
constitute a sample.
Cluster Sampling : In cluster sampling the total
population is divided into a number of relatively small
subdivision which are themselves clusters of still
smaller units and then some of these cluster are
randomly selected for inclusion in the overall sample.
•Area Sampling : If clusters happen to be some
geographic subdivisions, in that case cluster sampling is
better known as area sampling. In other words,
cluster designs, where the primary sampling units
represents a cluster of unit based on geographic area,
are distinguished as area sampling.
•Multi-stage Sampling : As the name implies this
method refers to a sampling procedure which is out in
Q-What is Non-Probability sampling? Discuss the
various methods of Non-Probability sampling .
Ans : Non-Probability sampling is that sampling
procedure which does not afford any basis for
estimating the probability that each item in the
population has of being included the sample.
various methods of Non-Probability sampling
(1)Quota Sampling Quota Sampling is a form of
proportionate stratified sampling, in which a
predetermined proportion of people are sampled from
different groups, but on a convenience basis. It is a
proportionate from of stratified sampling.
(2) Judgment/purposive Sampling : In this type of
sampling, items for the sample are selected deliberately
by the researcher, his choice concerning the items
(3) Convenience or Accidental sampling :
Convenience samples are sometimes called accidental
samples because those entering into the sample enter by
“Accident”—they just happen to be at the right place
and the right time, that is, where and when the
information for the study id being collected.
Q-What is Measurement Scale ?
Ans : S.S Stevens suggest for types of “measurement”
for data which has been widely adopted by statisticians
and researcher as a means of classifying data.
Q-State the different types of Measurement
scale originate by S.S. Stevens.
Ans-The four types measurement are :
1 Nominal Measurement Scale
2 Ordinal Measurement Scale
3 Interval Measurement Scale and
4 Ratio Measurement Scale
1. Nominal Measurement Scale : Nominal Scale is
simply a system of assigning symbols to events in order
to level them – C.R Kothari
2 Ordinal Measurement Scale : Rank orders
represent Ordinal Scale and are frequently used in
research relating to qualitative phenomena.
3 Interval Measurement Scale and : Any Scale or
measurement tool capable of quantifying data into fixed
interval can be regarded as an interval Scale.
4 Ratio Measurement Scale : Measures of physical
dimension such as Weight, Height, Age etc are
Ratio Scale have an absolute or true Zero of
measurement. It always star from zero.
Q-What are the methods of data collection? Mention
the source of primary data with their classification.
There are two methods data collection. They are -
1. Primary Data
2. Secondary Data..
Source of primary data with their classification..
1.Question Method ..
A) Structured and unstructured Question.
B) Open Question.
C) Close Question.
D) Matrix Question.
E) Contingence Question.
F) Multiple Choice Question.
G) Double Barrel Question.
H) Dichotomous Question.
4.Interview Schedule ..
A)Collecting of data through Interview Schedule.
B)Distinction between questionnaire and schedule what is
Q-BRIEFLY DISCUSS THE VARIOUS TYPES
OF ATTUTYDE SCALE.
The various type of attitude scale is stated below:
•Likert summated scale.
•Bogardus social distance sclae.
•Thurstone equal appearing intervals scale.
•Semantic differtial scale.
•Gutman cumulative scale.
Likert summated scale
Likert summated scales are one of the most
commonly used sclaes in social science
resrearch. It is named after its creator,
psychologist Rensis Likert. On a survey or
questionnaire, the Likert scale typically has the
•Neither agree or disagree.
Bogardus social distance scale
The Bogardus social distance sclae was created by
Emory Bogardus as a technique for measuring the
willingness of people to participate in social relation
with other kinds of people.
Let’s say we are interested in the extent to which U.S.
Christians are willing to associate with say Muslims.
We might ask the following questions:
•Are you willing to live in the same country as
•Are you willing to live in the same community as
•Are you willing to live in the same neighborhood as
• Are you willing to live next door to a Muslims.
• Are you willing to let your child marry a Muslims.
Thurstone equal appearing intervals scale-
The Thurstone scale, created by Louis
Thursone, is intended to develop a format for
generating groups of indictors of avariable that
have an empirical stucture among them.
Semantic differtial scale-The Semantic differtial
scale ask respondents of a questionnare to choose
between two opposite positions using qualifires to
bridge the gap between them.
Gutman cumulative scale-
A Gutman cumulative scale presents a number of items
to which the person is requested to agree or not agree.
This is typically done in a ‘Yes/No’ dichotomous
format. It is also possible to use a Likert scale, although
this is less commonly used.