Colder Climates<br />Arctic Coastline = tundra<br />Cold, treeless plain<br />Long, super cold winters; summers brief and chilly (high 40˚ F)<br />Most of the rest of Canada and Alaska = subarctic<br />Very cold winters; mild summers<br />Some areas have permafrost = permanently frozen ground<br />Rocky Mountain and Pacific Ranges = highland<br /><ul><li>Temperature and vegetation vary based on elevation</li></li></ul><li>Moderate Climates<br />North Central and NE U.S. and Southern Canada = humid continental<br />Cold winters; warm summers<br />Productive agriculture region<br />Northern California to Southern Alaska = Marine West Coast <br />Winters long and mild; summers moderately warm<br />
Milder Climates<br />Most Southern states = humid subtropical<br />Summers hot and muggy; winters mild and cool<br />Moist air from GOM bring rain in winter<br />Long growing season for crops<br />Central and Southern California = Mediterranean<br />Summers dry, sunny and warm; winters mild and rainy<br />
Dry Climates<br />Great Plains and Northern Great Basin = semiarid<br />15” of rain annually<br />Only short grasses and shrubs grow<br />Southwestern states = desert<br />Hot and dry; < 10” of rain annually<br />
Tropical Climate<br />Hawaii = Tropical Wet<br />Supports lush rainforests<br />Temperature varies only a few degrees in the 70s<br />Rains almost every day<br />South Florida = Tropical Wet and Dry<br />Nearly always warm with a wet and dry season<br />Everglades = swampland covering 4000 sq. miles<br />
<ul><li>The US has more climate zones than Canada.
Reason: US extends over such a large area North to South.
First Settlers<br />First inhabitants were nomads who crossed over Beringia from Asia<br />Mostly hunters and gatherers that moved around the country<br />About 3000 years ago, people began relying more on agriculture for food, and created permanent settlements to live in<br />
Building Cities<br />Where a city is built and develops depends on the physical setting<br />Water<br />Landscape<br />Climate<br />Weather<br />Availability of natural resources<br />
Trails and Inland Waterways<br />created trails that led inland as cities started moving away from the coast<br />National and Wilderness roads<br />Santa Fe and Oregon Trails<br />Used existing waterways and created connections<br />St. Lawrence Seaway – connects Great Lakes to St. Lawrence R. using a series of locks<br />
Transcontinental Railroad<br />Began in the early 19th century (1800s)<br />Had to work around natural barriers<br />Completed in 1869 (US) and 1885 (Canada)<br />Helped promote westward expansion<br />
Highway System<br />Spurred by the development of the automobile in the early 1900s<br />US = 4 million miles of road<br />46,000 miles crisscross the country<br />Runs north to south and east to west<br />Canada = 560,000 miles of road<br />Mostly runs east to west<br />