I. Napoleon BonaparteA. Born 1769 in CorsicaB. Military school in France
C. Joined the French Revolution1. 1795, hero: defended National Convention from royalists2. 1796: Directory makes Napoleon head of army a. Victory: war hero b. Egypt: defeated by British – returns to Paris as hero before news gets there Rosetta
II. Napoleon takes controlA. Nov. 1799: Coup d’etat (sudden seizing of power, usually by the military to overthrow the government) 1. Paris and the Directory in chaos 2. Napoleon’s troops take control of Assembly 3. Forces Assembly to dissolve Directory a. Replaced by 3 “Consuls” 4. Napoleon takes control as “First Consul” From 3 to 1
B. 1800: Plebiscite (vote of people) approves new constitution 1. All power given to Napoleon
C. Napoleon restores order, makes reforms1. Finances: fair tax system2. Education Reform: lycees public schools for all3. Concordat: compromise with Church a. Separate church and state4. Napoleonic Code – system of laws a. Promoted order, restricted liberties
1804: crowns himself Emperor1. Moves to expand his empire a. 1803: Sells “Louisiana” to US for $15 million b. 1804: attacks European enemies c. 1805: British navy defeats French 1) Ends plan to invade Britain d. 1812: controls much of Europe
Napoleon crowns himself EmperorAt the moment of the crowning when thePope said, "Receive the imperial crown..."Napoleon unexpectedly turnedand, forestalling the Pope, removed hislaurel wreath and crowned himself andthen crowned the kneeling Joséphine witha small crown surmounted by across, which he had first placed on his ownhead.