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Business research methodology

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Business research

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Business research methodology

  1. 1. Business Research Methodology
  2. 2. Q-What is random sampling? State the various methods of Random sampling. Ans : random sampling : random sampling is consider as the best technique of selecting a “representative sample” . various methods of Random sampling : 1. Simple Random Sampling 2.Systematic Random Sampling 3.Stratified Sampling 4.Cluster Sampling 5.Area Sampling 6.Multi –stage Sampling
  3. 3. Simple Random Sampling: refers to the sampling technique in which each and every item population is given an equal chance of being included in sample. To ensure randomness of selection one may adopt any of the following two methods •1 Lottery Method •2 Table Random Method Systematic Random Sampling : In Systematic sampling, only the first unit is selected randomly and the remaining units of the sample are selected at fixed interval. Stratified Sampling : Under stratified sampling the population is divided into several sub-population that
  4. 4. are individually more homogeneous than the total population and then we select items each stratum to constitute a sample. Cluster Sampling : In cluster sampling the total population is divided into a number of relatively small subdivision which are themselves clusters of still smaller units and then some of these cluster are randomly selected for inclusion in the overall sample. •Area Sampling : If clusters happen to be some geographic subdivisions, in that case cluster sampling is better known as area sampling. In other words,
  5. 5. cluster designs, where the primary sampling units represents a cluster of unit based on geographic area, are distinguished as area sampling. •Multi-stage Sampling : As the name implies this method refers to a sampling procedure which is out in several stages.
  6. 6. Q-What is Non-Probability sampling? Discuss the various methods of Non-Probability sampling . Ans : Non-Probability sampling is that sampling procedure which does not afford any basis for estimating the probability that each item in the population has of being included the sample. various methods of Non-Probability sampling (1)Quota Sampling Quota Sampling is a form of proportionate stratified sampling, in which a predetermined proportion of people are sampled from different groups, but on a convenience basis. It is a proportionate from of stratified sampling.
  7. 7. (2) Judgment/purposive Sampling : In this type of sampling, items for the sample are selected deliberately by the researcher, his choice concerning the items remain supreme. (3) Convenience or Accidental sampling : Convenience samples are sometimes called accidental samples because those entering into the sample enter by “Accident”—they just happen to be at the right place and the right time, that is, where and when the information for the study id being collected.
  8. 8. Q-What is Measurement Scale ? Ans : S.S Stevens suggest for types of “measurement” for data which has been widely adopted by statisticians and researcher as a means of classifying data.  
  9. 9. Q-State the different types of Measurement scale originate by S.S. Stevens. Ans-The four types measurement are : 1 Nominal Measurement Scale 2 Ordinal Measurement Scale 3 Interval Measurement Scale and 4 Ratio Measurement Scale 1. Nominal Measurement Scale : Nominal Scale is simply a system of assigning symbols to events in order to level them – C.R Kothari
  10. 10. 2 Ordinal Measurement Scale : Rank orders represent Ordinal Scale and are frequently used in research relating to qualitative phenomena. 3 Interval Measurement Scale and : Any Scale or measurement tool capable of quantifying data into fixed interval can be regarded as an interval Scale. 4 Ratio Measurement Scale : Measures of physical dimension such as Weight, Height, Age etc are examples. Ratio Scale have an absolute or true Zero of measurement. It always star from zero.
  11. 11. Q-What are the methods of data collection? Mention the source of primary data with their classification. There are two methods data collection. They are - 1. Primary Data 2. Secondary Data.. Source of primary data with their classification.. 1.Question Method 2.Interview method 3.Observation Method 4.Interview Schedule 5.Projective Technique 6.Document Study. • 
  12. 12. Classification 1.Question Method .. A) Structured and unstructured Question. B) Open Question. C) Close Question. D) Matrix Question. E) Contingence Question. F) Multiple Choice Question. G) Double Barrel Question. H) Dichotomous Question. • •
  13. 13. 2.Interview method.. A)Schedule Interview method. B)Diagnostic Interview method. C)Research Interview method D)Face to face, Direct, Personal Interview method E)Telephone Interview method 3.Observation Method.. A)Structured Observation Method B)Unstructured Observation Method C)Percipient Observation Method D)Non-Percipient Observation Method E)Controlled Observation Method F)Un-Controlled Observation Method
  14. 14. 4.Interview Schedule .. A)Collecting of data through Interview Schedule. B)Distinction between questionnaire and schedule what is questionnaire?
  15. 15. Q-BRIEFLY DISCUSS THE VARIOUS TYPES OF ATTUTYDE SCALE. The various type of attitude scale is stated below: •Likert summated scale. •Bogardus social distance sclae. •Thurstone equal appearing intervals scale. •Semantic differtial scale. •Gutman cumulative scale.
  16. 16. Likert summated scale Likert summated scales are one of the most commonly used sclaes in social science resrearch. It is named after its creator, psychologist Rensis Likert. On a survey or questionnaire, the Likert scale typically has the following format: •Strongly agree. •Agree. •Neither agree or disagree. •Disagree. •Strongly disagree.
  17. 17. Bogardus social distance scale The Bogardus social distance sclae was created by Emory Bogardus as a technique for measuring the willingness of people to participate in social relation with other kinds of people. Let’s say we are interested in the extent to which U.S. Christians are willing to associate with say Muslims. We might ask the following questions: •Are you willing to live in the same country as Muslims. •Are you willing to live in the same community as Muslims •Are you willing to live in the same neighborhood as Muslims.
  18. 18. • Are you willing to live next door to a Muslims. • Are you willing to let your child marry a Muslims. Thurstone equal appearing intervals scale- The Thurstone scale, created by Louis Thursone, is intended to develop a format for generating groups of indictors of avariable that have an empirical stucture among them. Semantic differtial scale-The Semantic differtial scale ask respondents of a questionnare to choose between two opposite positions using qualifires to bridge the gap between them.
  19. 19. Gutman cumulative scale- A Gutman cumulative scale presents a number of items to which the person is requested to agree or not agree. This is typically done in a ‘Yes/No’ dichotomous format. It is also possible to use a Likert scale, although this is less commonly used.

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