High Middle Ages


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Teaching the High Middle Ages to 8th graders

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High Middle Ages

  1. 1. High Middle Ages: Rise of Trade and Kings <ul><li>Remember previous European civilizations… </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne’s Holy Roman Empire </li></ul>
  2. 3. Charlemagne’s Holy Roman Empire
  3. 4. Not like the good old days… <ul><li>What calamitous things have happened in Europe as of late? No barbarian invasions. Mongols almost came but didn’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe is beginning to recover from Rome’s fall… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Births outnumber deaths! First time since the empire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population is rising. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of the steel-tipped plow. More food. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Revival of Trade <ul><li>More food than needed leads to specialization and trade. Occurs in the Italian city-state of Venice. </li></ul>Holy Land
  5. 6. Ah, Venice <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venice : Italian merchant city. Brought luxury items back from the Arab world and from Cathay (China). Spices, dyes and silks. Fought wars to maintain trade monopoly. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monopoly : one company has exclusive control over a product. No competition. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Monopolies!
  7. 9. Who’s Venice going to sell to? <ul><li>Increased sea trade soon means increased trade over land – sell to powerful lords of Europe. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caravans : company of travelers banding together for protection. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lords wanted to attract merchants and goods. Held annual… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairs : special gatherings for trade sponsored by feudal lords. Merchants stay for a few weeks then move on. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. What’s new at Fairs? <ul><li>Coins! Money is back. </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment and music </li></ul><ul><li>Lord’s tax every purchase </li></ul><ul><li>Some merchants eventually tire of taxes and moving constantly so set up permanent fairs at busy crossroads or rivers. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Mr. Herman at the Faire
  10. 12. I am sick of fairs! <ul><li>Some merchants eventually tire of taxes and moving… set up permanent fairs at busy crossroads or rivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Towns : inhabitants engage in trade and manufacturing. Walled for protection and the people are free. </li></ul>
  11. 15. They are new and are exploding! <ul><li>Serfs would escape to towns. If they were in the town for a year and a day they became free men. </li></ul><ul><li>Towns incredibly overcrowded. Built up instead of out. Sewage didn’t exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Thrown out the window – used a chamber pot . </li></ul>
  12. 16. Industry is back!! <ul><li>In towns we have the rebirth of industry </li></ul><ul><li>Baker, shoemakers, glassblowers, metalworker, weaver. </li></ul><ul><li>Craft guilds : eliminate competition and assure equal treatment and profits for all. Work in collusion – cooperative monopoly. </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform prices and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Illness or death the guild would help support family </li></ul><ul><li>Craft guild controlled who and how many people entered the industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Apprentice : trainee. Live and work under a master for ten years. </li></ul><ul><li>Journeyman : paid under a master. Here until you produce a masterpiece. </li></ul><ul><li>Master : make and sell your own goods in your own shop. </li></ul>
  13. 17. I am the master now! <ul><li>Craft guild controlled who and how many people entered the industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Apprentice : trainee. Live and work under a master for ten years. </li></ul><ul><li>Journeyman : paid under a master. Here until you produce a masterpiece. </li></ul><ul><li>Master : make and sell your own goods in your own shop. </li></ul>
  14. 18. Dilemma of Towns <ul><li>Lords Hated Towns </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t fit into feudalism where land is power! </li></ul><ul><li>Towns resisted lords taxing their wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants becoming as rich as lords. WEALTH IS POWER! </li></ul><ul><li>Serfs escaped to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Walled and often had their own forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Towns and lords fought wars until sometimes they were granted a charter : documents that allow towns freedom from feudal duties to a lord. </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic Church Hated Towns </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on profits leading people away from God. </li></ul><ul><li>Loans were common in towns for business. Interest was charged on loans. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest : charging a fee for borrowing money. Medieval Church considered this a sin called usuary . SIN and HERESY. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jews became bankers. Not Catholic so its ok. Many become rich and powerful, and resented. Another reason to suspect the Jews and to persecute them. Anti-Semitism </li></ul>
  15. 20. Who can towns look to for protection? <ul><li>$$$ of towns goes to Kings… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King John – English king. Brother to Richard the Lionheart. John loses all French lands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raises taxes to fight wars. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promises to stop but continues to raise them. Angry nobles force him to sign… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>Magna Carta : 1215 A.D. “Great Charter” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document signed by King John agreeing that he would not violate the law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax only with the consent of a council of lords – Parliament. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No one not even kings are above the law! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No taxation without representation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John ignored this. Sowed seeds of democracy… </li></ul>
  17. 23. Looooosssssserrrrrr! <ul><li>English lost their French lands but they never gave up claim to them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English kings often married the daughters of French kings. A French king dies without sons. English kings claim that they inherit France. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French disagree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hundred Years War 1337-1453 C.E. – Wars fought on French soil between England and France for the French crown. </li></ul>
  18. 24. <ul><li>Battles of Crecy and Agincourt – (1346 & 1415) heavily outnumbered armies of English bowmen slaughter French knights. </li></ul><ul><li>Welsh longbow : a six foot bow that, like the Mongol bow, made plate armor useless. (80 to 120 lb. draw weights, shoot 300 yards.) </li></ul>
  19. 25. Bread, grape gravy, apples? Ask me about my finger
  20. 26. Even worser…. <ul><li>During the war…rumors from China of a horrific disease killing millions. Comes via the spice trade  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Death – bubonic plague hits in 1347. Kills 25 million people in Europe in 5 years. 1 out of every 3 people in Europe die. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not a new disease. Ravaged the Byzantine Empire in the 500s. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 27. How do you get it? <ul><li>RATS : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fall from 50 feet unhurt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scale vertical brick walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>squeeze through a hole the size of a quarter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they’ll eat flesh of helpless infants and adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can live on manure and urine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to hundreds of fleas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fleas : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feed off blood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jump 150x their length. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomachs home to millions of bacteria – bubonic plague bacteria. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 30. Where did it come from? <ul><li>God angry and has infected the air for sins – people tied roses under their noses. </li></ul><ul><li>Jews have infected the wells- persecuted and killed. </li></ul>
  23. 32. How stop it? <ul><li>Order of the Flagellates – people walk the countryside whipping themselves to show God they’re sorry. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors come to treat it and die before their patients </li></ul><ul><li>Towns not allow anyone in or out </li></ul><ul><li>Bathing in urine </li></ul><ul><li>One town neverending festival </li></ul><ul><li>Kill animals – dogs, cats, gravediggers, gypsies, beggars… </li></ul>
  24. 34. Where did it go? <ul><li>1347, 1349, 1361, 1369, 1379, 1389, 1400 hits again and again and then fades away and we don’t know why? </li></ul><ul><li>Still in rat populations in the desert southwest of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillin kills it. Moldy bread and cheese. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of the plague </li></ul><ul><li>1) Not enough peasants to work noble’s lands. Begin to pay them. Rise in wages. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If don’t pay - peasant rebellions throughout Europe. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Church failed to protect us? Why? </li></ul>Do they really speak for God?
  25. 35. End of the Hundred Years War <ul><li>If you remember the whole time the plague is killing everyone, the English and French are busy killing each other. New fearsome weapon the longbow killed off the French lords. French armies run at the sight of the English. </li></ul><ul><li>All seems lost for France. France needs a hero...a superhero. </li></ul><ul><li>Joan of Arc : little girl grows up in France. She’s like all girls but very religious. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At 13 she begins to hear voices of angels and saints. Specifically St. Michael, St. Catherine, and St. Margaret. They tell her… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Be good, be worthy, and you shall save France” </li></ul>
  26. 37. It’s a man baby! <ul><li>Joan became a very serious and grave little girl. At age 17 the voices told her to find the French dauphin . </li></ul><ul><li>Dauphin : Title of the crown prince of France. Must be crowned at Rheims. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rheims is controlled by the English. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joan leaves her village on her own to find the prince. The countryside is very dangerous so she disguised herself as a man to help ward off trouble. </li></ul><ul><li>She finds and meets with some of the lords loyal to the Dauphin. She begs them to see the prince. They tell her to go home and if they like they’ll bash her ears in so she’ll stop hearing the voices. Despite this she keeps pestering them. Finally they become so impressed by her sincerity and passion they arrange a meeting with the prince. </li></ul>
  27. 38. Let’s play hide and seek . <ul><li>Dauphin hears that a girl is coming to see him and she speaks with the angels. He decides to test her right away. </li></ul><ul><li>Dauphin meets Joan in a hall of 300 other lords and ladies. He takes off his crown and hides among the crowd . </li></ul><ul><li>Joan enters and marches right up to him and kneels. </li></ul><ul><li>Dauphin wants more proof. Joan whispers the prayer he said to God the night before . </li></ul><ul><li>The Dauphin is convinced and probably a little freaked out. </li></ul>
  28. 39. I’ll gut you like a fish <ul><li>A suit of armor is made for Joan, still 17, and she is made a commander in the French army. </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics are attack, attack and attack. </li></ul><ul><li>Army becomes and army of God guided by angels, by Joan. Win battle after battle. </li></ul><ul><li>HOPE! </li></ul>
  29. 40. Anybody have a match? <ul><li>French army retakes Rheims. The dauphin is crowned King Charles VII . </li></ul><ul><li>She fights on. She’s wounded with a crossbow bolt in the thigh but she keeps fighting. Her armies have continued success against the English. </li></ul><ul><li>Joan is captured. Traitorous French capture Joan and sell her to the English. </li></ul><ul><li>The English have her tried by the Inquisition for witchcraft. </li></ul><ul><li>After 5 months she is convicted of heresy – wearing male clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Joan is burned at the stake . </li></ul>
  30. 41. <ul><li>She repeatedly called out in a loud voice &quot;the holy name of Jesus, and implored and invoked without ceasing the aid of the saints of Paradise.&quot; After she expired, the English raked back the coals to expose her charred body so that no one could claim she had escaped alive, then burned the body twice more to reduce it to ashes and prevent any collection of relics. They cast her remains into the Seine. The executioner, Geoffroy Therage, later stated that he &quot;...greatly feared to be damned for he had burned a holy woman.&quot; </li></ul>
  31. 42. Wait till you see the movie! <ul><li>Seven years later the French completely drive out the English and end the Hundred Years War. The Catholic Church reinvestigates and declares her innocent . In 1920 she is declared a saint of the Church. </li></ul>