Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Renaissance Artists Slide Share.Al


Published on

Teaching the Renaissance and Reformation to 8th grade students.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Renaissance Artists Slide Share.Al

  1. 1. <ul><li>Renaissance and Reformation 1500s </li></ul>
  2. 3. Renaissance: “Rebirth” 1500s <ul><li>Why does the Renaissance happen? </li></ul><ul><li>1) Crusades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with the advanced Arab civilization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books of ancient Greece and Rome are back. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemistry, medicine and gunpowder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Marco Polo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade brings luxuries and new ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Universities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New ideas lead to questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even the Church! </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Humanism : Belief in the power of the human mind. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t have to wait for God to provide answers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humans can answer and question. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>New thinking happens first in… </li></ul><ul><li>Italian city-states : Florence, Venice, Pisa, Genoa, and Rome. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities rich from trade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities war and compete in all things. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy families sponsor artists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European creativity is unleashed. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Leonardo da Vinci Renaissance inventor, painter and sculptor. *1452-1519 mostly in Florence. *One of the greatest minds in history. * wrote backwards to confuse spies from other cities * sketched helicopters, machine guns, submarines, and tanks *incredible sketches of the human body and its workings * one sketch recently sold for 11 million dollars at auction
  5. 10. “ The Last Supper ” – da Vinci <ul><li>15’ by 30’ on the wall of an Italian church. </li></ul><ul><li>Moment Jesus tells disciples “One of you will betray me.” </li></ul>
  6. 11. Da Vinci’s Last Supper restored!
  7. 12. <ul><li>Mona Lisa – </li></ul><ul><li>* most valuable painting the world by da Vinci. </li></ul><ul><li>Woman is unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps a self-portrait of Leonardo as a woman. </li></ul>
  8. 13. Don’t believe him! It’s all lies. I have never pictured myself as a drag queen!
  9. 14. David : most famous sculpture of Michelangelo. <ul><li>Michelangelo – 1475 – 1564 A.D. sculptor, painter worked in Florence and Rome for the Popes. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pieta : Mary holding the dead Jesus after the crucifixion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Bibilical King who killed Goliath.
  10. 15. <ul><li>Pope hired Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel – Biblical scenes from the Old Testament. Masterpieces. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spent four years painting. Much of it on his back many feet above the floor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recently cleaned to reveal true splendor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most famous scene: God creating Adam. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 16. Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
  12. 17. God Creating Adam: Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
  13. 18. Donatello Great Renaissance sculptor in Florence, Italy 1386-1466 A.D. Considered the founder of modern sculpture .
  14. 19. Raphael
  15. 20. William Shakespeare <ul><li>Greatest English, possibly human playwright ever. Lived from 1564-1616 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas from the stories of ancient Rome and English history. </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous works- Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, Hamlet, and Julius Caesar. </li></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>Famous quotes from Shakespeare! </li></ul><ul><li>“ To be or not to be that is the question.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ All that glitters is not gold” </li></ul><ul><li>“ O Romeo, Romeo wherefore art thou Romeo?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ All the world’s a stage…” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Parting is such sweet sorrow…” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Beware the Ides of March.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Then the world is my oyster” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A plague on both your houses” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cowards die many times before their deaths” </li></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><li>Copernicus </li></ul>Copernicus 1473-1543 Polish astronomer Heliocentric universe : the sun-centered universe. The Earth revolves around the sun. Theory? did not get a lot of attention and ideas were ignored. Some insisted theory was fact and were burned by the Church.
  18. 23. Ptolemaic/Aristotelian View of Universe. Endorsed by Medieval Catholic Church. Earth Centered! Copernican view of the universe. Sun centered!
  19. 24. <ul><li>Galileo – 1564-1642 </li></ul><ul><li>Disproved many of Aristotle’s theories such as the heavier an object is the faster it falls. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved on the telescope. Discovered moons of Jupiter and mountains on the moon. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote vigorously in support of Copernicus’ theory! Said it was a FACT. The Earth moved around the sun! </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic Church condemned him. Moving the earth from the center of the universe made the earth, God’s greatest creation, less great, less perfect. Galileo recanted under threat of torture by the Inquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Spent the remainder of his life 12 years under house arrest by the Church. </li></ul>
  20. 25. <ul><li>Niccolo Machiavelli -1469 -1527 in Florence, Italy. Lived his life for politics and patriotism. Associated with corrupt, totalitarian government because of a pamphlet he wrote called The Prince. </li></ul><ul><li>“ A prince never lacks legitimate reasons to break his promise.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hatred is gained as much by good works as by evil.” </li></ul><ul><li>It is better to be feared than loved, if you cannot be both. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Politics have no relation to morals.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The first method for estimating the intelligence of a ruler is to look at the men he has around him.” </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The end justifies the means.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Men in general judge more from appearances than from reality. All men have eyes, but few have the gift of penetration.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I desire to go to Hell, not to Heaven. In Hell I shall enjoy the company of popes, kings and princes, but in Heaven are only beggars, monks, hermits and apostles.&quot; </li></ul>
  21. 26. <ul><li>Renaissance Popes didn’t want left out of the competition between the merchant cities for the great artists. Popes sponsored many artists to decorate their churches and palaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Popes also had their St. Peter’s cathedral rebuilt into the magnificent </li></ul><ul><li>St. Peter’s Basilica – (1570) Renaissance Church in Vatican City, Rome. Commemorates the spot of St. Peter’s burial. Peter a.k.a. “The Rock” </li></ul>
  22. 27. Vatican City in Rome Italy Egads! It’s a country!
  23. 28. Reformation <ul><li>Renaissance sparked by a new way of thinking …. </li></ul><ul><li>Humanism : Belief in the importance and power of the human mind. No longer look to God to provide all the answers. Humans can answer and question. </li></ul><ul><li>The Renaissance Catholic Church was rotten and needed fixed. Meanwhile humanism encouraged people to think for themselves and many knew that change was needed. Church didn’t want anything that affected their power. Something would have to give. Needed a spark or a great religious thinker. </li></ul>
  24. 29. One man, big change <ul><li>Martin Luther : troubled German monk convinced he was going to Hell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you know for sure if you’ve been forgiven? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied the Bible thoroughly for himself to find answers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started to have different ideas from the Church. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 30. Different?? Uh-oh! <ul><li>Luther’s ideas </li></ul><ul><li>1) “Justification by faith” – it is only through God and Jesus that you can get to Heaven. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only God can forgive you of sin. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) “Individual priesthood” – Don’t need a priest to tell you what the wisdom of the Bible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read it for yourself. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HOW is this different from the Catholic Church? </li></ul>
  26. 31. Catholic doctrine! <ul><li>Catholic church teaches… </li></ul><ul><li>1) Good works can get you to heaven. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crusades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building churches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donating money to the church </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) People should not read the Bible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Become confused – heresy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written in Latin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You’ll know they are corrupt </li></ul></ul>
  27. 32. <ul><li>Luther kept these ideas to himself until one day…the Church had a massive new fundraiser to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgencies : Documents that freed their owners from the penalties of sin. </li></ul>
  28. 33. The Afterlife according to the Medieval Catholic Church <ul><li>Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Purgatory – detention. Wait here for a time to work off the penalty for sins then you go to heaven. Unless you have an indulgence. </li></ul><ul><li>Limbo – where the unbaptized go. Babies. </li></ul><ul><li> Hell </li></ul>
  29. 34. “ As soon as the coin in the coffer sings, a soul from purgatory springs!” <ul><li>Church’s new indulgence got your ancestors out of purgatory. </li></ul><ul><li>Luther was outraged and so… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>95 Theses : 1517 A.D. Luther tacks his beliefs to the church doors in Wittenberg, Germany. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All heck breaks loose. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 36. The Church is not pleased <ul><li>Church at first tries to reason with Luther. </li></ul><ul><li>When Luther does not back down they condemn him. </li></ul><ul><li>They delay in quieting him. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas might have been contained and disappeared. No radios, no TV, no newspapers in the Middle Ages. But not this time. </li></ul><ul><li>A new invention made it impossible to stop Luther’s heresy. </li></ul><ul><li>Gutenberg Printing Press : 1440 A.D. movable carved letters that could now print off books, pamphlets, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Books faster, cheaper, easier. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas are everywhere quickly! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 38. <ul><li>Luther’s ideas spread like wildfire. Northern German princes support Luther. Many angry with Church. </li></ul><ul><li>Luther is excommunicated. He will not recant. </li></ul><ul><li>Luther forms his own church…Catholics call them… </li></ul><ul><li>Protestants : Those who protest against the Catholic Church. </li></ul>
  32. 39. Luther rips the church apart <ul><li>Luther forms his own church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lutheran Church : Luther’s Church. Much of Catholic Church ritual is discarded. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confession </li></ul><ul><li>Rosary </li></ul><ul><li>Holy Water </li></ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Mary and the Saints </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgencies </li></ul><ul><li>Lent </li></ul><ul><li>Educated clergy </li></ul><ul><li>Purgatory </li></ul>
  33. 40. Revolution spreads <ul><li>John Calvin - creates a religious theocracy in the Geneva, Switzerland. Law based on a literal interpretation of the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Theocracy : government by religious law. </li></ul><ul><li>Calvin’s ideas are more strict than Martin Luther </li></ul>
  34. 41. Calvin’s ideas <ul><li>Literal interpretation : Bible is fact. Stories are not symbolic, but literal. God created the earth in 7 days. Samson killed 1,000 with a donkey’s jawbone. Woman was created from Adam’s rib, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Total depravity of mankind : Humans are sinful, beastly creatures. Strict law is necessary to control them. </li></ul><ul><li>Salvation of the Elect - 144,000 – God knows all. God knows who will be saved and who will not. It has been predetermined by God. Only 144,000 souls can be saved. Want to be one of the elect. Know them by their actions. </li></ul>
  35. 42. Revelations and 144,000 <ul><li>Rev 7:4 And I heard the number of those who were sealed, one hundred forty-four thousand, sealed out of every tribe of the people of Israel: </li></ul><ul><li>Rev 14:1 Then I looked, and there was the Lamb, standing on Mount Zion! And with him were one hundred forty-four thousand who had his name and his Father's name written on their foreheads. </li></ul><ul><li>Rev 14:3 and they sing a new song before the throne and before the four living creatures and before the elders. No one could learn that song except the one hundred forty-four thousand who have been redeemed from the earth. </li></ul>
  36. 43. Geneva – Party Town Europe <ul><li>Spies throughout the city and neighbors inform on their own. Brutal punishments! </li></ul><ul><li>A child who struck his parents was beheaded </li></ul><ul><li>Any single woman with child was drowned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So was her impregnator. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adultery punished with death </li></ul><ul><li>After a plague, 14 woman burned at the stake for witchcraft </li></ul>
  37. 44. All in Geneva had to behave as one of the elect! Strict moral law! <ul><ul><li>Church attendance was mandatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no feasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no dancing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no singing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no statues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no relics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no church bells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no candles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no plays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no jewelry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no immodest dress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no speaking disrespectfully to elders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no swearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no gambling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no hunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no reading immoral books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no naming children anything but names from the Old Testament. (On Board) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 45. What was good about Calvin’s Geneva? <ul><li>Instilled morals and work ethic in followers. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired modern churches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reformed, Baptist, Presbyterian, Jehovah’s Witnesses. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 46. Reformation doesn’t end!
  40. 47. Reformation continues <ul><li>Henry VIII – King of England. Wrote a book against Protestantism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given title “Defender of the Faith.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Married to Catherine, daughter of the King of Spain. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous stillbirths. No son. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asked the Pope for an annulment. </li></ul><ul><li>Leviticus 20:21 And if a man shall take his brother's wife, it is an unclean thing: they shall be childless. </li></ul><ul><li>Deuteronomy 25:5 If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a stranger: her husband's brother shall go to her, and take her to him to wife. </li></ul>
  41. 48. I am Henry! <ul><li>Pope delays! Fears angering Spanish king. </li></ul><ul><li>Disgusted Henry makes his own Church to get a divorce. </li></ul><ul><li>Anglican Church – Church of England . Same rituals and structure as the Catholic Church. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences – King is head of the Church and you can get a divorce. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henry ended up with six wives in the end. </li></ul>
  42. 50. Catholic Reformation <ul><li>Church addresses abuses to win back Protestants. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesuits : Monkish teachers who use reason and good deeds to win back the Protestants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church Reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good works and faith get you to heaven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seminary – schools to train church leaders – priests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms do not win back Protestants </li></ul></ul>
  43. 51. Wars of Religion! <ul><li>Spanish Armada : 1588 Philip II of Spain sends a massive fleet of 130 galleons </li></ul><ul><li>After England Catholic armies would sweep through Germany. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War blessed by the Pope. A crusade to destroy Protestants! </li></ul></ul>
  44. 52. <ul><li>Destroyed by storms! </li></ul>
  45. 53. <ul><li>30 Years War – 1618-1648 Catholic and Protestant Germans turn on each other. Sweden, Denmark, France all get involved in the war to support their religion. </li></ul>
  46. 54. <ul><li>ALL THIS IN THE NAME OF GOD! </li></ul><ul><li>Sick of religious wars many sought an escape to a new land to worship freely… </li></ul>
  47. 56. <ul><li>-Too many words on slide </li></ul><ul><li>- Know how to pronounce words, know what they mean </li></ul><ul><li>-spelling and grammar </li></ul><ul><li>-rehearse </li></ul><ul><li>-body language </li></ul><ul><li>- Don’t distort pictures </li></ul><ul><li>-Don’t read presentation </li></ul><ul><li>- Don’t use two different fonts – looks plagarized </li></ul><ul><li>- Don’t understand plagarism </li></ul><ul><li>Intro., Conclusions, paragraphs WHY! </li></ul>