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osteoporosis causes women

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  2. 2. GOALS & OBJECTIVES Goal: is to increase awareness of osteoporosis, the risk factors, steps to prevent, treatment options, and suggestions to reduce fractures Objective: is to provide a broad- based community education program to educate the public about prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options
  3. 3. -PEGGY, AGE 46 “I was absolutely blown away to discover I had osteoporosis. And there are thousands of women out there in the condition I was in!”
  4. 4. -DIANNE, AGE 61 “I was devastated! I was always very physically active in school with hockey and track. I couldn’t believe it—I was in shock! My doctor told me not to pick up my grandchildren, a bag of groceries, or vacuum. I felt like I was in a bubble.”
  5. 5. -LINDA, AGE 53 “When the doctor revealed the DXA results, I was stunned. I’d been drinking lots of milk all my life, yet I had a full blown case of osteoporosis. If your doctor doesn’t suggest it, be assertive. You’ll be the one to pay the price if you’re not.”
  7. 7. NATIONAL STATISTICS Osteoporosis affects more than 28 million Americans; 80% of them are women and 20% men 1 in 2 women and 1 in 8 men over the age of 50 will develop osteoporosis Thin bones are the cause of 1.5 million fractures a year
  8. 8. FLORIDA STATISTICS Over 2.1 million individuals have osteoporosis or low bone mass 1998 - 22,630 residents had hip fractures 1998 - Hospital charges for hip fractures were $477.8 million with 80% discharged to nursing homes
  9. 9. VERTEBRAL FRACTURES Can lead to chronic back pain, loss of height, protruding stomach, stooped posture - back pain is the most common complaint At age 50, a woman has a 50% chance of an osteoporosis-related fracture during her life Loss of ability to do daily living activities (cooking, cleaning, getting dressed, etc.)
  10. 10. A woman’s hip fracture risk equals her combined risk of breast, uterine and ovarian cancer 15-20% need long-term care facilities There is a 20% increased risk of death during the first year following a hip fracture HIP FRACTURES
  11. 11. MYTHS OR FACTS Men do not get osteoporosis Diet can provide all of the calcium a body needs If your grandmother had osteoporosis, you will get it too Dairy products are the only source of calcium Activity – Myths or Facts About Osteoporosis
  12. 12. MYTHS OR FACTS If you have osteoporosis, you can do nothing about it Our bones stop growing when we reach full height (about age 20) Susceptibility to fractures can indicate osteoporosis
  13. 13. Low calcium intake during adolescence can cause osteoporosis later Exercise is dangerous for older people MYTHS OR FACTS
  14. 14. MEN & OSTEOPOROSIS Lifetime risk of getting osteoporosis is the same as a man’s lifetime risk for prostate cancer Nationally, one in eight men over 50 will get osteoporosis By age 75, one in three men will get osteoporosis
  16. 16. OSTEOPOROSIS: “The Silent Disease” “Osteo” is Latin for “bone” “Porosis” means “porous or full of holes” “Osteoporosis” means “bones that are full of holes” Osteoporosis can develop without symptoms You may not know you have the disease until a bone fractures
  17. 17. TYPES OF BONE (1) Cortical – is hard, compact, dense bone (example: mid- section of larger, long-bones of arms and legs) (2) Trabecular – is spongy, porous and flexible bone (example: end of the wrist, hip and the spine) Activity - Understanding Our Bones
  18. 18. HEALTHY BONE Bone is living tissue, which is constantly being broken down and rebuilt, a process called remodeling Bone is renewed like skin, hair and nails
  19. 19. OSTEOPOROTIC BONE The loss of living bone tissue makes bones fragile and more likely to fracture Note: arrow points to micro - fracture
  20. 20. BONE “REMODELING” Resorption- removes old bone Formation- replaces old bone with new bone
  21. 21. OSTEOCLASTS-PHASE 1 Cells called osteoclasts (think “C” for chiseler) seek out old bone or damaged bone tissue and destroy it, leaving small spaces (resorption)
  22. 22. OSTEOBLASTS – PHASE 2 Cells called osteoblasts (think “B” for builder) use minerals like calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D to fill in the spaces with new bone (formation)
  23. 23. BUILD YOUR BONE BANK You build bone until about age 30 Steps to building healthy bones include: Calcium & vitamin D Limit Caffeine & Alcohol Exercise Don’t Smoke
  24. 24. BONE BANK DEPOSITS From birth through adolescence, new bone is built faster than old bone is removed In mid-life, depending on lifestyle and other factors, bone removal can achieve a balance with bone formation After menopause, bone removal may accelerate due to a decrease in estrogen
  25. 25. BONE LOSS & AGING The first 5-15 years after menopause a woman can lose approximately 25 - 30 % of trabecular bone & approximately 10 – 15 % of cortical bone Bone loss often occurs without symptoms or warning signs
  26. 26. CHANGES IN BONE MASS After menopause, bone removal accelerates due to a decrease in estrogen
  27. 27. EARLY WARNING SIGNS History of broken bones as an adult Unexplained back pain – subsides after a couple of weeks Loss of more than an inch in height Posture has become stooped
  28. 28. OSTEOPOROSIS Normal Posture Dowager’s Hump
  29. 29. CLARIFICATIONS There is no relationship between osteoporosis and arthritis Osteoporosis is a generalized bone disease that causes porous bones, usually not causing symptoms until a fracture occurs
  30. 30. Arthritis refers to a group of diseases and conditions that affect the joints and are usually painful Osteoarthritis is a degenerative type of arthritis affecting the hip, knees and tips of the fingers—no relationship to osteoporosis CLARIFICATIONS
  31. 31. Steroids are sometimes used to treat arthritis, and using steroids may put a person at risk for osteoporosis There is no clear relationship between dental cavities and osteoporosis Someone with osteoporosis may have weakened jawbones and be prone to losing teeth CLARIFICATIONS
  32. 32. RISK FACTORS
  33. 33. RISK FACTORS - CAN’T CONTROL Gender: Females are usually diagnosed with osteoporosis at four times the rate of males. Bone mass in males is approximately 15-20% higher than females Small Boned & Thin: may result in smaller bones with a lower bone density Activity - Risk Factor Worksheet
  34. 34. RISK FACTORS - CAN’T CONTROL Race/Ethnicity: Women, especially Caucasian and Asian women with thin frames are at greater risk African American women have a higher peak bone mass (10%) than Caucasian women, but other factors such as nutrition, exercise, certain diseases, and medications may increase their risk of osteoporosis
  35. 35. RISK FACTORS - CAN’T CONTROL Heredity: your family history may put you genetically at risk or may be a result of family members sharing the same environment, exercise, and nutritional habits Menopause or several months without periods: bone loss begins to exceed bone formation, due to a decrease of estrogen
  36. 36. Age: In your 40’s you start to lose bone faster than you build new bone. The accumulated loss of bone puts an older person at higher risk RISK FACTORS - CAN’T CONTROL
  37. 37. RISK FACTORS – CAN CONTROL Calcium Rich Diet: milk, cheese, yogurt Weight Bearing Exercise: walk, bike, run Vitamin D: sunshine, multivitamin, fortified food
  38. 38. RISK FACTORS – CAN CONTROL Caffeine: Recommendation- No more than 2-3 cups of caffeine beverages per day Cola, coffee and chocolate all contain caffeine
  39. 39. Alcohol: consuming more than one alcoholic drink per day is associated with risk of low bone mass RISK FACTORS – CAN CONTROL Eating Disorders: anorexia nervosa or bulimia can lead to malnutrition and bone loss
  40. 40. Smoking: causes lower bone density Immobility: extreme lack of exercise can lead to bone loss RISK FACTORS – CAN CONTROL
  41. 41. OTHER RISK FACTORS Steroids - cause increased bone breakdown and decreased bone replacement Prolonged hyperthyroidism – can cause increased risk of bone loss Thyroid hormone - (in excess) – acts on bone cells to increase resorption
  42. 42. Diuretics – some types of diuretics may increase excretion of calcium in the urine Kidney failure – affects the metabolism of calcium, phosphorous and vitamin D Chronic hepatitis – chronic liver disease may cause bone loss in several different ways Intestinal disease – some can affect the absorption of vitamin D & calcium OTHER RISK FACTORS
  43. 43. DRUGS-MAY CAUSE BONE LOSS Cortisone Isoniazid Seizure drugs Lithium Cyclosporine Heparin Methotrexate Some Hormones Lupron® Zoledex® Ask your healthcare provider
  44. 44. PREVENTION
  45. 45. CALCIUM’S FUNCTION Blood clotting (control bleeding) Regulates heart beat Muscle function Nerve transmission Bone formation
  46. 46. Age 1-3 years 4-8 years 9-18 years 19-50 years over 50 years Milligrams (mg) 500 800 1,300 1,000 1,200- 1,500 DAILY CALCIUM REQUIREMENTS National Academy of Science
  47. 47. CALCIUM NEEDS Adolescents-may lack calcium due to high fat snacks with empty calories, soda and dieting Eating Disorders-anorexic or bulimic teens lack calcium and may develop osteoporosis at an early age Older Adults-may have increased calcium need due to poor absorption
  48. 48. SERVING SIZE 1 ½ cup (12 oz) of liquid is the size of soda- pop can 1 cup (8 oz) of food is the size of large handful ½ cup (4 oz) of food is about half a large handful 3 (oz) of cooked meat, fish, poultry is about the size of a deck of cards A serving size is the amount of the food after it is cooked
  49. 49. Fat: Sparingly Dairy: 2-3 Protein 2-3 Vegetable: 3-5 Fruit: 2-4 Grains: 6-11 SERVINGS-INCLUDE CALCIUM Activity - Calcium Worksheet or Calcium Card Game Food Serving
  50. 50. 1 oz cream cheese: 20 mg 1 hard boiled egg: 30 mg ½ cup cooked broccoli: 40 mg ½ cup cottage cheese: 80 mg 1 oz cheddar cheese: 205 mg 6 oz calcium-fortified OJ: 250 mg 1 cup milk: 300 mg 1 cup fruit yogurt: 345 mg 3 oz sardines with bones: 370 mg 8 oz vegetable lasagna: 450 mg Activity - Results to Calcium Card Game CALCIUM IN FOODS
  51. 51.     Serving size & number of servings FOOD LABELS Calories, Total & Saturated fat in grams, Cholesterol & Sodium, Fiber, Sugars, & Protein in grams % Daily Value (DV) Daily Amount
  52. 52. READING FOOD LABELS Calcium content may vary greatly between different brands of food The percentage of calcium in a food is based on 1000 milligrams. A food containing 20% calcium = 200 mg A food containing 10-19% of calcium is a good source; 20% of calcium or higher is a very good source Activity – Nutrition Facts
  53. 53. % DAILY VALUE OF CALCIUM FOOD %DV Fruit yogurt 35% Oatmeal 10% Turnip Greens 20% Total % DV = 65% Add % DV by reading food labels to ensure you get the recommended daily calcium Activity - Foods and Calcium
  54. 54. LACTOSE-INTOLERANCE Individuals who have difficulty digesting the sugar found in milk, called lactose Start with small portions of food such as milk--gradually Increase portions Eat dairy foods in combination with other foods Many hard cheeses have less lactose than milk Commercial lactase preparations aid digestion
  55. 55. CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Read Labels--several different types of calcium supplements available Avoid -“natural” calcium such as bone meal or dolomite-some contain toxic lead or mercury “Elemental calcium” - is the type of calcium the body absorbs
  56. 56. ELEMENTAL CALCIUM Kinds of Calcium % Elemental Calcium Calcium carbonate 40% Calcium phosphate (tribasic) 39% Calcium phosphate (dibasic) 30% Calcium citrate 21% Calcium lactate 13% Calcium gluconate 9% Example, a 500 mg calcium tablet may only contain 45-200 mg of elemental calcium
  57. 57. CALCIUM TIPS Do not take more than 500 mg of calcium at a time or 2000 mg total per day Your body can absorb only about 500 to 600 mg at a time Example: take one tablet at breakfast and another at dinner
  58. 58. CARBONATE CITRATE Needs acid to dissolve and for absorption Less stomach acid as we age Take “at” or “after” meals when more stomach acid Doesn’t require stomach acid for absorption May be taken between meals May cost more
  59. 59. TEST YOUR CALCIUM TABLET Put a calcium tablet in a cup of half water and half vinegar. Stir every 5 minutes. If it doesn’t dissolve in 30 minutes, it probably won’t dissolve in your stomach
  60. 60. VITAMIN D CALCIUM VITAMIN •Vitamin D is necessary for calcium to be absorbed •Multivitamin or calcium tablets may contain 400 IU daily (don’t exceed 800) •Vitamin D is in milk (100 IU in 1 cup)
  61. 61. EXERCISE! Walking Dancing Gardening Tennis Jump Rope Volleyball Skating Activity – Exercise Guide
  62. 62. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY PREVENT PAINFUL FALLS Activity – Environmental Safety Cartoon
  64. 64. WHO NEEDS TESTING? If you have major risk factors for osteoporosis If you have a family history of osteoporosis If you have a personal history of fractures after age 45 If you are on prolonged use of steroids If you are postmenopausal, and not on estrogen replacement therapy Consult your healthcare provider
  65. 65. SCREENING TESTS Portable scanners: SXA - (Single Energy X-ray Absorptiometry), measures wrist or heel pDXA - (Peripheral Dual Energy X-ray), measures wrist or heel
  66. 66. RA - (Radiographic Absorptiometry), x-ray of hand that is compared to a small metal wedge QCT - (Quantitative Computed Tomography), measures the spine Ultrasound - sound waves to measure the heel, shin, and kneecap SCREENING TESTS
  68. 68. WHAT IS A DXA? DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) is the “gold standard” Measures bone density in the hip, spine, and forearm Painless, non-invasive, requires no injections Takes 10 - 20 minutes
  69. 69. WHAT IS A T-SCORE? World Health Organization T-score is comparing the average bone density to that of healthy young Caucasian women T-Score Diagnosis 0 to –1 “Normal” -1 to –2.5 “Osteopenic”- low bone mass -2.5 or lower “Osteoporotic”
  70. 70. INSURANCE
  71. 71. INSURANCE Most insurance policies cover bone density testing for diagnostic purposes only, not as a screening test
  72. 72. MEDICAID Medicaid will usually cover “medically necessary” osteoporosis testing for “high risk” individuals Consult with your healthcare provider
  73. 73. MEDICARE Women over age 65 Men and women with previous spinal fractures Men and women on prednisone or other steroid-type medications or who are planning to begin such medications
  74. 74. MEDICARE Men and women with primary hyperparathyroidism Men and women being treated with drugs for osteoporosis to see if the therapy is working Deductibles & co-pays may apply Covered every 2 years, if ordered by healthcare professional
  75. 75. MEDICATION
  76. 76. MEDICATIONS Estrogen - “ERT” Fosamax® - Alendronate Actonel® - Risedronate Evista® - Raloxifene Miacalcin® - Calcitonin
  77. 77. ESTROGEN Most cost-effective prevention for osteoporosis Slows bone loss and may slightly increase bone mass Estimated to reduce hip fracture by 30-50%
  78. 78. EVISTA (Raloxifene) SERMS-Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators-designer drugs SERMS act like estrogen but doesn’t stimulate breast or uterine tissue Evista is the first and only SERM approved for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis
  79. 79. BISPHOSPHONATES Fosamax and Actonel Specifically designed to affect the skeleton, increase bone density & reduce number of fractures Must be taken correctly - on an empty stomach, first thing in the morning with glass of plain water, fasting, & remain upright for 30 minutes
  80. 80. FOSAMAX ® (Alendronate) Approved for prevention and treatment Approved for treatment of steroid- induced osteoporosis in men and women Prevention – 5 mg daily Treatment – 10 mg daily or 70 mg once weekly (for men and postmenopausal women)
  81. 81. ACTONEL ® (Risedronate) Weekly 35 mg is approved for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, and for women who have osteopenia, but are not yet postmenopausal Daily 5 mg dose is approved for prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in women Actonel may be given to males at the discretion of the Health Care Provider
  82. 82. MIACALCIN (Calcitonin) Is a naturally occurring hormone involved in calcium regulation and bone metabolism Available by injection or nasal spray
  84. 84. SUMMARY Calcium Rich Diet Vitamin D Prevent Falls Weight-Bearing Exercise
  85. 85. Don’t Smoke Minimize Caffeine & Alcohol Testing & Medication if Needed SUMMARY
  86. 86. HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS Healthcare providers are the best source of information about osteoporosis and medical options Please complete evaluation form-thank you! Activity – Affirming a Positive Change