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Mc seminar sba

  1. 1. Standard-based Assessment: John Leann Roi R. Medina Assessment of Learning in the K to 12 Philippine Classrooms Presented by
  2. 2. Presentation Outline 1. Getting to the Basics: Relationship between Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment 2. The K to 12 Basic Education Program as Standard-Based Curriculum 3. DepEd’s Assessment Reform Initiatives: Background of Standard-Based Assessment 4. Standard-Based Assessment and Rating System of K to 12
  3. 3. Getting to the Basics: Relationship between Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment
  4. 4. Getting to the Basics: Relationship between Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment Meaning and Relationship of Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment Alignment of Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment
  5. 5. Curriculum – it consists of all experiences for learning which are planned and organized by the school. Instruction – actual teaching; implementing the curriculum; actual engagement of learners in learning activities/experiences. Assessment – process of collecting information which describes student achievement in relation to curriculum expectations.
  6. 6. Quality Student Performance Curriculum: What (standards, objectives, goals and content) Instruction: How (lesson attributes, designs, and strategies) Assessment: To what extent (assessment tools and strategies, evaluation and feedback)
  7. 7. Alignment of Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment Curriculum, instruction and assessment must be learner- centered and aligned to be effective. Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment must work together to support students’ developing understanding.
  8. 8. What does alignment look like? CurriculumCurriculum AssessmentAssessmentInstructionInstruction Instructional tasks are connected to curriculum expectations Assessment tasks are similar to instructional tasks and assess student achievement of the curriculum expectations
  9. 9. Curriculum AssessmentInstruction CI AI CA
  10. 10. Alignment of Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment Curriculum and Instruction (CI) •“You teach what you are supposed to teach” Assessment and Instruction (AI) •“You test what you have taught” Curriculum and Assessment (CA) •“You test what you are supposed to test.”
  11. 11. The K to 12 Basic Education Program as Standard-Based Curriculum
  12. 12. The K to 12 Basic Education Program as Standard-Based Curriculum Standards in Education and Curriculum Meaning of Standard Learning Standards Types of Learning Standards Importance of Learning Standards
  13. 13. Defining a Standard (Webster, 1994) basis of comparison in measuring or judging capacity, quality, etc. a measure of adequacy; if meeting the requirements of, a standard or role model
  14. 14. Learning Standards • Refer to how well the student must perform, at what kind of tasks, based on what content, to be considered proficient or effective. • Are statements which define a core of essential knowledge and skills that students are expected to know and be able to do. • Define what learning should be achieved in what grades or over certain grade spans.
  15. 15. Learning Standards • They express what students should know and be able to do to demonstrate their learning. • They set clear performance expectations for students, helping them understand what they need to do to meet the expectations. • They guide teachers in designing instruction and assessment around what is important to learn.
  16. 16. Learning Standards Performance  Standards  What students should know, understand and be able to do What students should create/add value to/ transfer Learning Standards Performance Standards Content Standards
  17. 17. Why do we need learning standards? To set uniform high expectations for all students To clarify the intended results of schooling for all audiences To facilitate transitions for students who move from school to school and from grade to grade
  18. 18. Why do we need learning standards? To specify exactly what will be assessed in order to provide more useful information about student achievement To provide a foundation for defining the knowledge & skills teachers need in order to provide instruction for students.
  19. 19. Standard- Based Curriculum Standard- Based Assessment
  20. 20. DepEd’s Assessment Reform Initiatives: Background of Standard-Based Assessment
  21. 21. DepEd’s Assessment Reform Initiatives: Background of Standard-Based Assessment • The Concept and Problem with our Assessment • Assessment and Constructivism • Assessment and the Goals of K to 12 • The Monitoring and Evaluation Findings and Recommendations (Enclosure No.1 to DepEd Order No.35, s. 2005) 22
  22. 22. 7 What is an assessment? • Do students know? Are they able to complete processes and demonstrate skills? Do they understand? • How well do students know? How well are they able to complete processes and demonstrate skills? How well do they understand? • What do students not know? What are they not yet able to do? What don’t they understand?
  23. 23. WHAT IS ASSESSMENT? Assessment is the continuous process of: •identifying (or finding out); •gathering (or collecting); and •analyzing evidence (examples of information) of what a student understands and can do. The main purpose of assessment is to improve both the teaching-learning program and the students’ performance levels. 24
  24. 24. WHAT IS EVALUATION? Evaluation is the process of: •interpreting the evidence; •making judgments; and •giving a value to the results gathered through assessment in the form of a score or grade for reporting purposes. Evaluation reports may be used when a class or school-wide PICTURE OF ACHIEVEMENT is required. 25
  25. 25. Why do you/we ASSESS LEARNING?
  26. 26.  Improve instruction and learning;  Assess student’s progress and achievement;  Determine teacher’s instructional effectiveness;  Provide feedback for students and parents;
  27. 27.  Diagnose student’s strengths and weaknesses;  Bases for grading learners;  Empower students to monitor and evaluate their own progress
  28. 28. LEARNING BASED ON THE THEORY OF CONSTRUCTIVISM Meaningful learning takes place when students: •interpret information; •relate it to their prior knowledge; •contribute to meaning and learning through both individual and group activity; •Use the skills and strategies in different situations.
  29. 29. CONSTRUCTIVISM PRINCIPLES (AND ASSESSMENT IMPLICATIONS) 1.Students bring their own prior knowledge and beliefs to the classroom. (This prior knowledge is activated and assessed at the beginning of a new topic or unit of work, e.g. KWL chart.)
  30. 30. CONSTRUCTIVISM PRINCIPLES (AND ASSESSMENT IMPLICATIONS) 2. Knowledge is constructed individually, in many ways using a variety of different tools, resources and authentic tasks or experiences (A variety of assessment strategies are needed to enable all students to demonstrate their knowledge and skills.)
  31. 31. CONSTRUCTIVISM PRINCIPLES 3. Learning is an active process and requires self-reflection (Self-assessment involving reflection and goal setting are important non-traditional assessment strategies)
  32. 32. CONSTRUCTIVISM PRINCIPLES 4. Learning is a developmental process of assimilating (adding and blending) new knowledge with what is already known (Assessment helps students understand where they are making progress and what they need to learn next, when they receive regular effective feedback.)
  33. 33. CONSTRUCTIVISM PRINCIPLES 5. Social interaction, negotiation and shared responsibility introduces a variety of views and are an important part of learning. (Peer assessment encourages students to work co-operatively together and help each other in a non-threatening, supportive way)
  34. 34. CONSTRUCTIVISM PRINCIPLES 6. Learning is controlled internally by the student. (When students receive positive feedback from ongoing informal assessments, they are encouraged to learn. Recognition of this progress is very motivating for further learning. Achievement is motivation for further achievement, or ‘success breeds success’).
  35. 35. We need to move away from the concept of assessment as judgment and competition or as a way to obtain grades. We need to move toward a vision of assessment as reflection that can improve classroom instruction.
  36. 36. BACKGROUND Goal of the K to 12 BEC : Basic Education Curriculum aims to produce learners/graduates who: • are communicative competent; • are intelligent, creative and critical thinkers in life situations; • make informed and values-based decisions; 37
  37. 37. BACKGROUND Goal of the K to 12 BEC : Basic Education Curriculum aims to produce learners/graduates who : • perform their civic duties; • use resources sustainably; • participate actively in artistic and cultural activities and in the promotion of wellness and lifelong fitness. 38
  38. 38. HOW TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL? Learners should not only experience real-life and relevant education but also be exposed to assessment practices that appropriately measure the skills advocated by the K to 12. There should be a seamless connection between the objectives of the curriculum, and the actual pedagogy of the teacher and the process of assessment. 39
  39. 39. WHAT THE K TO 12 REQUIRES… Fundamental tenet of K to 12 is a student centered or constructivist approach to learning which places a greater emphasis on: •Comprehension; •Problem solving; •Critical thinking; •Reasoning; •Meta-cognition. 40
  40. 40. THE MONITORING AND EVALUATION FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (ENCLOSURE NO.1 TO DEPED ORDER NO.35, S. 2005) 1. There are gross inconsistencies between means and ends. …assessment is focused more on judging rather than improving performance. 41
  41. 41. THE MONITORING AND EVALUATION FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (ENCLOSURE NO.1 TO DEPED ORDER NO.35, S. 2005) 2. Teachers have limited knowledge of constructivism as a learning theory. ...application of the concept is very limited. Teacher’s reports made little mention of how the concept was being applied to the teaching-learning process. 42
  42. 42. THE MONITORING AND EVALUATION FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (ENCLOSURE NO.1 TO DEPED ORDER NO.35, S. 2005) 3. Teachers want to know about integrated teaching. …teachers do not feel confident to use the approaches because of their limited knowledge to operationalize them in terms of lesson planning; instructional materials development; and subject matter organization, presentation, and evaluation. 43
  43. 43. THE MONITORING AND EVALUATION FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (ENCLOSURE NO.1 TO DEPED ORDER NO.35, S. 2005) 4. Teachers teach to the test, students study to the test. ...use test results for judging rather than in improving students’ performance. 44
  44. 44. DEPED INITIATIVES (1) DepEd Order No. 33,s. of 2004 …emphasis on the formative function of assessment where students’ progress in the attainment of objectives shall be regularly monitored as basis for enrichment or remediation. 45
  45. 45. DEPED INITIATIVES (2) National Competency - Based Teacher Standard (NCBTS) (Teacher) develops and uses a variety of appropriate assessment strategies to monitor and evaluate learning. (Strand 5.2) Expects that teachers have a variety of student assessment information that provides adequate profile of learning progress of individual and group of students. 46
  46. 46. Standard-Based Assessment and Rating System of K to 12
  47. 47. DepEd ORDER No. 73 S. 2012 General Guidelines for the Assessment and Rating of Learning Outcomes Effective School Year () 2012-2013, the standards-based assessment and rating system shall be implemented to support the progressive roll-out starting with grades 1 and 7 of the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum in public and private elementary and secondary schools nationwide.
  48. 48. Standard-Based Assessment and Rating System of K to 12 Philosophy of Assessment Features of the Standards-Based Assessment Nature of Assessment and Its Purpose Levels of Assessment Assessment Tools Levels of Proficiency Rating System Sample Classroom Assessment Frequency of Assessment, Remediation and Feedback
  49. 49. Philosophy of Assessment Assessment shall be used primarily as a quality assurance tool to: track student’s progress in the attainment of standards; promote self- reflection and personal accountability for one’s learning; and provide a basis for the profiling of student performance.
  50. 50. As per DepEd Order No. 31, s. 2012 the assessment process is: 1. Holistic with emphasis on the formative or development purpose of quality assuring student learning. 2. It is also standards-based as it seeks to ensure that teachers will teach to the standards and students with aim to meet or even exceed the standards. The students’ attainment of standards in terms of content and performance is, therefore, a critical evidence of learning.
  51. 51. As per DepEd Order No. 31, s. 2012 the assessment process is: 3. It is multi-dimensional assessment of learning outcomes. (CAP) Cognitive, Application and Performance 4. It involves assessment of knowledge and understanding, essential skills, and attitudes and values.
  52. 52. •Diagnostic (assessment for learning) •Formative/Developmental (assessment for and assessment as learning) •Summative/Evaluative (assessment of learning) Holistic •Content - what the student knows, can do, and understands •Performance - how the student transfers his/her understanding to life situations Standards- Based Features of the Standards- Based Assessment
  53. 53. What are summative and formative assessment? •assessment made to determine a student’s knowledge and skills, including learning gaps as they progress through a unit of study •used to inform instruction and guide learning; occurs during the course of a unit of study Formative Assessment
  54. 54. What are summative and formative assessment? •assessment that is made at the end of a unit of study to determine the level of understanding the student has achieved •includes a mark or grade against an expected standard Summative Assessment
  55. 55. What are summative and formative assessment? Summative Assessment •Assessment of Learning •occurs after learning •to prove learning •measures learning •done to learners •widens the ability range •externally referenced •outcome focused Formative Assessment •Assessment for Learning •occurs during learning •to improve learning •grows learning •done with learners •narrows the ability range •personally referenced •process focused
  56. 56. What are summative and formative assessment? The Garden Analogy: If we think of our children as plants … Summative assessment of the plants is the process of simply measuring them. It might be interesting to compare and analyze measurements but, in themselves, these do not affect the growth of the plants. Formative assessment, on the other hand, is the equivalent of feeding and watering the plants appropriate to their needs - directly affecting their growth.
  57. 57. Assessment of Learning Nature of Assessment Purpose Assessment of Learning Assessment as Learning Assessment for Learning Being summative, it measures student’s attainment of standards. The student reflects on results of assessment, charts his/her own progress, and plans next steps to improve performance; builds metacognition as it involves the student in setting and monitoring own learning goals. Determines student’s background knowledge and skills; tracks student’s progress in understanding
  59. 59. Under the K to 12 curriculum, pupils will be assessed at four levels and shall be weighted as follows: (DepEd Order No. 31, s. 2012) Level of Assessment Percentage Weight Knowledge 15% Process or Skills 25% Understanding(s) 30% Products/Performances 30% 100% Levels of Assessment
  60. 60. KNOWLEDGE (15%) • The substantive content of the curriculum, the facts and information that the student acquires
  61. 61.  How to assess knowledge? Questions: What do we want students to know? How do we want them to express or provide evidence of what they know.
  62. 62.  How to assess knowledge? This level may be assessed using traditional measures (e.g., paper and pencil test using multiple choice, true or false, or matching type of tests) if the intention is to find out students’ knowledge of facts and information. But if the purpose is to determine if students’ knowledge of facts and information is of sufficient breadth and depth to develop understanding, then the constructed response type of assessment will be useful with rubrics.
  63. 63. TESTING FOR KNOWLEDGE A tour company plans to rent five buses for a group of 137 tourists. If the company plans to do an equal distribution of tourists in five buses, about how many tourists will be there per bus? According to the problem, what will you have to do ?     a. Add the number of buses to the number of tourists b. Subtract the number of buses from the number of tourists c. Multiply the number of buses times the number of tourists d. Divide the number of tourists by the number of buses
  64. 64. PROCESS (25%) • Skills or cognitive operations that the student performs on facts and information for the purpose of constructing meanings or understandings.
  65. 65.  How to assess process/skills? Questions: What do we want students to do with what they know? How do we want them to provide evidence of what they can do with what they know?
  66. 66.  How to assess process/skills? This level may be assessed by asking learners to: outline, organize, analyze, interpret, translate, convert, or express the information in another form or format; draw analogies; construct graphs, models, flowcharts and mind maps or graphic organizers; or transform a textual presentation into a diagram.
  67. 67.  However, there are skills/processes that are unique to specific subjects, which the teacher is in a better position to assess by using the appropriate tool or technology.  Example: Listening to a dialogue to get details is a skill that the language teacher may assess by playing a recorded conversation and asking students to process what they have heard by listing down the details.
  68. 68. TESTING FOR SKILLS Based on your answer from the previous question, which is the correct answer? a. 142 b. 132 c. 685 d. 27.4 e. 27
  69. 69. UNDERSTANDING(S) (30%) • Enduring big ideas, principles and generalizations inherent to the discipline, which may be assessed using the facets of understanding which may be specific to the discipline
  70. 70.  How to assess understanding? Questions: What do we want students to understand? How do we want them to provide evidence of their understanding?
  71. 71.  How to assess understanding? This level should be able to draw from the students the meaning or meanings they have made or their own understanding, which may be expressed using any of the six Facets of Understanding
  72. 72. UNDERSTANDING • Understanding as expressed using any three of the six facets of understanding • The facets are explained (adapted from the paper, “Understanding by Design Framework in the Philippines” by Mc Tighe and Grant Wiggins, p.5)
  74. 74. FACET # 01 “EXPLANATION” • Concepts, principles, and processes by putting them in their own words, teaching them to others, justifying their answers and showing their reasoning.
  75. 75. • By making sense of data, text, and experience through images, analogies, stories and models; FACET # 02 “INTERPRETATION”
  76. 76. • Effectively using and adapting what they know in new and complex texts FACET # 03 “APPLICATION”
  77. 77. • Demonstrate perspective by seeing the big picture and recognizing different points of view. FACET # 04 “PERSPECTIVE”
  78. 78. FACET # 05 “EMPATHY” • Display empathy by perceiving sensitively and putting one’s self in someone else’s shoes;
  79. 79. • Have self knowledge by showing met cognitive awareness, using productive habits of mind and reflecting on the meaning of the learning and experience. FACET # 06 “SELF KNOWLEDGE”
  80. 80. Assessment of Understanding (s) (30%) • Explain/justify  something  based  on  facts/data, phenomena or evidence  • Tell/retell stories  • Make connections of what was learned  within and across learning areas.  • Apply  what  has  been  learned  in  real  life situation.  Oral Discourse/Recitation 
  81. 81.  
  82. 82.  
  83. 83. TESTING FOR UNDERSTANDING (Applying the Facets of Understanding) Roy was given the following set of materials: baking soda, a thermometer, a bottle of vinegar, and a cup of water. What experiment can Roy design with these materials? What kind of investigations can he undertake? How can he check his experiment?
  84. 84. PRODUCTS / PERFORMANCES (30%) Real-life application of understanding as evidenced by the student’s performance of authentic tasks. It should consider students’ MI.
  85. 85.  How to assess product/performances? Questions: What product or performance do we want students to produce as evidence of their lerning or understanding? How do we want them to provide evidence that they can use or transfer their learning to real-life situations?
  86. 86.  How to assess product/performances? A good model to assess this level is the use GRASPS (Goal, Role, Audience, Situation, Product, and Standards)
  87. 87. Products and Performances  Students demonstrate conceptual understanding, and content and skill acquisition or show evidence of their learning through products and performances.  Products and performances promote self- understanding, self-monitoring, and self- assessment.  They include opportunities for authentic audiences to experience and critique results  They permit choices and combinations of oral, written, visual, and kinesthetic modes
  88. 88. At the Level of Understanding  Do products and/or performances reflect evidence of students’ learning? At the Level of Performance  Do products and/or performances demonstrate students conceptual understanding, and content and skill?
  90. 90. WHAT IS RUBRIC: • A rubric is a guideline for rating student performance. • It must define the range of possible performance levels. • Within this range, there are different levels of performance which are organized from the lowest level to the highest level of performance. • Usually, a scale of possible points is associated with the continuum in which the highest level receives the greatest number of points and the lowest level of performance receives the fewest points.  
  91. 91. BENEFITS OF RUBRIC –The rubric provides assessment with exactly the characteristics for each level of performance on which the students and the teacher should base their judgment. –The rubric provides the students with clear information about how well they performed and what they need to accomplish in the future to better their performance.  
  92. 92. LEVEL OF ASSESSMENT PERCENTAGE WEIGHT DESCRIPTION ITEMS Knowledge 15% facts and information that the student acquires Quizzes Process or Skills 25% cognitive operations for the purpose of constructing meanings and understandings Recitation Participation Observations Homework Understanding 30% enduring big ideas, principles and generalizations inherent to the discipline Quarterly Exam Products / Performances 30% real-life application of understanding as evidenced by the student’s performance of authentic tasks Projects Compositions Performance s Recitals TOTAL 100%
  93. 93. (75-79%) Beginning Developing The student at this level struggles with his/her understanding; prerequisite and fundamental knowledge and/or skills have not been acquired or developed adequately to aid understanding. The student at this level possesses the minimum knowledge and skills and core understandings, but needs help throughout the performance of authentic tasks. Levels of Proficiency (74% & below) (75-79%)
  94. 94. Approaching Proficiency Proficient The student at this level has developed the fundamental knowledge and skills and core understandings, and can transfer them independently through authentic performance tasks. The student at this level exceeds the core requirements in terms of knowledge, skills and understandings, and can transfer them automatically and flexibly through authentic performance tasks. Advanced (85-89%) (80-84%) (90% & above) The student at this level has developed the fundamental knowledge and skills and core understandings and, with little guidance from the teacher and/or with some assistance from peers, can transfer these understandings through authentic performance tasks.
  95. 95. SAMPLE REPORT CARD (Secondary) Learning Area GRADING PERIOD 1 2 3 4 Filipino English Mathematics Science Araling Panlipunan (AP) CP – Technology and Livelihood Education (CP-TLE) MAPEH Music Arts Physical Education Health Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga (EsP) GENERAL AVERAGE p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p A(90.00) A(90.00) A(90.25) A(91.25) A(91.25) A(93.00) A(90.50) A(92.50) A(88.25) A(91.75) A(89.50) A(89.75) A(90.625) Promoted Promoted Promoted Promoted Promoted Promoted Promoted Promoted Promoted Promoted Promoted Promoted Promoted
  96. 96. Computation of Final Grades  The Final Grade for each Learning area shall be reported as the average of the four quarterly numerical ratings and to be expressed in terms of the levels of proficiency  There shall be one rating for MAPEH which is the general average of the four (4) component areas.  The General Average shall be the average of the final grades of the different learning areas, also expressed in terms of levels of proficiency with the numerical equivalent in parenthesis.
  97. 97.  
  98. 98. Final Grade and Honor Students  Final Grade - to be reported as the average of the four quarterly ratings, expressed in terms of the level of proficiency  Honor Students – to be drawn among those who performed at the advance level
  99. 99. PROMOTION AND RETENTION • Promotion and Retention of students shall be by subject • Students whose proficiency level is Beginning (B) at the end of the quarter or grading period shall be required to undergo remediation after class hours so that they can immediately catch up as they move to the next grading period • If by the end of school year, the students are still at the Beginning level, then they shall be required to take summer classes
  100. 100. Feedback Results of the assessment across levels should be fed back immediately to the students, so that they know what to improve further, and then they can plan strategically how they can address any learning deficiency.
  101. 101. POINTS TO REMEMBER IN PLANNING ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES •Decide what you want to assess then choose a strategy that will demonstrate this best. •A range of different assessment strategies will provide more holistic information about the student . •Learners need to understand the purpose of the assessment task, how to complete it and the assessment criteria.
  102. 102. EXAMPLES OF ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES Three broad types: 1.Performance-based strategies/Authentic Strategies 2.Portfolios 3.Peer and self-assessment strategies
  103. 103. PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Real performances • Role play, dance, choral speaking, demonstration, a science experiment, etc. • Written tasks • Reports, essays, research projects, reflective journals, written speech, a class newsletter, etc. • Visual tasks • Drawings, diagrams, collages, models, dioramas, advertising poster, gallery walk, etc.
  104. 104. PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES •Graphic organizers are useful visual tools that can be used •Cause and effect chart, Venn diagram, concept map •Oral assessment strategies •Debates, retelling text heard or read, interviews, picture/product presentations
  105. 105. AUTHENTIC STRATEGIES/TASKS • Community action project/survey • displays/ fund raising for school community reactions to environmental issues (letters, posters, projects ...) or any real life task. Most of the authentic strategies/ tasks can also be categorized as performance-based strategies.
  106. 106. 115 Written tasks Visual tasks Graphic Organizers Authentic tasks Oral tasks
  107. 107. METACOGNITION Did I achieve all the assessment criteria? How could I improve my introduction paragraph? Did I understand the instructions for the conclusion?
  108. 108. METACOGNITION Metacognition is often defined as ‘thinking about your thinking’. It is a process that has been found to help students ‘learn how to learn’. It helps students to assess themselves and their learning progress.
  109. 109. A BALANCED PROGRAM Teachers are encouraged to provide: • a balanced learning program with more active student involvement, interaction and authentic learning experiences; •a balanced assessment program to provide accurate evidence of students’ progress and achievements.
  110. 110. 119
  111. 111. ASSESSMENT CAN BE a. Traditional assessments -are tests given to the students to measure how much the students have learned -contain different types of questions such as multiple-choice, true-false, fill- ins, essays, sentence completions, matching response, etc.
  112. 112. ASSESSMENT CAN BE b. Alternative assessments • require the students to create a sustained response to a task or question.  Observation  Student journals  Performance assessment  Project and investigation  Open-ended questions  Student portfolio  Interview  Role Play  Checklist
  113. 113. TYPES OF ASSESSMENT DEPENDING ON THE FUNCTION AND PURPOSE 1. Diagnostic assessment (at the beginning of a learning program) 2. Formative (for and as they are learning) 3. Summative (of learning at the end of a grading period or school year)
  114. 114. Diagnostic Assessment • Provide information that assist teacher planning and guide differentiated instruction Examples Pre test Survey Skills check K-W-L Film/video analysis Misconception check
  115. 115.   K      What do we know?   W      What do we want to find out?   H      How can we find out what we want to   L      What did we learn?   learn?                                                       Attributes or Characteristics we expect to use:
  116. 116. Song After listening to the song ‘’ Kapaligiran”, ask the students……… What are the Environmental Laws and   Policies that have been violated in the song?
  117. 117. Analogies and Metaphors Topic: Community Directions: • Show a drawing of a saltwater fish tank. • Ask learners how a community is like if they are in a fish tank.
  118. 118. Graphic Organizers Ask each student to work with a partner to   construct graphic organizer that shows   the sources of toxins in the environment.
  119. 119. Formative Assessment • Provide information to guide teaching and   learning for improving learning performance Examples: Quiz Questioning Observation Portfolio
  120. 120. 3-2-1 Chart 3  2  1 THINGS YOU FOUND OUT                 INTERESTING THINGS                 QUESTION YOU STILL HAVE
  121. 121. FOCUSED LISTING List 5-7 words or short phrases which describes or explain the major concepts of today’s class: 1 2   3   4   5   6   7
  122. 122. Summative Assessment • Determine the degree of mastery or proficiency according to identified achievement targets Examples: Test Performance task Culminating project or performance Work portfolio
  123. 123. How often do you/we ASSESS LEARNING?
  124. 124. Before instruction  To determine the level of student’s KSA prior to instruction;  To diagnose learning difficulties or advanced KSA; and  To plan for instruction
  125. 125. During instruction  To make necessary adjustments in the teaching strategies; and  To identify and correct misconception or learning gaps
  126. 126. After instruction  To assign marks;  To certify achievement of outcomes; and  To measure student’s attainment of standards
  127. 127. Using Assessment Information and Feedback
  128. 128. USING ASSESSMENT INFORMATION Assessment information can be used for: effective feedback to the learners as soon as possible, 2.making adjustments to the teaching- learning program to meet learners’ learning needs, 3.reporting to learners, parents, School head, DepEd.
  129. 129. IMPROVING PERFORMANCE LEVELS To improve their performance levels, learners need to: 1. know the objectives and assessment criteria (what is expected of them) 2. be given effective feedback (advice about their performance) 3. respond to the feedback and make adjustments to their work.
  130. 130. WHAT IS FEEDBACK? Feedback is specific advice for learners about what they can do and what they need to do in order to improve their performance. Teachers can provide feedback in a variety of ways: • Oral feedback – during and after teaching-learning • Written feedback – e.g. a grade only, a grade and a comment, a comment only, a rubric, a competency checklist or criteria sheet
  131. 131. WHAT IS EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK? Effective feedback has three parts and provides the learners with: 1. information about what happened or what was done (For example: ’I enjoyed reading your report about global warming’)
  132. 132. WHAT IS EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK? 2. an assessment comment about how well the action or task was performed (For example: ‘you wrote a good introduction and included a main idea for each of the 3 paragraphs but your conclusion could be improved’)
  133. 133. WHAT IS EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK? 3. guidance about how their performance can be improved. (For example: ‘Please re-read your conclusion and add a solution that relates to each of your 3 paragraphs’)
  134. 134. WHEN TO GIVE FEEDBACK? Feedback can be given both during and after a learning or assessment activity/task. •During an assessment task can be a learning opportunity for some learners having difficulties •After the assessment task to encourage learners to reflect on their learning and improve their work. •learners are encouraged to compete against themselves NOT each other.
  135. 135. Addressing Learning Gaps and Remediation
  136. 136. GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN ADDRESSING LEARNING GAPS  • Every student should have a learning profile -maintained and updated at least on a quarterly basis by the class adviser in collaboration with other subject area teachers. The profile should be passed on to the next class adviser as the student moves up the grade level.
  137. 137. GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN ADDRESSING LEARNING GAPS    MY  PORTFOLIO  • subject area teacher should    require individual students    to maintain a portfolio  • the teacher should    continuously assess for    learning in order to ensure    that students are making    progress in relation to the    standards  • interventions that may have    to be provided should be    tailored to individual    learning needs 
  138. 138. Advanced, A (90% and Above)  Proficient, P (85% ‐ 89%)  Approaching Proficiency, AP (80% ‐ 84%)  20 – 30 mins of in‐school remediation every other day  30 – 45 mins of in‐school remediation daily  Developing, D (75% ‐ 79%)  1 hr of in‐school remediation daily + extra time for off‐school practice  Beginning, B (74% and Below)  Guide to a Tiered Model of Bridging Gaps  Tiered Response to Learning Gaps by Level of Performance 
  139. 139. The interventions may come in various forms,  such as the following:  – Cross‐age tutorials (i.e., students in the higher grades  coaching those in the lower grades)  – Teacher modeling followed by guided practice and  independent practice  – Summer class/summer camp  – Use of Strategic Intervention Materials (SIMs), which are  worksheets prepared by teachers targeting the least  mastered competencies 
  140. 140. • A one‐time remediation is often not enough to  bridge gaps in learning.  • Trained professionals may have to be engaged to  provide a scientific and systematic approach to  intervention.  • For students with huge learning gaps, the school  head should adopt a more directive approach by  mandating the placement of such students in  appropriate intervention programs. 
  141. 141. If students are to learn the beauty and value of education, they must experience it in instruction and demonstrate it in the course of assessment.