The Teacher as Instructional
Designer: Mastering the Art of
Instructional Planning
Presented by John Medina
Why are we here?
Preparation and initial
experience for your:
Professional
Education
Courses
Practice
Teaching
Day to day
...
Feedback Inputs
Why is it that the evaluation is
NOT CONGRUENT to your
instructional objectives?
Why is it that students’ ...
Let’s take a look at
your undergraduate
journey in becoming a
future professional
teacher!
Professional Education Courses in
the Teacher Education Curriculum
Professional
Education
Course
Child and
Adolescent
Deve...
cont.
Professional
Education
Course
Principles of
Teaching 1
Principles of
Teaching 2
Field Study
Course
F.S. 2
Experienci...
cont.
Professional
Education
Course
Educational
Technology
1
Educational
Technology
2
Field Study
Course
F.S. 3
Technology...
cont.
Professional
Education
Course
Curriculum
Development
Field Study
Course
F.S. 4
Exploring the
Curriculum
Key
Knowledg...
cont.
Professional
Education
Course
Assessment of
Student Learning 1
Assessment of
Student Learning 2
Field Study
Course
F...
cont.
Professional
Education
Course
Teaching
Profession
Field Study
Course
F.S. 6 On
Becoming a
Teacher
Key
Knowledge
and ...
FOCUS of
our topic is
on Lesson
Planning!
Unlocking of Difficulties
The Teacher as Instructional
Designer: Mastering the Art of
Instructional Planning
Refers to
YOU...
instruction
v. direct or command; to give
information; or to teach
suffix ion denotes
a process
“Instruction” = “teaching”...
To attain the goal of optimum learning,
teachers manage instruction. The first step
in managing instruction is to design i...
Instructional Planning
is the ability of the teacher to
visualize and forecast into the
future of the what, why, and how
o...
Instructional Planning
It involves creating, arranging,
organizing, synthesizing and
designing learning experiences in
the...
Instructional Planning
as Decision Making
Objectives
• “why” of
teaching
Subject
Matter
• “what” of
teaching
Procedure
and...
Different Types of Plans
Course Plan
this type of plan
gives a general
overview of the
goals to be
achieved and
the learni...
Levels of
Instructional
Plans
Yearly
Plan
Term Plan
Unit Plan
Daily
Lesson
Plan
This will
be our
FOCUS!
What is a lesson plan?
What is a lesson plan?
A lesson plan is a framework
for a lesson. If you imagine a
lesson is like a journey, then
the less...
The Teacher’s Lesson Plan
Itinerary Blueprint Guide
Written
outline
Indispensable
tool
A written guide used to aid teachers in their lessons.
What is a lesson plan?
Importance and Purpose
“No instructional plan is a magical elixir
that will guarantee one hundred percent
learning. Howeve...
Lesson Plan Formats and Types
Detailed Lesson
Plan
• For pre-service
teachers
• All activities:
teacher questions,
student...
Wisdom in Writing
Detailed Lesson Plans
Mastery of
Lesson
Discussion
Foresee
children's
reaction/answers
Forewarns about
p...
Prerequisites to
Lesson Planning
Adequate knowledge of
the subject matter.
Knowing the nature of the
learners.
Familiarity...
Headings
I. Lesson Objectives
At the end of the 60-minute lesson, 85% of the ___ students are expected to do the
following...
Components of the Lesson Plan
I. Lesson
Objectives
II. Subject
Matter
III. ProcedureIV. Evaluation
V. Assignment
I. BASIC CONCEPTS
ABOUT LESSON
OBJECTIVES
To fully understand the
nature and role of objectives,
we need to take a look at the
real essence of learning!
What is learning?
The process by which behavior is
either modified or changed through
experience or training (Smith, 1982)...
What is learning?
Teaching
• Stimulus
Learning
• Response
Change
• Effect
A change in
behavior or the
capacity to
change one’s
behavior in the
future;
A process from
which can be
inferred
changes ...
Involves acquisition of new elements of
knowledge, skills, beliefs, feelings,
and behaviors as well as change in
existing ...
Domains of Learning
Domain - area,
field, realm
Categories of
Learning
Outcomes
K-S-A Outcomes
C-A-P
Domains
What are now objectives?
Objectives are statements of what
will be achieved as a result of the
instruction the teacher is ...
Learning or Instructional Objectives
describe what students should know or be
able to do at the end of the course that the...
Learning Objectives
Write the Objective
Teach Based on the Objective
Test Over the Objective
Elements in Writing
Instructional Objectives
Performer
Behavior or
Performance
Product
Outcome or
Output
Condition/s
Crite...
Elements in Writing
Instructional Objectives
Consider the following example:
At the end of 60-minute period (CONDITION)
st...
2 Essential Parts of an Objective
Discuss the common forms of
discrimination in our society.
Behavior = Verb
content
Domains of Learning Objectives
• Cognitive objectives
– Describe the knowledge that
learners are to acquire
• Affective ob...
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
• Benjamin Bloom
• Lorin Anderson
Cognitive
Domain
• David Krathwohl
Affective
Domain
•...
Hierarchy of Cognitive Domain
Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Application
Comprehension
Knowledge
Hierarchy of Affective Domain
Characterization
Organization
Valuing
Responding
Receiving
Hierarchy of Psychomotor Domain
Organization
Adaptation
Complex Overt Responses
Mechanism
Guided Response
Set
Perception
I. Lesson Objectives
Essential Guidelines
Must be SMART
(Specific, Measurable,
Attainable, Result-
Oriented, Time-bound)
M...
I. Lesson Objectives
Essential Guidelines
Must be SMART
(Specific, Measurable,
Attainable, Result-
Oriented, Time-bound)
M...
SMART and
Behavioral
Illustrate the positive
points of the story by
means of a sketch.
Explain and differentiate
the diffe...
Correct the following
vague objectives:
1. Understand the process of digestion.
2. Empathize with the story’s characters.
...
Must contain the 3
Learning Domains
(Cognitive,
Affective,
Psychomotor)
I. Lesson Objectives
Essential Guidelines
RATIONALE
Tapping the 3
Learning
Domains by our
objectives =
Holistic Education
Integration of
Knowledge, Skills
and Value...
Important Notes:
Every subject matter
has always a cognitive
dimension hence a
cognitive objective.
Never forget to add an...
2 Domains in 1 Objective
• Differentiate the traits of the main
characters by means of illustrations
and graphic organizer...
Must develop
HOTS (higher-
order thinking
skills)
I. Lesson Objectives
Essential Guidelines
• Avoid low level skill objectives
• Low-level Skills – lowest form of
learning. Not challenging.
• Objective Verbs must t...
61
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
Creating
Bloom’sTaxonomyof Learning
(New Version)
Increasingdif...
LOTS
Identify the parts of a
microscope.
Define literature.
State the laws of
thermodynamics.
HOTS
Design a flow chart tha...
Congruent with
Learning
Competencies in
the curriculum.
I. Lesson Objectives
Essential Guidelines
Are defined as groups or
clusters of skills and abilities
needed for a particular task.
The objectives generally
focuses...
Learning
Competency
EN8LT-IIIf-2.2: Explain
how the elements
specific to a genre
contribute to the
theme of a particular
l...
Learning
Competency
S7MT-Ii-6: investigate
properties of acidic and
basic mixtures using
natural indicators (K to 12
Curri...
Let’s have an example…
At the end of the 60-minute lesson, 85% fourth year
students are expected to do the following with ...
Let’s analyze! Are the objectives:
• Are the verbs observable: apply,
show, write?
Specific,
Measurable, and
Behavioral
• ...
Learning
Competency
EN8SS-IIIe-1.6: Show
respect for intellectual
property rights by
acknowledging
citations made in an
in...
I. Lesson Objectives
Essential Guidelines
Must be SMART
(Specific, Measurable,
Attainable, Result-
Oriented, Time-bound)
M...
II. BASIC CONCEPTS
ABOUT SUBJECT
MATTER
What is subject matter?
• It includes the specific lesson to be taken
and its source - textbooks, references,
internet sou...
II. Subject Matter
Essential Guidelines
A. Topic and/or Skill:
B. Selection/Literary Text:
C. References:
D. Integrated Va...
Example in English:
A. Reading Skill: Scanning and Skimming
B. Selection: Struggles with English by Salom Rizk
C. Referenc...
Example in Science:
A. Topic: Digestive System
B. References: Biology II by Campbell (pp. 55-63)
C. Integrated Value: Good...
III. BASIC CONCEPTS
ABOUT PROCEDURE
To fully understand what and
how the procedure should
be, let’s discuss some
principles of teaching and
learning!
Principl...
Some principles of
teaching and learning…
Principles of Good Teaching (Aquino, 2008)
Active
Learning
Apply Learning by
Doi...
Some principles of
teaching and learning…
Principles of Learning (Corpuz &
Salandanan, 2007)
Learning is an
experience
whi...
The Teacher as a
Facilitator of Learning
What is a “facilitator”?
one that helps a group to
bring about an outcome
(as learning,
productivity, or
communication) by...
‘guides on the side’
we engage, lead, inspire, and
encourage the students in our
classrooms to take ownership in
their own...
‘guides on the side’
we provide opportunities for
students to learn key concepts and
discover the tools that they need
for...
Why do we need to
learn first these basic
principles of teaching
and learning?
Common Pitfalls
in the Procedure
Students’ Passivity, No Interactivity, No Application and
Transfer of Learning
Teacher-ce...
Common Pitfalls
in the Procedure
Teacher
monopolizes the
discussion
Students’ Activities
are only “Yes
Ma’am” or “No
Ma’am...
The Teacher as a Facilitator of Learning
How do we achieved this through the
procedure of our lesson plan?
PRIOR NOTES:
NO globally, nationally,
locally, prescribed lesson
plan format for procedure.
In reality, procedure
format v...
Headings
I. Lesson Objectives
At the end of the 60-minute lesson, 85% of the ___ students are expected to do the
following...
Procedure: Preparatory Activity
• Review of the Past Lesson (Drill)
• Unlocking of Difficulties
• Assessment of Prior Know...
Preparatory Activity: Motivation
• Preparatory Stage for Discussion
• Introduction to the Lesson
• Should be engaging; get...
Examples of Motivation
• Picture Analysis
• Listening to a Song
• Quotable Quotes
• Using Simple Poems or Anecdotes
• View...
Discussion or
Processing of
Motivation
Relating / Linking
Motivation to the
Lesson
Accomplished by
good, thought-
provokin...
Sharing our Objectives
“Students learn most efficiently when they
know the goals of a specific lesson or
learning activity...
Some strategies in
sharing our objectives
Focus Questions or
Essential Questions
Mysterious
Scenario or
Situations
Posing ...
Advance Organizer
Advance Organizer – initial statements, activities,
and techniques that provide a structure for the new
...
Advance Organizer
Ausubel’s “Top-down” approach –
teachers provide advance organizer
or overviews of the way information
w...
Advance Organizer
Procedure: Developmental Activity
Developmental
Activity
Discussion
Independent
and/or Guided
Practice
Should be student-centred in
nature. (70% students’
activities; 30% students’
activities)
It should be an interactive
disc...
Independent and/or Guided Practice
Formative Check
NOT GRADED!
Application of
Lesson Skills
Examples: Drills,
Exercises, P...
Procedure: Concluding Activity
Generalization or Synthesis
• summing up the whole lesson;
• facilitated through question/s...
Procedure: Concluding Activity
Recap and Summarize the Main Points. It must
touch lesson’s essential understandings.
Provi...
Congruency of Affective
Objective and Valuing
Affective
Objective
Show appreciation
for the resiliency of
the human spirit...
Congruency of Affective
Objective and Valuing
Affective Objective
Recognizes the
need for balance
between freedom
and resp...
IV. BASIC
CONCEPTS
ABOUT
EVALUATION
Advance Organizer
Basic
Concepts
about
Assessment
Variety of
Assessment
Tools
Principles of
Assessment
Congruency
and
Para...
To fully understand what is
evaluation, let us take a look
at closely the teaching-
learning process and some
basic concep...
Assessing
Learning
Delivering
Instruction
Planning Instruction
Diagnostic assessments
Readiness/placement Test
Unit/lesson...
Basic Concepts about
Lesson
Planning Planning Instruction
Actual
Teaching Delivering Instruction
Question: Did
my students...
Basic Concepts about
Assessment of Student Learning
Assessment – it is the process of
determining the changes in the
child...
How do we assess learning?
To understand the process
of assessment, we need to
understand the concepts of
measurement and ...
Basic Concepts about
Assessment of Student Learning
Assessment
• a process of
gathering and
organizing
quantitative and
qu...
ASSESSMENT: To assess
student learning we need to do
some
MEASUREMENT to determine
how much (quantity) learning has
occurr...
Assessment and
Measurement
An ongoing process
which involves a
series of steps
namely: gathering,
analyzing, and
interpret...
Assessment and
Measurement
What test or task will I
give to my students for
me to determine the
extent of their learning?
...
Assessment and
Measurement
Will I give an essay,
identification, multiple choice
type or test or will I let them
do a role...
Difference between
Assessment and Evaluation
Assessment is more
broader.
Assessment
completes the cycle
of the teaching-
l...
Variety of Assessment Tools
• Identification
• Multiple Choice
• True or False
• Essay
Paper and
Pencil
Strategy
• Role-Pl...
• Oral Defense Exams
• Reporting
• Presentations
Oral
Strategy
• Posters, Collage,
Scrapbook etc.
Product-
Based
Variety o...
• Observations
• Conferences
• Writing Journals
• Anecdotal
Records
• Checklist
• Rating Scales
• Rubrics
• Learning Logs
...
Some Principles
of Assessment
The use of traditional paper
and pencil test is not
adequate to measure the
many types of le...
What is feedback in teaching?
Feedback is information given to the
learner and/or the teacher about the
learner’s performa...
Why feedback is important?
Feedback is an essential part of effective
learning. It helps students understand the
subject b...
How do we give feedback?
Prepare or Construct the
Test
Administer the test after
you taught
If you trust students, let
the...
Guidelines in giving feedback
(Marzano, Pickering & Pollock, 2001)
Feedback should be
corrective in nature
Timeliness of
f...
MAIN ISSUE AND
COMMON PITFALL
Congruency
of:
Instructional
Objectives
Evaluation
What do we mean
by congruency?
• Congruent - agreeing; accordant with.
• Congruency of Objectives and
Evaluation means tha...
EXAMPLES OF
CONGRUENCY
Example of Congruency in English
Lesson
Objective
Identify the topic
sentence of a
paragraph
Evaluation
Read the
paragraph...
Example of Congruency in Social Studies
Lesson
Objective
Name the capital
of a given country
without looking at
a world ma...
Example of Congruency in Science
Lesson
Objective
Differentiate the
phases of matter
(solid, liquid, gas)
in terms of thei...
Example of Congruency in Science
Lesson Objective: Differentiate the phases of
matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of the...
EXAMPLES OF NON
CONGRUENCY
Example of NON Congruency in English
Lesson
Objective
Point out and
explain the
significance and
effect of the
author’s us...
Example of NON Congruency in Science
Lesson
Objective
Differentiate the
phases of matter
(solid, liquid,
gas) in terms of
...
RELATIONSHIP OF
OBJECTIVES,
PROCEDURE AND
EVALUATION
Objectives
• “ends of teaching”
• Embodies learning standards
Procedure
• “means to ends”
• Lead to the attainment of less...
Objectives, Procedure
and Evaluation must be
Parallel with one another.
Objectives Procedure Evaluation
Parallelism of Objectives, Procedure and Evaluation
Lesson
Objectives
Write and deliver a
speech following and
applying th...
Why do we call the
fourth part of the
lesson plan
“evaluation” and not
assessment,
measurement or test?
What does this imp...
“Evaluation” as Lesson
Plan’s Heading
A teacher must already be able to evaluate at the end
of the lesson before s/he say ...
“Evaluation” as Lesson
Plan’s Heading
Hence, a teacher who:
gave a quiz or an activity but
did not check and explain
the c...
How do we evaluate?
Collect and arrange students’
work according to score in a
descending order from
highest to lowest.
Se...
How do we evaluate?
Situation: 50
fourth year
students took a
10-item quiz
85% of 50 fourth
year students
=43 students
90%...
How do we evaluate?
At the end of the 60-minute lesson, 85% fourth year
students are expected to do the following with at ...
V. BASIC
CONCEPTS
ABOUT
HOMEWORK
Clarification of Terms
Homework
Assignment
Agreement
Homework
It is a task that a
learner can do at
home and it
should be done at
home.
E.g. “In your notebook,
answer the foll...
In essence Homework is a:
Reinforcement
Activity of the
lesson for
Struggling Learners
Enrichment Activity
of the lesson f...
Homework: Guidelines
and Proper Structuring
Match the amount and difficulty of the homework
to your students’ level.
Desig...
Homework: Guidelines
and Proper Structuring
Homework should require and reinforce
study skills and research skills.
Commun...
Homework: Guidelines
and Proper Structuring
Make clear all the questions, procedures and
instructions of the homework. If ...
Homework: Guidelines
and Proper Structuring
Do a formative check if your students really
understand the meaning of the hom...
Homework: Guidelines
and Proper Structuring
Assignments should never be given as
punishments.
Provisions for enough time t...
Bibliography:
• Acero, V. O., Javier , E. S., & Castro , H. O. (2007). Chapter
1: Understanding Teaching. In Principles of...
“In reality, hindi lahat ng naaral sa College of
Education ay mai-aaply sa sistema ng ating
education. Yet, to our best we...
Mc seminar instructional planning
Mc seminar instructional planning
Mc seminar instructional planning
Mc seminar instructional planning
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Mc seminar instructional planning

256 views

Published on

Published in: Career, Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Mc seminar instructional planning

  1. 1. The Teacher as Instructional Designer: Mastering the Art of Instructional Planning Presented by John Medina
  2. 2. Why are we here? Preparation and initial experience for your: Professional Education Courses Practice Teaching Day to day activity as a future teacher
  3. 3. Feedback Inputs Why is it that the evaluation is NOT CONGRUENT to your instructional objectives? Why is it that students’ activities in your procedure is only “Yes Ma’am and No Ma’am” Concern in some professional education courses! Concern in Practice Teaching!
  4. 4. Let’s take a look at your undergraduate journey in becoming a future professional teacher!
  5. 5. Professional Education Courses in the Teacher Education Curriculum Professional Education Course Child and Adolescent Development Facilitating Learning Social Dimensions of Education Field Study Course F.S. 1 The Learner’s Development and Environment Key Knowledge and Skills Theories and Concepts of Development Stages of Human Development Theories and Concept of Learning
  6. 6. cont. Professional Education Course Principles of Teaching 1 Principles of Teaching 2 Field Study Course F.S. 2 Experiencing the Teaching- learning Process Key Knowledge and Skills Core Skill: Management of Instruction • Lesson Planning • Teaching Methods and Strategies • Nature of Teaching each Learning Area
  7. 7. cont. Professional Education Course Educational Technology 1 Educational Technology 2 Field Study Course F.S. 3 Technology in the Learning Environment Key Knowledge and Skills Theories and Skills in the Preparation, Utilization, and Evaluation of Instructional Materials
  8. 8. cont. Professional Education Course Curriculum Development Field Study Course F.S. 4 Exploring the Curriculum Key Knowledge and Skills Systematic planning, implementation and evaluation of the learning outcomes in a subject, course, or program in a long period of time.
  9. 9. cont. Professional Education Course Assessment of Student Learning 1 Assessment of Student Learning 2 Field Study Course F.S. 5 Learning Assessment Strategies Key Knowledge and Skills Educational Measurement and Evaluation Test and Rubric Construction Other Assessment Tools and Strategies Scoring and Grading Systems
  10. 10. cont. Professional Education Course Teaching Profession Field Study Course F.S. 6 On Becoming a Teacher Key Knowledge and Skills Education as a System Roles as a Professional Teacher Some Trends and Changes in the Teaching Profession
  11. 11. FOCUS of our topic is on Lesson Planning!
  12. 12. Unlocking of Difficulties The Teacher as Instructional Designer: Mastering the Art of Instructional Planning Refers to YOU! What is instruction and what do we mean to design instruction? What is planning? How do we do it?
  13. 13. instruction v. direct or command; to give information; or to teach suffix ion denotes a process “Instruction” = “teaching” or “Process of Teaching” In our case as teachers, our main goal is optimum and holistic learning. Done by the teacher through his/her skillful management! Management may simply mean controlling, supervising, leading, handling, directing, executing something or some people in order to attain certain goals.
  14. 14. To attain the goal of optimum learning, teachers manage instruction. The first step in managing instruction is to design it! v. to plan and make (something) for a specific use or purpose usually in a creative manner A teacher therefore is an INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNER! As a teacher, what do you plan? pedagogy (art and science of teaching) i.e. what and how you will teach! INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING
  15. 15. Instructional Planning is the ability of the teacher to visualize and forecast into the future of the what, why, and how of the teaching-learning process.
  16. 16. Instructional Planning It involves creating, arranging, organizing, synthesizing and designing learning experiences in the mind of learners that may occur in the classroom. Teacher planning is a form of decision-making.
  17. 17. Instructional Planning as Decision Making Objectives • “why” of teaching Subject Matter • “what” of teaching Procedure and Evaluation • “how” of teaching As a teacher, every time you plan, you decide on the following:
  18. 18. Different Types of Plans Course Plan this type of plan gives a general overview of the goals to be achieved and the learning experiences to be provided for the quarter semester or year. Unit Plan this plan covers a unit of course for teaching. A unit may be composed of chapters which represent wholeness or generalization. A logical division of a subject- matter is recognized as a teaching unit. Daily Lesson Plan this type of plan refers to each day plan which has to do with a specific part of the unit to be dealt with during the given class period.
  19. 19. Levels of Instructional Plans Yearly Plan Term Plan Unit Plan Daily Lesson Plan This will be our FOCUS!
  20. 20. What is a lesson plan?
  21. 21. What is a lesson plan? A lesson plan is a framework for a lesson. If you imagine a lesson is like a journey, then the lesson plan is the map. It shows you where you start, where you finish and the route to take to get there
  22. 22. The Teacher’s Lesson Plan Itinerary Blueprint Guide Written outline Indispensable tool
  23. 23. A written guide used to aid teachers in their lessons. What is a lesson plan?
  24. 24. Importance and Purpose “No instructional plan is a magical elixir that will guarantee one hundred percent learning. However, a written instructional plan is an antidote to aimlessness. It prevents us from becoming like a classroom driftwood that is merely tossed by the winds and the waves of our whims and caprices.” (Corpuz & Salandanan, 2003)
  25. 25. Lesson Plan Formats and Types Detailed Lesson Plan • For pre-service teachers • All activities: teacher questions, student answers and activities Semi-Detailed Lesson Plan • For new in-service teachers or advance practice teachers • Omit student responses; contain procedure/steps and questions, no more long explanations. Brief Lesson Plan/Outline • For Seasoned Teachers • Contain simple and short notes; often times title of tasks or student activities or key words for questions.
  26. 26. Wisdom in Writing Detailed Lesson Plans Mastery of Lesson Discussion Foresee children's reaction/answers Forewarns about problems that may arise Chances for corrections and suggestions from critic teachers
  27. 27. Prerequisites to Lesson Planning Adequate knowledge of the subject matter. Knowing the nature of the learners. Familiarity with a variety of teaching strategies and different methods. Materials and teaching aids and devices that will facilitate the teaching- learning process Thorough understanding of the minimum learning competencies in the curriculum.
  28. 28. Headings I. Lesson Objectives At the end of the 60-minute lesson, 85% of the ___ students are expected to do the following with at least 90% degree of proficiency:  Cognitive Objective  Affective Objective  Psychomotor Objective II. Subject Matter A. Topic B. Selection C. References D. Integrated Values E. Materials III. Procedure Preparatory Activity Developmental Activity Concluding Activity IV. Evaluation V. Assignment
  29. 29. Components of the Lesson Plan I. Lesson Objectives II. Subject Matter III. ProcedureIV. Evaluation V. Assignment
  30. 30. I. BASIC CONCEPTS ABOUT LESSON OBJECTIVES
  31. 31. To fully understand the nature and role of objectives, we need to take a look at the real essence of learning!
  32. 32. What is learning? The process by which behavior is either modified or changed through experience or training (Smith, 1982). observable actions or reactions of a person or animal in response to a stimuli. This is the stimuli; from the act or experience of teaching CHANGE is effect and essence of learning!
  33. 33. What is learning? Teaching • Stimulus Learning • Response Change • Effect
  34. 34. A change in behavior or the capacity to change one’s behavior in the future; A process from which can be inferred changes in performance Its being not the same as thinking since its focus is on manifest behavior rather than simply on thoughts. Learning is characterized by: Implication: Our students learned after we have taught if there is an observable change in their behavior, i.e. they can do something that they can’t do before we have taught! This change is manifested in their performance, thus, to determine if they have learned we must clearly see what they can do after we have taught! Learning must be manifested!
  35. 35. Involves acquisition of new elements of knowledge, skills, beliefs, feelings, and behaviors as well as change in existing elements depending on some type of external stimuli or experience. What is learning?
  36. 36. Domains of Learning Domain - area, field, realm Categories of Learning Outcomes K-S-A Outcomes C-A-P Domains
  37. 37. What are now objectives? Objectives are statements of what will be achieved as a result of the instruction the teacher is designing. It embodies the PURPOSE and the GOAL of the instruction.
  38. 38. Learning or Instructional Objectives describe what students should know or be able to do at the end of the course that they could not do before. What are now objectives? From the definition given above, it demands change on the part of the learner. There should be something new that they can do, so that you the teacher can truly say that they have learned. In other words, our students have learned after you have taught once they were able to do the objectives for the lesson.
  39. 39. Learning Objectives Write the Objective Teach Based on the Objective Test Over the Objective
  40. 40. Elements in Writing Instructional Objectives Performer Behavior or Performance Product Outcome or Output Condition/s Criterion of Success
  41. 41. Elements in Writing Instructional Objectives Consider the following example: At the end of 60-minute period (CONDITION) students (PERFORMER) are expected to write (BEHAVIOR OR PERFORMANCE) a poem (PRODUCT) with at least 90% degree of proficiency (CRITERIA OF SUCCESS)
  42. 42. 2 Essential Parts of an Objective Discuss the common forms of discrimination in our society. Behavior = Verb content
  43. 43. Domains of Learning Objectives • Cognitive objectives – Describe the knowledge that learners are to acquire • Affective objectives – Describe the attitudes, feelings, and dispositions that learners are expected to develop • Psychomotor objectives – Relate to the manipulative and motor skills that learners are to master
  44. 44. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives • Benjamin Bloom • Lorin Anderson Cognitive Domain • David Krathwohl Affective Domain • Anita Harrow • Elizabeth Simpsons • R.H. Dave Psychomotor Domain
  45. 45. Hierarchy of Cognitive Domain Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge
  46. 46. Hierarchy of Affective Domain Characterization Organization Valuing Responding Receiving
  47. 47. Hierarchy of Psychomotor Domain Organization Adaptation Complex Overt Responses Mechanism Guided Response Set Perception
  48. 48. I. Lesson Objectives Essential Guidelines Must be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Result- Oriented, Time-bound) Must be stated in behavioral terms. Objectives must be observable. Must contain the 3 Learning Domains (Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor) Congruent with Learning Competencies in the curriculum. Must develop HOTS (higher-order thinking skills)
  49. 49. I. Lesson Objectives Essential Guidelines Must be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Result- Oriented, Time-bound) Must be stated in behavioral terms. Objectives must be observable.
  50. 50. SMART and Behavioral Illustrate the positive points of the story by means of a sketch. Explain and differentiate the different types of chemical bonding. Write a unified and coherent paragraph. Vague Objectives Appreciate the short story. Understand chemical bonding. Know the principles of good writing.
  51. 51. Correct the following vague objectives: 1. Understand the process of digestion. 2. Empathize with the story’s characters. 3. Realize the role of the different body organs. 4. Master the rules of subject-verb agreement. 5. Appreciate the style of the author. 6. Be aware of the rules of grammar.
  52. 52. Must contain the 3 Learning Domains (Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor) I. Lesson Objectives Essential Guidelines
  53. 53. RATIONALE Tapping the 3 Learning Domains by our objectives = Holistic Education Integration of Knowledge, Skills and Values Balanced Approach: Total Learner Development
  54. 54. Important Notes: Every subject matter has always a cognitive dimension hence a cognitive objective. Never forget to add an affective objective. A single objective can already be both cognitive-affective, cognitive-psychomotor, psychomotor-affective.
  55. 55. 2 Domains in 1 Objective • Differentiate the traits of the main characters by means of illustrations and graphic organizers. Cognitive- Psychomotor • Write and deliver a eulogy showing your admiration for the contributions of Rizal. Psychomotor- Affective • Explain the significance of the organisms’ role in maintaining the balance in an ecosystem. Cognitive- Affective
  56. 56. Must develop HOTS (higher- order thinking skills) I. Lesson Objectives Essential Guidelines
  57. 57. • Avoid low level skill objectives • Low-level Skills – lowest form of learning. Not challenging. • Objective Verbs must tapped the HOTS (Analysis, Synthesis and Evaluation.) • Objectives must be at the Comprehension Level and Up. HOTS Objectives
  58. 58. 61 Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating Bloom’sTaxonomyof Learning (New Version) Increasingdifficulty
  59. 59. LOTS Identify the parts of a microscope. Define literature. State the laws of thermodynamics. HOTS Design a flow chart that can be used in studying the parts and use of a microscope. Discuss the nature and role of literature in relation to history, culture and human experience. Formulate at least 10 tips and sample situations on how to conserve energy applying the laws of thermodynamics.
  60. 60. Congruent with Learning Competencies in the curriculum. I. Lesson Objectives Essential Guidelines
  61. 61. Are defined as groups or clusters of skills and abilities needed for a particular task. The objectives generally focuses on those behaviors which exemplify a “best practice” for the particular task.
  62. 62. Learning Competency EN8LT-IIIf-2.2: Explain how the elements specific to a genre contribute to the theme of a particular literary selection (K to 12 Curriculum Guide for English) Learning Objective Plot out the elements of the short story in a graphic organizer Deduce the theme of the given short story Explain the relationship of the story’s elements to the story’s theme.
  63. 63. Learning Competency S7MT-Ii-6: investigate properties of acidic and basic mixtures using natural indicators (K to 12 Curriculum Guide for Science) Learning Objective Describe characteristics that are associated with acids and bases. Identify the acidity or alkalinity of a given compound using the pH meter Explain how pH changes can occur during a chemical reaction.
  64. 64. Let’s have an example… At the end of the 60-minute lesson, 85% fourth year students are expected to do the following with at least 90% degree of proficiency: a. apply and observe the rules of APA Citation Style; b. show respect for intellectual property rights; and c. write a unified and coherent informative essay. Learning Competency: EN8SS-IIIe-1.6: Show respect for intellectual property rights by acknowledging citations made in an informative essay (K to 12 Curriculum Guide for English)
  65. 65. Let’s analyze! Are the objectives: • Are the verbs observable: apply, show, write? Specific, Measurable, and Behavioral • Can students finish it at the end of the 60-minute lesson? Realistic, Attainable, Time- bound • Did we tap the cognitive, affective, psychomotor domain? Contain the three learning domains • Are the verbs call for the application of HOTS: apply, show , write?Develop HOTS
  66. 66. Learning Competency EN8SS-IIIe-1.6: Show respect for intellectual property rights by acknowledging citations made in an informative essay (K to 12 Curriculum Guide for English) Learning Objective Apply and observe the rules of APA Citation Style Show respect for intellectual property rights Write an informative essay congruent with learning competencies in the curriculum? cont.
  67. 67. I. Lesson Objectives Essential Guidelines Must be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Result- Oriented, Time-bound) Must be stated in behavioral terms. Objectives must be observable. Must contain the 3 Learning Domains (Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor) Congruent with Learning Competencies in the curriculum. Must develop HOTS (higher-order thinking skills)
  68. 68. II. BASIC CONCEPTS ABOUT SUBJECT MATTER
  69. 69. What is subject matter? • It includes the specific lesson to be taken and its source - textbooks, references, internet sources etc. • The subject matter is the content and skill we wish to teach to our students. Concepts, skills, values comprise the subject matter.
  70. 70. II. Subject Matter Essential Guidelines A. Topic and/or Skill: B. Selection/Literary Text: C. References: D. Integrated Values: E. Materials:
  71. 71. Example in English: A. Reading Skill: Scanning and Skimming B. Selection: Struggles with English by Salom Rizk C. References: English IV by Gabriel (pp. 13-20) D. Integrated Values: Patience and Perseverance E. Materials: PowerPoint Presentation, Activity Sheets and Rubrics.
  72. 72. Example in Science: A. Topic: Digestive System B. References: Biology II by Campbell (pp. 55-63) C. Integrated Value: Good Healthy Lifestyle. D. Materials: Pocket Chart, Pictures and Mockups
  73. 73. III. BASIC CONCEPTS ABOUT PROCEDURE
  74. 74. To fully understand what and how the procedure should be, let’s discuss some principles of teaching and learning! Principles are guides to make teaching and learning effective, wholesome, and meaningful. They are the fundamental basis of conduct or operation from which one proceeds from one situation to another
  75. 75. Some principles of teaching and learning… Principles of Good Teaching (Aquino, 2008) Active Learning Apply Learning by Doing. Provide meaningful hands-on, minds-on and hearts- on activities Motivation Consider students’ needs and interests. Capture students’ attention to hook them on the lesson Life-like Situations Classroom discussions, examples and activities should be authentic. Democratic Environment Teacher-student and inter-student relationships should be cooperative. Use cooperative learning.
  76. 76. Some principles of teaching and learning… Principles of Learning (Corpuz & Salandanan, 2007) Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is activated by the learner. Learning is the discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of ideas. Learning (behavioral change) is a consequence of experience. Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process. One of the richest resources for learning is the learner himself/herself.
  77. 77. The Teacher as a Facilitator of Learning
  78. 78. What is a “facilitator”? one that helps a group to bring about an outcome (as learning, productivity, or communication) by providing indirect or unobtrusive assistance, guidance, or supervision Don’t forget your learning or instructional objectives! We are ‘guides on the side’
  79. 79. ‘guides on the side’ we engage, lead, inspire, and encourage the students in our classrooms to take ownership in their own learning
  80. 80. ‘guides on the side’ we provide opportunities for students to learn key concepts and discover the tools that they need for learning so that they can become life long learners.
  81. 81. Why do we need to learn first these basic principles of teaching and learning?
  82. 82. Common Pitfalls in the Procedure Students’ Passivity, No Interactivity, No Application and Transfer of Learning Teacher-centered lesson reflected in the procedure of the lesson plan Ignorance of the Principles of Teaching and Learning and our role as facilitator
  83. 83. Common Pitfalls in the Procedure Teacher monopolizes the discussion Students’ Activities are only “Yes Ma’am” or “No Ma’am” No application or practice of the lesson’s concepts and skills No activities and no questions that taps HOTS Nothing to facilitate at all because the teacher is the dispenser of knowledge.
  84. 84. The Teacher as a Facilitator of Learning How do we achieved this through the procedure of our lesson plan?
  85. 85. PRIOR NOTES: NO globally, nationally, locally, prescribed lesson plan format for procedure. In reality, procedure format varies from one school/ place/ teacher/ division or state.
  86. 86. Headings I. Lesson Objectives At the end of the 60-minute lesson, 85% of the ___ students are expected to do the following with at least 90% degree of proficiency:  Cognitive Objective  Affective Objective  Psychomotor Objective II. Subject Matter A. Topic B. Selection C. References D. Integrated Values E. Materials III. Procedure Preparatory Activity Developmental Activity Concluding Activity IV. Evaluation V. Assignment
  87. 87. Procedure: Preparatory Activity • Review of the Past Lesson (Drill) • Unlocking of Difficulties • Assessment of Prior Knowledge • Teaching Pre-requisite Skills • Classroom Routines • Checking of Homework • Motivation and Presentation
  88. 88. Preparatory Activity: Motivation • Preparatory Stage for Discussion • Introduction to the Lesson • Should be engaging; get students’ attention • Connect Prior Knowledge to New Lesson • Should be interesting; arouse curiosity • Often times last for 5 to 10 minutes • Should be RELATED to the lesson.
  89. 89. Examples of Motivation • Picture Analysis • Listening to a Song • Quotable Quotes • Using Simple Poems or Anecdotes • Viewing Short Video Clips • Comic Strips or Cartoons • Posing a Trivia, Scientific Problem • Using News or Commercials
  90. 90. Discussion or Processing of Motivation Relating / Linking Motivation to the Lesson Accomplished by good, thought- provoking questions and clear discussions. Formal Introduction to the New Lesson Followed by SHARING OF OBJECTIVES Aided by the use of ADVANCE ORGANIZER. Preparatory Activity: Presentation
  91. 91. Sharing our Objectives “Students learn most efficiently when they know the goals of a specific lesson or learning activity.” (From Robert Marzano's A Handbook for Instruction that Works) If students are aware of an intended outcome, they know what to focus and what to work on.
  92. 92. Some strategies in sharing our objectives Focus Questions or Essential Questions Mysterious Scenario or Situations Posing a Trivia, Scientific Problem Rating Scales or Checklists “I can” thinking stems or statements “SWBAT” (Students will be able to) + objectives in student friendly language Key Idea: Link it with your motivation!
  93. 93. Advance Organizer Advance Organizer – initial statements, activities, and techniques that provide a structure for the new information and related it to information that the student possess. David Ausubel’s Meaningful Learning Theory – an individual learns by relating newly acquired information to what s/he already knows (prior knowledge).
  94. 94. Advance Organizer Ausubel’s “Top-down” approach – teachers provide advance organizer or overviews of the way information will be presented to help students develop mental frameworks on which to “hang” new information. Common tools are graphic organizers and concept maps.
  95. 95. Advance Organizer
  96. 96. Procedure: Developmental Activity Developmental Activity Discussion Independent and/or Guided Practice
  97. 97. Should be student-centred in nature. (70% students’ activities; 30% students’ activities) It should be an interactive discussion. Teacher should not monopolize. More on student talk than teacher talk (not only “Yes Ma’am” or “No Ma’am” from students) Accomplished by ART OF QUESTIONING. (Do not lift the textbook text in the procedure!) Give hands-on, minds-on short activities DURING the discussion employing cooperative approaches. Minimize lectures, prioritize information processing through activities which promote student involvement. Developmental Activity: Discussion
  98. 98. Independent and/or Guided Practice Formative Check NOT GRADED! Application of Lesson Skills Examples: Drills, Exercises, Problem- Solving Activities, Situation Analysis etc. Immediate, timely, sensitive and constructive feedback is needed and a must. Purpose: PREPARATION and CONDITIONING for EVALUATION
  99. 99. Procedure: Concluding Activity Generalization or Synthesis • summing up the whole lesson; • facilitated through question/s or a short activity that will summarize the salient points of the lesson. Valuing • question/s or short activity that will bring out the lesson’s values; • must be congruent with your affective objective.
  100. 100. Procedure: Concluding Activity Recap and Summarize the Main Points. It must touch lesson’s essential understandings. Provide a Good Closure to the lesson. Students do the summarizing, synthesizing or generalizing and NOT you. You facilitate this through your art of questioning or through a closing activity. It is possible to give short, summarizing, closure or final or culminating activity. There must be an integration or infusion of values through your art of questioning.
  101. 101. Congruency of Affective Objective and Valuing Affective Objective Show appreciation for the resiliency of the human spirit. Valuing Question How do you manifest the values of perseverance, courage, resiliency and hope amidst the sufferings and tribulations of life?
  102. 102. Congruency of Affective Objective and Valuing Affective Objective Recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsibility in a democracy Valuing Concluding Activity Students will perform a role play which will illustrate the relationship and dynamics of freedom and responsibility.
  103. 103. IV. BASIC CONCEPTS ABOUT EVALUATION
  104. 104. Advance Organizer Basic Concepts about Assessment Variety of Assessment Tools Principles of Assessment Congruency and Parallelism
  105. 105. To fully understand what is evaluation, let us take a look at closely the teaching- learning process and some basic concepts about assessment!
  106. 106. Assessing Learning Delivering Instruction Planning Instruction Diagnostic assessments Readiness/placement Test Unit/lesson Objectives, Vocabulary Materials Needed Ideas for Lead in Activities Yearly Pacing Chart Preview Questioning Lesson Review Teaching Suggestions Teaching Questions Teaching Activities, Charts Posters, Games, Experiments A/V Materials Summary Review HW Assignments Workbook, Worksheets Extra Practice, Reteaching Enrichment Activities Duplicating Masters Review Masters Review Exercises, Questions Practice Assessment Unit, Section Assessment Quarterly Assessment End-of-book Assignment The cycle of the teaching- learning process What is this? What is assessment?
  107. 107. Basic Concepts about Lesson Planning Planning Instruction Actual Teaching Delivering Instruction Question: Did my students learn? To determine if they learned, we assess learning! Assessment of Student Learning
  108. 108. Basic Concepts about Assessment of Student Learning Assessment – it is the process of determining the changes in the child as a result of teaching. • Main Aim: To determine the extent of student learning and retention. • Main End: To improve the quality of instruction or teaching.
  109. 109. How do we assess learning? To understand the process of assessment, we need to understand the concepts of measurement and evaluation in relation to assessment!
  110. 110. Basic Concepts about Assessment of Student Learning Assessment • a process of gathering and organizing quantitative and qualitative data into an interpretable form to have a basis for judgment or decision-making. Measurement • a process of quantifying the degree to which someone or something possess a given trait using a tool or instrument. Test and Testing • Test is an instrument or tool designed to measure any characteristic, ability, or knowledge. • Testing is a method or procedure to measure the level of achievement and performance. Evaluation • A process of systematic collection and analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data to make some judgment or decision based on certain standards.
  111. 111. ASSESSMENT: To assess student learning we need to do some MEASUREMENT to determine how much (quantity) learning has occurred. To measure we construct TEST as an instrument or tool to convert the amount of learning to quantity as reflected by SCORES The scores now will be analyzed and the teacher will do an EVALUATION about the performance of his students in relation to the standards or lesson targets. The teacher will make judgment and will make decisions.
  112. 112. Assessment and Measurement An ongoing process which involves a series of steps namely: gathering, analyzing, and interpreting data. (Angelo, 1995) Evaluation The process of determining the quality of an attribute based on certain standards. (Calderon & Gonzales, 1993). It is the process used in making judgments or decisions.
  113. 113. Assessment and Measurement What test or task will I give to my students for me to determine the extent of their learning? How will I administer the test and gather these test or performance results? Evaluation What do these scores on their tasks or performance mean in relation to standards or criteria? Given this interpretation of test or performance scores, what will I do next, should I reteach or review?
  114. 114. Assessment and Measurement Will I give an essay, identification, multiple choice type or test or will I let them do a role-play or a project? If it’s a paper and pen test, what concepts will I test and include in the test? If it’s a performance, how will I grade this performance? What will be my criteria for judging? Evaluation I got the following scores on 50-item test: 32, 28, 24, 15, 10. What do these scores mean? Are my students proficient or need improvement? Considering the meaning of their scores, should I reteach the whole lesson, give a remedial, give an extra exercise or reinforcement activity?
  115. 115. Difference between Assessment and Evaluation Assessment is more broader. Assessment completes the cycle of the teaching- learning process. Evaluation is just a part, the last step in the process of assessment Evaluation completes the process of assessment.
  116. 116. Variety of Assessment Tools • Identification • Multiple Choice • True or False • Essay Paper and Pencil Strategy • Role-Plays, Simulations, Exhibits, Jingles, Raps, Drama, Speech Delivery etc. Performance- Based
  117. 117. • Oral Defense Exams • Reporting • Presentations Oral Strategy • Posters, Collage, Scrapbook etc. Product- Based Variety of Assessment Tools
  118. 118. • Observations • Conferences • Writing Journals • Anecdotal Records • Checklist • Rating Scales • Rubrics • Learning Logs • Portfolios Other Assessment Tools and Strategies Variety of Assessment Tools
  119. 119. Some Principles of Assessment The use of traditional paper and pencil test is not adequate to measure the many types of learning. Employ authentic assessment through performance-based and product-based task to cater student’s diversity and to promote and measure higher and multiple various skills Emphasize self-assessment to develop learners’ metacognition. Always give a timely, sensitive and constructive feedback.
  120. 120. What is feedback in teaching? Feedback is information given to the learner and/or the teacher about the learner’s performance relative to learning goals. It should aim to (and be capable of) producing improvement in students’ learning.
  121. 121. Why feedback is important? Feedback is an essential part of effective learning. It helps students understand the subject being studied and gives them clear guidance on how to improve their learning Effective feedback helps students to develop their understanding and improve their performance.
  122. 122. How do we give feedback? Prepare or Construct the Test Administer the test after you taught If you trust students, let them check their work. If you don’t trust them, or if it’s an activity they can’t check, let students pass their work. Discuss the correct answers to students. Welcome and address students’ questions and confusions. For Objective Test: Ask students how many got correctly each specific item. For Objective Test: If majority of the class did not get a specific item, explain the correct answer. If needed give further example. For Essay Test: Ask some students, to read and explain their work. Give your comment. Explain the possible answers. For Performance-based: Let students, perform, rate them using the rubric, give your comment or feedback based on the criteria on the rubric.
  123. 123. Guidelines in giving feedback (Marzano, Pickering & Pollock, 2001) Feedback should be corrective in nature Timeliness of feedback is essential to its effectiveness E.g. feedback is given after an exam Feedback should be specific to a criterion – it must be based on a valid criterion or standard. Students can effectively provide their own feedback through on-going self-evaluation.
  124. 124. MAIN ISSUE AND COMMON PITFALL Congruency of: Instructional Objectives Evaluation
  125. 125. What do we mean by congruency? • Congruent - agreeing; accordant with. • Congruency of Objectives and Evaluation means that your test or assessment tool is measuring the objective that you set at the beginning of instruction in order to determine if you attain your objectives.
  126. 126. EXAMPLES OF CONGRUENCY
  127. 127. Example of Congruency in English Lesson Objective Identify the topic sentence of a paragraph Evaluation Read the paragraphs below and identify their topic sentence. Write the complete topic sentence on the space below each paragraph.
  128. 128. Example of Congruency in Social Studies Lesson Objective Name the capital of a given country without looking at a world map or other reference material. Evaluation Seatwork: Identify the capital of the following countries. Write your answer on the blanks before each number. Ex. ___1. China
  129. 129. Example of Congruency in Science Lesson Objective Differentiate the phases of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of their molecular structure and chemical properties. Evaluation By means of a table or grid, compare solid, liquid gas in terms of their molecular structure and chemical properties.
  130. 130. Example of Congruency in Science Lesson Objective: Differentiate the phases of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of their molecular structure and chemical properties. Properties Solid Liquid Gas Arrangement of Molecules Chemical Properties
  131. 131. EXAMPLES OF NON CONGRUENCY
  132. 132. Example of NON Congruency in English Lesson Objective Point out and explain the significance and effect of the author’s use of local color and indirect speech. Evaluation Role play the climax scene of the story.
  133. 133. Example of NON Congruency in Science Lesson Objective Differentiate the phases of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of their molecular structure and chemical properties. Evaluation Draw and label the molecules of a solid, liquid gas.
  134. 134. RELATIONSHIP OF OBJECTIVES, PROCEDURE AND EVALUATION
  135. 135. Objectives • “ends of teaching” • Embodies learning standards Procedure • “means to ends” • Lead to the attainment of lesson objectives • Enable learner for evaluation Evaluation • Test the attainment of the ends • Guide and indicator to attain the desire ends • Proofs of learning.
  136. 136. Objectives, Procedure and Evaluation must be Parallel with one another. Objectives Procedure Evaluation
  137. 137. Parallelism of Objectives, Procedure and Evaluation Lesson Objectives Write and deliver a speech following and applying the different principles and guidelines of public speaking. Procedure: Lesson Discussion and Practice Discussion: Meaning, Types, Purpose of Speech, Do’s and Don’ts in Delivering a Speech, Techniques in Speech Writing Workshop and Practice: Public Speaking and Speech Writing Evaluation Performance-based Task: Speech Writing and Speech Delivery evaluated by means of a rubric where the necessary guidelines, criteria and indicators for a good speech are clearly defined and specified.
  138. 138. Why do we call the fourth part of the lesson plan “evaluation” and not assessment, measurement or test? What does this imply about the things that a teacher must do before s/he leaves the class?
  139. 139. “Evaluation” as Lesson Plan’s Heading A teacher must already be able to evaluate at the end of the lesson before s/he say his or her last words of “good day and thank you students” i.e. The teacher knows if s/he meets his/her target The teacher knows how many students have passed or failed The teacher has already made some judgment why students passed or failed The teacher has already given feedback to students. Students know they performance i.e. why they passed or failed. The teacher has already made some decisions (proceed to the next lesson or reteach?)
  140. 140. “Evaluation” as Lesson Plan’s Heading Hence, a teacher who: gave a quiz or an activity but did not check and explain the correct answers Did measure because s/he administered a test but s/he did NOT evaluate just talk and talk for the whole lesson and said “good day class” Did NOT measure and did NOT evaluate (NOTE: Even though the plan is a unit plan, you still need to do a formative check for the day!)
  141. 141. How do we evaluate? Collect and arrange students’ work according to score in a descending order from highest to lowest. See and determine how many passed and how many failed in relation to the lesson standards as stated in the preamble of the lesson plan.
  142. 142. How do we evaluate? Situation: 50 fourth year students took a 10-item quiz 85% of 50 fourth year students =43 students 90% degree of proficiency in a 10-item quiz = 9 Standard of Success: 43 students must score 9 or 10 in order to say that you have met your target and in order for you to move to the next lesson At the end of the 60-minute lesson, 85% fourth year students are expected to do the following with at least 90% degree of proficiency.
  143. 143. How do we evaluate? At the end of the 60-minute lesson, 85% fourth year students are expected to do the following with at least 90% degree of proficiency. What to do with the 15% or the 7 students who supposedly failed the quiz?What to do with the 15% or the 7 students who supposedly failed the quiz? Should the teacher give extra reinforcement activity, hold are remedial session? Principle: No Child Left Behind To meet the target, 43 students must score 9 or 10 yet:To meet the target, 43 students must score 9 or 10 yet: Part of Evaluation of the Teacher or the decision-making of the teacher is:
  144. 144. V. BASIC CONCEPTS ABOUT HOMEWORK
  145. 145. Clarification of Terms Homework Assignment Agreement
  146. 146. Homework It is a task that a learner can do at home and it should be done at home. E.g. “In your notebook, answer the following math problems on page 72 of your book.” Assignment It is a task that a learner can do anywhere as long as the learner can accomplished it before due date. E.g. “Look for an article in the net or in the library’s news clippings that is similar to the issue that we have discussed, paste it on a bond paper.” Agreement It is a consensus or a contract that students and teachers have mutually agreed upon. E.g. “Class, Let’s have an agreement! Please bring manila paper tomorrow for our activity. No manila paper means zero. Is our agreement clear?”
  147. 147. In essence Homework is a: Reinforcement Activity of the lesson for Struggling Learners Enrichment Activity of the lesson for Fast or Gifted Learners Preparatory Activity for the Next Lesson.
  148. 148. Homework: Guidelines and Proper Structuring Match the amount and difficulty of the homework to your students’ level. Design the homework in such a way that HOTS will be utilize. (E.g. Instead of Identification of basic terminologies, why not let students do concept mapping of the previous lesson’s concepts and the next lesson’s concepts.)
  149. 149. Homework: Guidelines and Proper Structuring Homework should require and reinforce study skills and research skills. Communicate and explain the purpose and outcome of the homework. Directs students’ attention to the important points in the assignment.
  150. 150. Homework: Guidelines and Proper Structuring Make clear all the questions, procedures and instructions of the homework. If necessary, provide examples or demonstrate how to answer a particular item. Give the criteria for evaluation or the rubric for the homework.
  151. 151. Homework: Guidelines and Proper Structuring Do a formative check if your students really understand the meaning of the homework. Ask for questions and clarifications. Suggests ways to successfully accomplish the assignment. This is part of your instructions.
  152. 152. Homework: Guidelines and Proper Structuring Assignments should never be given as punishments. Provisions for enough time to complete the homework must be considered. Assignments must be check and must always be related to previous or next lesson
  153. 153. Bibliography: • Acero, V. O., Javier , E. S., & Castro , H. O. (2007). Chapter 1: Understanding Teaching. In Principles of Teaching 1. Quezon City: Rex Bookstore, Inc. • Corpuz, B. B., & Salandanan, G. G. (2007). The Elements of Teaching and Learning. In Principles of Teaching . Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing , Inc. • McMillan, J (1997). Classroom Assessment Principles and Practice for Effective instruction, Boston: Allyn and Bascon • Gutierrez, D. (2007). Assessment of Learning Outcomes: Cognitive Domain Book 1. Kerusso Publishing House, Malabon City
  154. 154. “In reality, hindi lahat ng naaral sa College of Education ay mai-aaply sa sistema ng ating education. Yet, to our best we, teachers try to continuously learn and find ways to be resourceful and innovative in order to improve the state of our educational system and our own classrooms. Despite all of the inadequacies and deficiencies, for as long as we know the meaning of what we are doing and learning, we can guarantee that we will be able to continuously make positive changes.” ~ Dr. Allan de Guzman

×