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Level 1 Slides Lessons 16 23 V4wb70 Ml


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Brian Daley EC-001

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Level 1 Slides Lessons 16 23 V4wb70 Ml

  1. 1. Welcome Back
  2. 2. Lesson 16: Operations & Logistics
  3. 3. Choosing Phone Net Frequencies <ul><li>Amateurs have a vast amount of radio spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Most local and regional emcomm communication takes place on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 meter or 70 centimeter FM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40, 60, or 80 meter SSB/CW </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Choosing Phone Net Frequencies <ul><li>The choice made is based on the locations to be covered, the availability of repeaters, distance, terrain, and band conditions </li></ul><ul><li>VHF and UHF FM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred for most local operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment is common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear voice quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage is extended by repeater stations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Larger areas or in areas without repeaters, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HF SSB may be needed </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. VHF and UHF Range Antenna Height Terrain Repeater Coverage
  6. 6. HF <ul><li>Most local emcomm operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40 or 80-meter bands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-haul communication & international </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 or 20-meter nets </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Know Your Resources In Advance <ul><li>Many emcomm groups will have pre-selected a number of frequencies for specific purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete list of these frequencies should be in your jump kit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with the coverage and features of repeaters and digital message systems in your area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-program your radios with the frequencies, offsets, and CTCSS tones </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Know Your Resources In Advance <ul><li>Which repeaters are used for emergency communication in your area? </li></ul><ul><li>Will they be available for exclusive emcomm use, or must they be shared with other users?  </li></ul><ul><li>How does it identify itself? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any &quot;dead spots&quot; in critical areas? How much power is required to reach the repeater with a clear, quiet, signal from key locations? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the repeater have a courtesy tone, and what does it sound like?  Do the tones change depending on the repeater's mode? </li></ul><ul><li>How long is the &quot;time-out timer&quot;? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it part of a linked system of repeaters? What features does it have, and which touch-tone commands or CTCSS tones activate them? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Know Your Resources In Advance <ul><li>Net frequencies that support digital communication systems, such as packet radio bulletin board messaging systems, AMTOR, PSK31 and RTTY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which software do they use? ARESPACK, Fnpack, FNpsk? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do the digital systems have mailboxes or digipeater functions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which other nodes can they connect to? Can traffic be passed over an Internet link automatically or manually? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many connections can they support at once? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Network Coverage Concerns <ul><li>Emcomm managers rely on simplex operation when planning their VHF or UHF FM nets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeaters often do not survive disasters or are overwhelmed with the amount of traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simplex range is limited by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antenna gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operation over a wide area can be a challenge </li></ul>
  11. 11. Avoid Last Minute Surprises <ul><li>Pre-test all known fixed locations in your area for coverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are serving the Red Cross, test simplex coverage from each official shelter to the Red Cross office and the city's EOC or other key locations, and mobile coverage in the same areas </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Improving Simplex Range <ul><li>Use an antenna with greater gain </li></ul><ul><li>Move the antenna away from obstructions </li></ul><ul><li>Use a directional antenna </li></ul><ul><li>Increase antenna height </li></ul><ul><li>Increase transmitter output power as a last resort </li></ul>
  13. 13. Portable Duplex Repeater <ul><li>Quickly deployed at a high point in the desired coverage area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just has to reach and hear the stations in your net </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Back seat of a car, using a mobile antenna, and parked on a ridge or even the top floor of a parking garage </li></ul><ul><li>Portable masts and trailer-mounted towers </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cross Band Repeat <ul><li>Dual-band radios </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile can relay your transmission to a repeater for even greater range </li></ul><ul><li>Use low or medium power setting to avoid overheating and damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider using a fan to further reduce the likelihood that your radio will be damaged from overheating. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Cross Band Repeat - Simplex
  16. 16. Cross Band Repeat – Repeater (1) Receive the repeater output directly on your hand-held and the cross-band unit operates in simplex mode
  17. 17. Cross Band Repeat – Repeater (2) Receive the repeater output directly on your hand-held and the cross-band unit operates in duplex mode. Your cross-band unit listens away from the repeater input frequency which can, in some cases, reduce interference to your unit.
  18. 18. Cross Band Repeat – Repeater (3) Receive the repeater back through your cross-band system. The downside of this method is that until the repeater's carrier drops, your cross-band unit will continue to transmit, which does not allow you to transmit.
  19. 19. Frequency and Net Resource Management <ul><li>Actual practice our choices are limited to the available operators and their equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Net managers may occasionally need to &quot;shift&quot; resources to meet changing needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early stages of an emergency => tactical nets may require more operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later stages => health and welfare traffic might increase </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Message Relays Move the stations involved off the main net frequency to avoid tying up the channel for an extended period Unable to communicate directly Third station &quot;relay&quot; the messages
  21. 21. Radio Room Security <ul><li>Allow only the operators who are on duty to be in the room </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect your equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect messages you handle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent unnecessary distractions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid leaving the radio room and equipment unattended and accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t allow members of the press to be in the room without specific permission from the served agency </li></ul>
  22. 22. Record Keeping <ul><li>Most served agencies will expect you to keep records of your operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original copies of any messages sent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Station logs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Official correspondence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some may even require you to keep &quot;scratch&quot; notes and informal logs </li></ul><ul><li>Keep these records in your own possession for a time, or to turn some or all records over to the agency at the end of operations </li></ul><ul><li>What about records that are on a computer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know your agency’s policy in advance </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Record Keeping <ul><li>In some agencies, your station records are permanent and important legal documents, and must be treated as such </li></ul><ul><li>Know your served agency's policy on record keeping in advance so that you can comply from the very beginning of operations </li></ul>
  24. 24. Record Keeping <ul><li>Station operating logs should contain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your arrival and departure times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Times you check in and out of specific nets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each message, by number, sender, addressee, and other handling stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical events -- damage, power loss, injuries, earth tremors, other emergencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff changes -- both emcomm and site management, if known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment problems and issues </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Record Keeping <ul><li>Every individual message or note should be labeled with a time and date </li></ul><ul><li>Scratch notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place dates and times next to each note on a sheet, so that information can be use later to determine a course of events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Portable office&quot; type file box, expanding file, or any other suitable container can be used to organize and file the messages </li></ul>
  26. 26. Dealing With Stress <ul><li>Most people are not used to working under extreme stress for long periods, and do not know how to handle it </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous breakdowns are common among those who get overwhelmed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have not learned to manage stress and stress-causing situations </li></ul></ul>Disoriented Confused Unable to make good decisions Lose temper Unable to make any decision Behave in ways you never would any other time
  27. 27. Dealing With Stress <ul><li>Tendency is to regard every situation or need as an &quot;emergency,&quot; requiring an immediate response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You might get a barrage of requests for action  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You might not have the extra seconds it requires to fully consider the options, and to prioritize your actions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The result is an overload of responsibility, which can lead to unmanageable levels of stress </li></ul>
  28. 28. Dealing With Stress <ul><li>You cannot eliminate disaster-related stress </li></ul><ul><li>You can certainly take steps to reduce or control it </li></ul>
  29. 29. Stress Management <ul><li>Delegate some of your responsibilities to others. Take on those tasks only you can handle. </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize your actions --the most important and time-sensitive ones come first. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not take comments personally -- mentally translate &quot;personal attacks&quot; into &quot;constructive criticism&quot; and a signal that there may be an important need that is being overlooked. </li></ul><ul><li>Take a few deep breaths and relax. Do this often, especially if you feel stress increasing. Gather your thoughts, and move on. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch out for your own needs -- food, rest, water, medical attention. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Stress Management <ul><li>Do not insist on working more than your assigned shift if others can take over </li></ul><ul><li>Get rest when you can so that you will be ready to handle your job more effectively later on </li></ul><ul><li>Take a moment to think before responding to a stress-causing challenge -- if needed, tell them you will be back to them in a few minutes </li></ul><ul><li>If you are losing control of a situation, bring someone else in to assist or notify a superior </li></ul><ul><li>Do not let a problem get out of hand before asking for help </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an eye on other team members, and help them reduce stress when possible </li></ul>
  31. 31. Case Example 16-1 <ul><li>In a recent activation, an after action report commented on how one Amateur Radio Operator supporting an EOC worked for 36 hours straight. He was praised for his dedication. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is good about this? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the problems with this? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How would you have handled this situation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you were this operator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you were the EMCOMM manager for this operator </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Case Example 16-2 <ul><li>In a recent exercise debriefing, an Amateur Radio Operator said that in the event of an earthquake if he was assigned second shift at the EOC, he would not stand idle waiting for his shift. He would assist in other ways in the community and then proceed to work his 12 hour EOC shift. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is good about this? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the problems with this? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How would you do awaiting the start of your EOC shift? </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Dealing with Big Egos <ul><li>Some within the emergency response community have &quot;big egos“ </li></ul><ul><li>Others with a need to be in full control at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Take time now to consider how you will respond to the challenges they present </li></ul>
  34. 34. Dealing with Big Egos <ul><li>Come up with a different and more positive response strategy => not anger </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the official position of the &quot;problem&quot; person, you might: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do your job as best you can, and deal with it after the emergency is over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politely decline and state your reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer the issue to a superior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose in advance to volunteer in another capacity and avoid that person altogether </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Long Term Operations <ul><li>Additional operators to allow for regular shift changes, and those who go home </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement equipment, as operators leave with their own gear or it fails </li></ul><ul><li>Food and water </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable place to sleep or rest </li></ul><ul><li>Generator fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Message handling supplies, forms </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate NCS operators, backups </li></ul><ul><li>Additional net resources to handle message traffic </li></ul>
  36. 36. Battery Management <ul><li>You will eventually need to recharge your batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Some batteries need more time to recharge than others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This time needs to be taken into account in your planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slow-charging batteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May need to have enough on-hand to last the entire length of the operation </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Battery Management <ul><li>Deep cycle marine batteries can require a full day or longer to fully recharge </li></ul><ul><li>Sealed lead-acid (SLA) batteries, also known as &quot;gel-cells&quot;, require up to 18 hours to recharge depending on the size of the battery </li></ul><ul><li>NiCd, LIon, and similar batteries can be recharged quite quickly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated rapid charge cycles can reduce overall battery life </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Generator and Power Safety <ul><li>Placement of generators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engine noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult for shelter residents and volunteers to get much needed rest, and for anyone trying to do their job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaust fumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should not be allowed to enter the building or nearby tents or vehicles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;down-wind&quot; of any occupied location is best </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Generator and Power Safety <ul><li>Earth Grounding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not required as long as only plug and cord connected equipment is used, and the generator meets National Electrical Code (NEC) standards listed in Article 250-6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception is for generators that will be connected, even temporarily, to a building's permanent electrical system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For further details on grounding AC electrical systems, please refer to Article 250 of the NEC </li></ul><ul><li>Primary hazards to avoid when using a generator are carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from the toxic engine exhaust, electric shock or electrocution, and fire. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow the directions supplied with the generator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every year, people die in incidents related to portable generator use. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Generator Safety Policy <ul><li>Generator Placement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generators are placed in an area off limits to unauthorized persons and children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generator is dry and not used in rain or wet conditions. Generator is operating on a dry surface under an open canopy-like structure, such as under a tarp held up on poles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generator is operating outdoors in a well-ventilated dry area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generator is operating away from air intakes to any structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All operators are using dry hands before touching the generator. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generator Grounding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generator is grounded using a ground rod and large gauge wire (AWG 8 or larger) to bond the generator frame to ground. OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generator is properly grounded per the manufacturer’s manual. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wiring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generator is not connected directly to existing wiring (avoid back feeding system). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual devices are connected directly to the receptacle outlet of the generator or via approved extension cord. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Generator Safety Policy <ul><li>Extension Cords are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor rated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of sufficient gauge and length to handle electrical loads without daisy-chaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free of cuts or tears and cracked housings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have three conductors and plugs have all three prongs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routed to prevent tripping hazard. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generator Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loads are less than the output rating of the generator. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manufacturer’s Instructions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A copy of the generator’s operating manual is available at the generator site. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation is consistent with all instructions in generator's owner manual. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Generator Safety Policy <ul><li>Fuel Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel is stored outdoors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel is stored in properly labeled, non-glass safety containers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully charged, approved fire extinguisher is located near the generator. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refueling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generator is off and cool before refueling. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shutdown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All equipment is turned off before shutting down generator. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Burn Hazard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposed mufflers and other hot parts are protected and labeled. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Ground Fault Interrupters (GFIs) <ul><li>GFIs detect any difference between the currents flowing on the hot and neutral conductors, and opens the circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Test any GFI device to be used with or near HF radios to be sure that the GFI will function properly while the radio is transmitting. </li></ul>
  44. 44. AC Extension Cords <ul><li>Should be rated for the actual load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider radios, lights, chargers, and other accessories when calculating the total load </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extension cords are rated only for their actual length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be strung together to make a longer cord without &quot;de-rating&quot; the cord's capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A typical 16ga, 50' orange &quot;hardware store&quot; cord is rated for 10 amps. When two are used to run 100', the rating drops to only 7 amps </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. AC Extension Cords <ul><li>Choose a single length of cord rated for the load and the entire distance you must run it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If this is not possible, you can also run two or more parallel cords to the generator in order to reduce the load on any single cord. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For more information on portable power cord requirements, consult Article 400 of the NEC. </li></ul>
  46. 46. What About Using &quot;Romex ™&quot; <ul><li>&quot;Romex ™&quot; type wire for long extension cords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation of the National Electrical Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dangerous practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repeated bending, rolling, and abrasion cause the copper conductors and insulation to break, resulting in a fire and electrocution hazard </li></ul>Use only flexible insulated extension cords that are UL rated for temporary, portable use
  47. 47. Electrical Safety Guidelines <ul><li>Electrical codes require three-wire power cords and plugs on many tools and appliances. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “ hot ” wire is usually black. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “ neutral ” wire is usually white. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The frame/ground wire is usually green or bare wire. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not install higher current capacity fuses in an existing circuit. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Breaker box Service Disconnect on left.
  49. 49. Ground Everything For best protection from electrical shock all equipment should be connected to a common ground.
  50. 51. The Fuse <ul><li>A fuse or circuit breaker should always be added in series with home built equipment that is powered from 110 volt AC lines. </li></ul><ul><li>In a 12 volt DC system fuses should be located at the voltage source. </li></ul><ul><li>When a fuse blows an open circuit is created. </li></ul><ul><li>Never replace a blown fuse with a higher amperage rated fuse. </li></ul>
  51. 52. Electrical and RF Safety <ul><li>Fuses and circuit breakers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of a fuse in an electrical circuit is to interrupt power in case of overload. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you install a 20-ampere fuse in your transceiver in the place of a 5-ampere fuse excessive current could cause a fire. (Note: If it didn’t cause a fire, it still could result in damage to the equipment.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grounding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground is connected to the green wire in a three-wire electrical plug. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. Electrical and RF Safety <ul><li>Lightning protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The precautions that should be taken when a lightning storm is expected are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disconnect the antenna cables from your station and move them away from your radio equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unplug all power cords from AC outlets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stop using your radio equipment and move to another room until the storm passes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All of these answers are correct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire prevention is the most important reason to have a lightning protection system for your amateur radio station. </li></ul></ul>GET OFF THE AIR DURING SEVERE STORMS!!
  53. 54. Lightning
  54. 55. RF Safety <ul><li>Ensure that all stations comply with the FCC requirements for maximum permissible exposure to RF radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>No person should be near any transmitting antenna while it is in use. </li></ul><ul><li>Make certain that the RF radiation is confined to the antennas' radiating elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't operate high-power amplifiers with the covers removed. </li></ul><ul><li>With hand-held transceivers, keep the antenna away from your head and use the lowest power possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't work on antennas that have RF power applied. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't stand or sit close to a power supply when the ac power is on. </li></ul><ul><li>Never look into a waveguide or directive UHF/SHF antenna when power may be applied. </li></ul>
  55. 56. RF Safety <ul><li>Even though hand-held radios are exempt from RF exposure limits, minimum power should be used with a hand-held to minimize RF exposure to the operator's head (eyes) </li></ul><ul><li>A mobile transceiver with roof mounted antenna would have better shielding for the vehicle occupants than using a hand-held transceiver in a vehicle </li></ul>
  56. 57. Equipment -- Leaving Yours Behind? <ul><li>You are exhausted, and ready to head for home, but the emcomm operation is far from over. </li></ul><ul><li>You brought along a complete station, and when you leave, the next operator is not nearly as well equipped. </li></ul><ul><li>Should you leave your equipment behind for the next operator? </li></ul>
  57. 58. Equipment -- Leaving Yours Behind? <ul><li>No one can, or should, tell you to leave your equipment behind </li></ul><ul><li>If you feel comfortable that someone you know and trust will look after your gear, you may choose to leave some or all of it behind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure every piece is marked with at least your name and call sign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not leave behind anything the next operator does not truly need </li></ul></ul>You still have the ultimate responsibility for its operation and safety
  58. 59. Equipment -- Leaving Yours Behind? <ul><li>Emergency stations are difficult places to control and monitor. </li></ul><ul><li>If your equipment is stolen, lost, or damaged, you should not hold anyone responsible but yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversely, if someone leaves their equipment in your care, treat and protect it better than you would your own, and be sure it is returned safely to its owner. </li></ul>
  59. 60. Accepting Specialized Assignments <ul><li>You may be asked to handle other assignments for the served agency that may or may not include communicating </li></ul><ul><li>At one time, most emcomm groups had strict policies against doing other tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is still true of some </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At this time, ACS & MST do not have a written policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today, most emcomm groups will permit their members to be cross-trained for, and perform, a variety of served-agency skills that also include communicating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACS & MST do support this </li></ul></ul>
  60. 61. Accepting Specialized Assignments
  61. 62. Lesson 16 Activities <ul><li>Develop a set of &quot;rules&quot; to help a new emcomm group member deal with stress during an emergency. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a list of at least five possible served agency jobs that would also require your communication skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop five safety rules pertaining to generators and electrical lines in and near a radio room. </li></ul>
  62. 63. Lesson 16 Questions <ul><li>Which of the following will NOT limit VHF simplex range? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antenna Gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digipeaters </li></ul></ul>
  63. 64. Lesson 16 Questions <ul><li>Which of the following actions will NOT improve simplex reception? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the antenna height. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switch to a (lower-gain) non-directional antenna. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase transmitter output power at both stations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move the antenna away from obstructions. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 65. Lesson 16 Questions <ul><li>Which of the following is true about a simplex repeater? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The FCC rules do not permit unattended operation of simplex repeaters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They work best in the &quot;cross band repeater&quot; mode. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They require the use of two radios. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the same as a &quot;human repeater.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  65. 66. Lesson 16 Questions <ul><li>Which of the following is NOT an appropriate served agency assignment for an emcomm volunteer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Field damage assessment and reporting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving a supply delivery vehicle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typing inventory lists and filing memos. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathering weather data and reporting conditions. </li></ul></ul>
  66. 67. Lesson 16 Questions <ul><li>Which of the following is a good means of dealing with stress during an emcomm event? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take every comment personally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay no attention to other team members; let them handle their own problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce personal stress, insist on working more than your own shift. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritize your actions - the most important and time sensitive ones come first. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 68. Lesson 16 References <ul><li>For information about ARRL Public Service Communications , please see The Public Service Communications Manual : </li></ul><ul><li>For specific information on ARES , see the ARRL ARES Field Resources Manual (.pdf file) </li></ul>
  68. 69. Lesson 17 - Personal Safety, Survival, and Health Considerations
  69. 70. Home and Family First
  70. 71. Home and Family First <ul><li>Before leaving on an assignment, make all necessary arrangements for the security, safety, and general well being of your home and family. </li></ul><ul><li>Family members, and perhaps friends or neighbors, should know: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where you are going </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you plan to return </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to get a message to you in an emergency </li></ul></ul>
  71. 72. Home and Family First <ul><li>If you live in the disaster area or in the potential path of a storm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider moving your family to a safe location before beginning your volunteer duties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take whatever steps you can to protect your own property from damage or looting </li></ul><ul><li>Let a neighbor or even local police know where you are going, when you plan to return, and how to reach you or your family members in an emergency </li></ul>
  72. 73. Create Home & Family Checklist <ul><li>House </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Board up windows if you are in a storm's path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put lawn furniture and loose objects indoors if high winds are likely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move valuables to upper levels if flooding is possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heating fuel tanks should be filled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drain pipes if below freezing temperatures and power loss are possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shut off power and gas if practical and if structural damage is possible </li></ul></ul>
  73. 74. Create Home & Family Checklist <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe place to stay if needed, preferably with friends or relatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable transportation, with fuel tank filled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate cash money for regular needs and emergencies (not ATM or credit cards) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House, auto, life, and health insurance information to take along if evacuated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to important legal documents such as wills, property deeds, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency food and water supply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AM/FM radio and extra batteries </li></ul></ul>
  74. 75. Create Home & Family Checklist <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flashlight and extra batteries, bulbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generator, fuel and safe operating knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate supply of prescription medications on hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of emergency phone numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pet supplies and arrangements (shelters will not take pets) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of people to call for assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps and emergency escape routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A way to contact each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A plan for reuniting later </li></ul></ul>
  75. 76. Vehicle & Family Safety Checklist <ul><li>Warm clothes in trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Chains in trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Full gas tank </li></ul><ul><li>Sand/shovel in trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Window ice scraper </li></ul><ul><li>Flares, flashlight in trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Antifreeze </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity with school and daycare plans </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative shelter plans </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative transportation arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Identified snow routes </li></ul><ul><li>Bus timetables </li></ul>
  76. 77. Should you leave at all? <ul><li>There are times when your family may need you as much or more than your emcomm group </li></ul><ul><li>If there is ever any doubt, your decision must be to stay with your family </li></ul><ul><li>You should discuss, and come to an agreement with your spouse well before any disaster, in order to avoid any last minute problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatively, have your spouse get an Amateur Radio license and accompany you on your deployment </li></ul></ul>
  77. 78. You First -- The Mission Second <ul><li>You will need to continue to take care of yourself. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you become over-tired, ill, or weak, you cannot do your job properly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you do not take care of personal cleanliness, you could become unpleasant to be around. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whenever possible, each station should have at least two operators on duty so that one can take a break for sleep, food and personal hygiene. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If that is not possible, work out a schedule with the emcomm managers or your NCS to take periodic &quot;off-duty&quot; breaks. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  78. 79. Safety - Everyone’s Responsibility <ul><li>Personal safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone is responsible for their own safety. Know your own limitations. Do not undertake any activity for which you feel is unsafe or violates this policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask for help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not hesitate to ask for help and/or advice from others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety briefings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All personnel are required to attend and contribute to safety briefings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone is responsible for reading and understanding this safety policy and carrying out their duties in compliance with the policy guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone is responsible for the safety of the operation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you see something that violates the provisions of the safety policy, you are obligated to call it to the attention of the Safety Officer or the Incident Commander </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the event that the IC or the Safety Officer is not available, each individual is authorized to halt operations which violate these guidelines. </li></ul></ul>
  79. 80. General Safety Checklist <ul><li>A Safety Officer is assigned to all field operations. </li></ul><ul><li>A contact list including local fire, police and security is maintained by The Safety Officer. </li></ul><ul><li>All field operations have a plan. </li></ul><ul><li>All personnel know their job assignment and understand the plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Crew is adequate for the job; no less and no more than is necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Crew with specific First Aid and CPR training is identified by Safety Officer. </li></ul>
  80. 81. Know Your Routes!
  81. 82. Food <ul><li>Most people need at least 2000 calories a day to function well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced emcomm managers and served agency personnel will usually be aware of this issue and take steps to see that their volunteer's needs are met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High calorie and high protein snacks will help keep you going </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But you will also need food that is more substantial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring along some freeze-dried camping food, a small pot, and a camp stove with fuel, or some self-heating military style &quot;Meal, Ready to Eat&quot; (MRE) packages </li></ul></ul>
  82. 83. Water <ul><li>You will need at least two or three liters of water each day, just for drinking, more for other purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most disaster preparedness checklists suggest at least one gallon per person, per day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many camping supply stores offer a range of water filters and purification tablets that can help make local water supplies safer </li></ul>However, they all have limitations you should be aware of…
  83. 84. Water Filters <ul><li>Filters may or may not remove all potentially harmful organisms or discoloration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with smaller filter pores (.3 microns is a very tight filter) will remove more foreign matter, but will also clog more quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine-saturated filters will kill or remove most harmful germs and bacteria, but are more expensive and impart a faint taste of iodine to the water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most filters will remove Giardia cysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All water filters require care in their use to avoid cross-contamination of purified water with dirty water </li></ul></ul>
  84. 85. Water Filters
  85. 86. Water Purification Tablets <ul><li>Purification tablets, such as Halazone, have a limited shelf life that varies with the type, and give the water an unpleasant taste </li></ul><ul><li>Tablets will do nothing for particulate (dirt) or discoloration in the water </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to read and understand the information that comes with any water purification device or tablet before purchasing or using it </li></ul>
  86. 87. Water Purification with Bleach <ul><li>FDA says you can use plain Clorox brand laundry bleach (no perfumes, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>After filtering out any particulate by pouring it through several layers of densely woven cloth, put sixteen drops of Clorox in a gallon of water, mix well, and allow it to sit for thirty minutes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it still smells slightly of chlorine, you can use it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not, stir in sixteen more drops and wait another half hour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it still does not smell of chlorine, discard the water and find a new supply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It will not taste great, nor will the chlorine bleach kill cysts like Giardia, but it may be enough </li></ul>
  87. 88. Water Purification Last Resort <ul><li>If you have no other means, boiling for at least five minutes will kill any bacteria and other organisms, but will not remove any particulate matter or discoloration </li></ul><ul><li>Boiling will leave water with a &quot;flat&quot; taste that can be improved by pouring it back and forth between two containers several times to reintroduce some oxygen </li></ul>
  88. 89. Using a Solar Still to Get Water
  89. 90. Sleep <ul><li>Get at least six continuous hours of sleep in every twenty-four hour period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or four continuous hours and several shorter naps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soft foam earplugs and a black eye mask to ensure that light and noise around you are not a problem </li></ul>
  90. 91. Personal Hygiene <ul><li>Essentials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toothpaste and toothbrush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deodorant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If possible, bring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar of soap or waterless hand cleaner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small towel and washcloth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few extra shirts </li></ul></ul>
  91. 92. Safety in an Unsafe Situation <ul><li>Natural disasters can bring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flying or falling debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High or fast moving water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explosions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polluted water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A variety of other dangers </li></ul></ul>You should always be aware of your surroundings and the dangers they hold
  92. 93. Clothing <ul><li>Depending on the weather, your gear might include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard hat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain gear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm non-cotton layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work gloves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waterproof boots. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Always bring several pairs of non-cotton socks and change them often to keep your feet clean and dry. </li></ul><ul><li>Create seasonal clothing lists suitable for your climate and the types of disasters you might encounter. </li></ul>
  93. 94. Personal Safety Checklist <ul><li>Sturdy footwear is worn by all active duty personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety glasses or goggles are used when cutting wire, soldering or working around machinery. </li></ul><ul><li>Respirators, dust masks or bandanas are available at fires, floods, earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA approved hard-hats are worn by all ground crew for tower erection operations. NO EXCEPTIONS! Climbing helmets are worn during tower climbing operations. </li></ul>
  94. 95. Avoid Dangerous Areas <ul><li>Industrial buildings or facilities may contain toxic chemicals, which can be released in a disaster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dams can break, </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges can wash out </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings can collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Areas can become inaccessible due to flooding, landslides, collapsed structures, advancing fires, or storm surges </li></ul>If you can avoid being in harm's way, you can also prevent yourself from becoming part of the problem rather than part of the solution
  95. 96. If You Are Trapped or Isolated… <ul><li>Be prepared to help others find or rescue you </li></ul><ul><li>Let others know where you are going if you must travel anywhere, even within a &quot;safe&quot; building </li></ul><ul><li>Try not to travel alone in dangerous conditions-- bring a &quot;buddy&quot; </li></ul>Carry Signaling Devices
  96. 97. Satellite Personal Tracker <ul><li>SPOT sends your exact GPS coordinates and selected messages over commercial satellites to tell others of your location and status </li></ul><ul><li>SPOT will acquire its exact coordinates from the GPS network, and send that location along with a distress message to a GEOS International Emergency Response Center every five minutes until cancelled </li></ul><ul><li>The Emergency Response Center notifies the appropriate emergency responders based on your location and personal information – which may include local police, highway patrol, the Coast Guard, our country’s embassy or consulate, or other emergency response or search and rescue teams – as well as notifying your emergency contact person(s) about the receipt of a distress signal </li></ul><ul><li>Send and save your location and allow contacts to track your progress using Google Maps™. </li></ul>
  97. 98. Google Latitude <ul><li>With Google Latitude: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See where your friends are and what they are up to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quickly contact them with SMS, IM, or a phone call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control what your location is and who gets to see it </li></ul></ul>From a mobile phone
  98. 99. Shelter <ul><li>In most cases, you will not need your own shelter for operating or sleeping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You may be able to stay or work in the emergency operations center, evacuation shelter, or even your own vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In some cases a tent, camp trailer, motor home, or other suitable shelter may be necessary </li></ul>
  99. 100. Tents <ul><li>Pick a tent equipped to withstand the harshest conditions you might encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Rated for high winds </li></ul><ul><li>Waterproof </li></ul><ul><li>Full-coverage rain fly </li></ul><ul><li>Waterproof bottom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a tarp, ground cloth or footprint to extend the life of a tent's floor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  100. 101. Medical Considerations <ul><li>Discuss any medical conditions with your physician ahead of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially interfere with your ability to do your job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diabetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You will need to avoid going for long periods without proper food or medication, and stress may affect your blood sugar level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May need to avoid stressful situations </li></ul></ul>
  101. 102. Medical Considerations <ul><li>Have an adequate supply of appropriate medications on hand </li></ul><ul><li>Have a copy of any prescriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Let your emcomm manager and any work partners know of your condition so that they can take appropriate actions if something goes wrong </li></ul>
  102. 103. Medical Considerations <ul><li>Keep a copy of any special medical information and emergency phone numbers in your wallet at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Wear any medical ID jewelry you have </li></ul>
  103. 104. Protect Your Eyes and Sight <ul><li>If you wear eyeglasses or contact lenses, bring at least one spare pair </li></ul><ul><li>Contact lenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring more than enough changes to avoid running out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May want to switch to glasses to avoid having to deal with lens removal and cleaning under field conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you have any doubts, consult your eye doctor ahead of time </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing a copy of your lens prescription along may also be a good idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially if you are likely to be some distance from home for a while </li></ul></ul>
  104. 105. Protect Your Eyes and Sight <ul><li>Sunglasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly eye damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good quality UV blocking sunglasses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Snow blindness&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged periods of exposure where there is snow/sand can cause the retina to be burned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sunglasses that offer the following are frequently recommended: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>99-100% UV absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polycarbonate or CR-39 lens (lighter, more comfortable than glass) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5-10% visible light transmittance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large lenses that fit close to the face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wraparound or side-shielded to prevent incidental light exposure </li></ul></ul>
  105. 106. Sample Personal Survival & Comfort Needs Checklist <ul><li>Suitable size backpack or duffel bag for clothing and personal gear </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic storage tub for food, cooking gear </li></ul><ul><li>Toilet kit -- soap, comb, deodorant, shampoo, toothbrush, toothpaste </li></ul><ul><li>Toilet paper in zipper-lock freezer bag </li></ul><ul><li>Small towel and washcloth </li></ul><ul><li>Lip balm </li></ul><ul><li>Facial tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Sunscreen </li></ul><ul><li>Insect repellent </li></ul><ul><li>Prescription medications (1 week supply) </li></ul><ul><li>Copies of medication and eyeglass/contact lens prescriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Spare eyeglasses or contact lenses and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Hand lotion for dry skin </li></ul><ul><li>Small first aid kit </li></ul><ul><li>Non-prescription medications, including painkiller, antacids, anti-diarrheal, etc. </li></ul>
  106. 107. Sample Personal Survival & Comfort Needs Checklist <ul><li>Extra basic clothing -- shirts, socks, underwear </li></ul><ul><li>Gloves, for protection or warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Pocket flashlight </li></ul><ul><li>Folding pocket knife </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping bag, closed-cell foam pad or air mattress, pillow </li></ul><ul><li>Ear plugs (soft foam type in sealed package) </li></ul><ul><li>Black eye mask </li></ul><ul><li>Outer clothing for season and conditions (rain gear, parka, hat, face mask, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Hard hat </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective vest, hat </li></ul><ul><li>Travel alarm clock </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical light sticks </li></ul><ul><li>Police or signal whistle </li></ul><ul><li>Dust masks </li></ul><ul><li>Phone/email/address list for family, friends, neighbors, physician, pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency contact/medical information card in your wallet </li></ul><ul><li>Spare car and house keys </li></ul><ul><li>High energy or high protein snacks </li></ul><ul><li>Food -- Freeze-dried or MREs </li></ul>
  107. 108. Sample Personal Survival & Comfort Needs Checklist <ul><li>Coffee, tea, drink mixes </li></ul><ul><li>Plate or bowl, knife, fork and spoon, insulated mug </li></ul><ul><li>Camp stove, small pot, fuel and matches </li></ul><ul><li>Battery or other lantern </li></ul><ul><li>Water, in heavy plastic jugs </li></ul><ul><li>Water purification filter or tablets </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic compass, maps </li></ul><ul><li>Duct tape, parachute cord </li></ul>Consider packing individual items or kits in zipper-lock freezer bags to keep the contents dry, clean, and neat
  108. 109. <ul><li>Disaster Psychology </li></ul>
  109. 110. Possible Psychological Symptoms <ul><li>Irritability, anger </li></ul><ul><li>Self-blame, blaming others </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation, withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of recurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling stunned, numb, or overwhelmed </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling helpless </li></ul><ul><li>Mood swings </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness, depression, grief </li></ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration, memory problems </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship conflicts/marital discord </li></ul>
  110. 111. Possible Physiological Symptoms <ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches, chest pain </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea, stomach pain, nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in alcohol or drug consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Nightmares </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue, low energy </li></ul>
  111. 112. Reducing Stress <ul><li>Get enough sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Eat a balanced diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Balance work, play, and rest. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow yourself to receive as well as give. Remember that your identity is broader than that of a helper. </li></ul><ul><li>Connect with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Use spiritual resources. </li></ul>
  112. 113. Community Emergency Response Team <ul><li>Helps train people to be better prepared to respond to emergency situations in their communities </li></ul><ul><li>CERT members can give critical support to first responders, provide immediate assistance to victims, and organize spontaneous volunteers at a disaster site </li></ul><ul><li>CERT members can also help with non-emergency projects that help improve the safety of the community </li></ul>
  113. 114. Citizen Corps <ul><li>Citizen Corps asks you to embrace the personal responsibility to be prepared; to get training in first aid and emergency skills; and to volunteer to support local emergency responders, disaster relief, and community safety </li></ul>
  114. 115. National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (NVOAD) <ul><li>Coalition of 49 major national nonprofit and faith-based organizations with committed missions to domestic disaster-related services </li></ul><ul><li>Mission is to foster more effective service to people affected by disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Formed after Hurricane Camille </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the aftermath of this disaster, the voluntary organizations who wanted to help victims realized they didn't know very much about each other, and certainly weren't very well coordinated </li></ul></ul>
  115. 116. C.E.R.T. <ul><li>Unit 1: Disaster Preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 2: Fire Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 3: Disaster Medical Operations—Part 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 4: Disaster Medical Operations—Part 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 5: Light Search and Rescue Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 6: CERT Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 7: Disaster Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 8: Terrorism and CERT </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 9: Course Review and Disaster Simulation </li></ul>
  116. 117. C.E.R.T.
  117. 118. C.E.R.T. in Western Washington <ul><li>Seattle does not teach CERT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seattle program is SNAP (Seattle Neighborhoods Actively Prepare) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some other Western Washington communities have active CERT programs. For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redmond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sammamish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vashon Island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodinville </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issaquah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnation / Duvall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snohomish County </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Washington </li></ul></ul>
  118. 119. C.E.R.T. Communications
  119. 120. C.E.R.T. Communications Example <ul><li>FRS1 Neighborhood Watch to Responders </li></ul><ul><li>FRS2 CERT Team Leaders to Command Post </li></ul><ul><li>FRS3 CERT Planning Section </li></ul><ul><li>FRS4 CERT Logistics Section </li></ul><ul><li>FRS5 CERT Admin Section </li></ul><ul><li>FRS6 CERT Team Leader to Public Safety Responders </li></ul><ul><li>FRS7 Safety Officer – Rapid Intervention Team </li></ul><ul><li>FRS8 CERT Ops Inter-Team Primary Working Channel </li></ul><ul><li>FRS9- 14 CERT Intra-team working channels 500mw Max. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the “Interstitial Simplex” Channels 1 through 7 with transmitter output greater than 500mw requires GMRS license and Part 95 Type Accepted radio such as the ICOM F21GM. </li></ul>
  120. 121. C.E.R.T. & Amateur Radio <ul><li>During a response, CERTs will have a variety of communications requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the communications required of all CERTs during emergencies include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intra-team communications, especially during search and rescue operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-team communications required to communicate logistics, request assistance, and provide status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Leaders to CERT Team Leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CERT Team Leader to first responders (at the Incident Command Post) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CERTs should consider two-way radios for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intra-squad and inter-squad communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each team should be assigned a different channel or frequency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section chiefs (Operations, Logistics, Planning, and Administration) should be assigned a separate channel or frequency to communicate with each other and with the Team Leader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications with first responders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A separate frequency should be assigned to these communications. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>RACES or ARES organizations may wish to incorporate a radio operator to communicate between the CERT Team Leader (Command Post) and the Incident Command or Emergency Operations Center (EOC) </li></ul>
  121. 122. C.E.R.T. Communications Plan Example
  122. 123. C.E.R.T. Logs
  123. 124. Lesson 17 Activities <ul><li>Prepare a disaster preparedness checklist specifically for your home and family. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a personal-needs checklist for yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>What are two major disaster threats in your area? For each threat, list five actions you would take as a precaution to protect your home and family. </li></ul>
  124. 125. Lesson 17 Questions <ul><li>Which of the following statements concerning water purification is FALSE? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling water for a full 5 minutes will kill most harmful bacteria. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling water to purify it can leave it with a flat taste. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters may or may not remove harmful bacteria. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purification tablets will remove bacteria and particulate matter (dirt). </li></ul></ul>
  125. 126. Lesson 17 Questions <ul><li>Which of the following is true about using chlorine to purify water? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is best to use four to six drops of chlorine per gallon of water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding the proper amount of chlorine to water will improve the taste. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding the proper amount of chlorine to water will kill cysts like Giardia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is best to use 16 drops of plain chlorine per gallon of water. </li></ul></ul>Note: Answer D in the book has an incorrect answer of “two to four drops” instead of “16 drops”. If this question is on the test, it might have the same typo.
  126. 127. Lesson 17 Questions <ul><li>Which of the following is true about the personal gear you bring to a long-term incident? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include several pairs of warm cotton socks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight summer clothing is all you will ever need. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep spare eyeglasses or safety glasses/ goggles in a hard-shell, felt-lined storage case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a volunteer communicator, you will need to bring specialized protective clothing. </li></ul></ul>
  127. 128. Lesson 17 Questions <ul><li>Many disaster assignments are in unsafe places. Which of the following is true about such locations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always plan an escape route from buildings and hazardous areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always plan more than one escape route from buildings and hazardous area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The only dangers that you need be concerned with in any location are fire, flood, and falling debris. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dams, bridges and buildings can generally be thought of as &quot;safe zones.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  128. 129. Lesson 17 Questions <ul><li>Which of the following statements about safety and survival is true? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mission takes priority over everything else. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A person requires at least four gallons of water per day just for drinking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If caffeine keeps you awake, stop drinking caffeinated beverages at least ten minutes before going to bed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your personal safety and well-being are a higher priority than the mission. </li></ul></ul>Note: The book indicates that Answer B is the correct answer. However, we believe that Answer D is the more appropriate response.
  129. 130. Lesson 17 Questions <ul><li>Which of the following best defines an MRE package? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly Radio Equipment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly Random Equipment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meals, Ready to Eat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meals, Rarely Eaten. </li></ul></ul>
  130. 131. Lesson 17 References <ul><li>FEMA Disaster Safety Information: </li></ul><ul><li>FEMA Disaster Preparedness for kids: </li></ul><ul><li>American Red Cross -- Disaster Safety: </li></ul><ul><li>Food: </li></ul><ul><li>Water: </li></ul><ul><li>North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service – food safety & disaster recovery: </li></ul><ul><li>Institute for Home and Business Safety: </li></ul><ul><li>Univ. of Florida -- Disaster safety tips: </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Tech -- Farm preparedness: </li></ul>
  131. 132. Lesson 18 - Alternate Communication Methods
  132. 133. Alternate Communications <ul><li>Amateur radio may not always be the only or best radio service for the job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are dire situations in which individuals are forced to summon help by any means available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occasionally, we find that the tasks within a disaster exceed the limits of the manpower provided by the amateur community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes it is better to hand an official a radio he can use to stay in contact with the ARES team on site, and not saddle him or her with a ham radio “shadow.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particularly true for officials who must regularly deal with sensitive issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other voluntary agencies may use these radio services in their own operations </li></ul></ul>Legal Considerations…
  133. 134. Licenses <ul><li>Some radio services require licenses, and others do not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a true emergency as defined by the FCC , this may not be a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FCC rules give everyone special permission to use &quot;any means necessary&quot; to communicate in order to protect life and property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But only when no other normal means of communication is possible </li></ul></ul>
  134. 135. Licenses <ul><li>If your group is planning to use licensed radios, obtain your license well before any emergency and keep it current </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you own a radio, but no license, a judge could claim pre-meditation if you use it and disturb licensed users </li></ul></ul>
  135. 136. Can I Modify My Radio? <ul><li>NO -- you cannot modify your radio and call for help on the local police frequency the next time you see a car crash on the highway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law enforcement agencies are not bound by the FCC’s rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hams who have called for &quot;help&quot; on police frequencies have been convicted of &quot;interfering with a police agency&quot; under state and local laws, even though the FCC had taken no enforcement action. </li></ul>
  136. 137. Modified Amateur Radios <ul><li>Easy to modify many VHF and UHF Amateur radios for operation in nearby public service and business bands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not legal to do so for regular &quot;emergency&quot; use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radios must be &quot;Type Accepted&quot; by the FCC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amateur radios are not </li></ul></ul>
  137. 138. Citizens' Band (CB) Radio <ul><li>No licensing is required, and tactical or self-assigned identifiers are acceptable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A recommended method promoted by the FCC is the letter &quot;K,” followed by the user's first and last initials, followed by your zip code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ KBD98112” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you had a valid Class D License before the mid 1980s, you may continue to use your old CB call sign </li></ul></ul>DO NOT USE YOUR AMATEUR CALL SIGN
  138. 139. CB Technical Information <ul><li>11-meter band </li></ul><ul><li>40 designated channels from 26.965 to 27.405 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum output power of four watts </li></ul><ul><li>Amplitude modulation (AM) </li></ul><ul><li>Single side band (SSB) </li></ul><ul><li>FCC rules permit communication to a maximum of 250 km (155.3 miles) </li></ul><ul><li>Effective range averages between two and eight miles (mobile-mobile) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on antennas, terrain and propagation up to 25 miles (base-mobile) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SSB can significantly increase range </li></ul><ul><li>Channel 9 is reserved for emergency and motorist assistance traffic only </li></ul>
  139. 140. Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) <ul><li>Personal and business operation </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily intended for portable operation </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum power of two watts </li></ul><ul><li>MURS frequencies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>151.820 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>151.880 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>151.940 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>154.570 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>154.600 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth on the first three frequencies is limited to 11.25 kHz, and 20 kHz for the last two </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency stability must be at least 5 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Antenna height is limited to 60 feet above ground </li></ul><ul><li>No licenses are issued for this service </li></ul>
  140. 141. Family Radio Service (FRS) <ul><li>Designed for short-range personal communications </li></ul><ul><li>Good news </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost everyone owns one or more of these handy radios </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bad news </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Channels in some areas are crowded and undisciplined, making them less useful for emergency communications </li></ul></ul>
  141. 142. FRS Technical Information <ul><li>14 available UHF channels </li></ul><ul><li>8 different CTCSS codes to limit background chatter and noise </li></ul><ul><li>Output power is from 100 to 500 mw </li></ul><ul><li>REACT recommends the use of FRS channel 1 (462.5625 MHz) with no CTCSS tone as an emergency calling channel </li></ul><ul><li>First 7 FRS channels are shared with the General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chances of distress call being heard on either service is greatly increased on these seven common channels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many FRS radio are offered as combination FRS/GMRS radios with up to two watts output on the GMRS channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>License required </li></ul></ul>
  142. 143. General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) <ul><li>15 UHF frequencies between 462.5625 and 462.7250 MHz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eight are paired with matching repeater inputs five MHz higher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 “interstitial” channels are shared with FRS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is limited to 50 watts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Except on “interstitial” channels, 5 watts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>There is no frequency coordination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users must cooperate locally to effectively use channels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CTCSS codes are the same as for FRS </li></ul><ul><li>FM voice operation is permitted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital modes and phone patches are not </li></ul></ul><ul><li>462.675 MHz is recognized for emergency and travel information use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitored by many REACT teams nationwide </li></ul></ul>
  143. 144. GMRS <ul><li>GMRS requires a license </li></ul><ul><li>Many “FRS” radios include “GMRS” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You should have a license for these radios! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you operate a radio under the rules that apply to GMRS, you must have a GMRS license. </li></ul><ul><li>GMRS radios generally transmit at higher power levels (1 to 5 watts is typical) and may have detachable antennas. </li></ul><ul><li>The current fee for a new GMRS license is $80. </li></ul>The manual that comes with the radio, or the label placed on it by the manufacturer, should indicate the service the unit is certified for.
  144. 145. Public Safety Radio <ul><li>There are instances where the use of police and fire radio frequencies is possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agency itself might allow and train you for such use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual officer may ask you to use his radio to call for help when he cannot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep your transmissions short and to the point </li></ul><ul><li>Do not tie up the channel with long explanations, and cease transmitting if they tell you to </li></ul>
  145. 146. Cellular and PCS Phones <ul><li>In a widespread disaster situation, these phone systems can quickly become overloaded </li></ul><ul><li>A message is too sensitive to send via any two-way radio, try your cell phone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular and PCS phone transmissions, especially digital, are considerably more secure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition, it is possible to send low-speed data or fax transmissions over the cellular network </li></ul></ul>
  146. 147. Marine Radio <ul><li>FM marine radios operate on internationally allocated channels in the 160 MHz band </li></ul><ul><li>HF SSB radios operate on a variety of ITU channels between 2 and 30 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>FM stations for vessels in US waters do not require a license </li></ul><ul><li>Operation on the HF channels does require a license </li></ul><ul><li>Channel 16 – Distress Channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you hear a vessel in distress whose calls are going unanswered by the Coast Guard, you may legally answer them from an unlicensed land-based station under the FCC’s “emergency communications” rules </li></ul></ul>
  147. 148. Aviation Radio
  148. 149. Aviation Radio <ul><li>AM radios operating in the 108-136 MHz band </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FCC licenses are required for all aircraft stations operating internationally, but not within the US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergency locator transmitters (ELTs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic devices that transmit a distress signal on 121.5 (civilian distress channel) and 243.0 MHz (military counterpart) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also used for marine Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) and the new land-based Personal Radio Beacons (PRB) </li></ul></ul>
  149. 150. Aviation Radio <ul><li>The United States airspace is divided into 21 centers </li></ul><ul><li>Each center is divided into sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Also within each center are portions of airspace, about 50 miles (80.5 km) in diameter, called TRACON ( T erminal R adar A pproach CON trol) airspaces </li></ul><ul><li>Within each TRACON airspace are a number of airports, each of which has its own airspace with a 5-mile (8-km) radius </li></ul>
  150. 151. Aviation Radio <ul><li>SEATTLE GROUND: 118.35 WEST 121.7 EAST </li></ul><ul><li>SEATTLE TOWER: 119.9 EAST 120.95 WEST </li></ul><ul><li>SEATTLE APPROACH:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>119.2(076-160 RY 16) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>119.2(341-075) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>120.1(199-300) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>120.4(301-340 RY 34) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>125.6 ARRIVAL WEST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>125.9(076-160 RWY 34) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>125.9(301-340 RWY 16) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>126.5(161-198) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SEATTLE DEPARTURE:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>119.2(076-160 RY 16) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>119.2(341-075) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>120.1(199-300) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>120.4(301-340 RY 34) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>125.6 ARRIVAL WEST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>125.9(076-160 RWY 34) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>125.9(301-340 RWY 16) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>126.5(161-198) </li></ul></ul>
  151. 152. Aviation Radio <ul><li>BOEING TOWER: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>118.3(309-127) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>120.6(128-308) </li></ul></ul>
  152. 153. EPIRBs and PRBs <ul><li>&quot;406&quot; EPIRBs operate on the 406 MHz frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the EPIRB which takes the “search” out of search and rescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPIRBs (Global Position Indicating Radio Beacon) combine the latest in GPS and 406MHz EPIRB (Electronic Position Indicating Radio Beacon) technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built in GPS determines and broadcasts its own location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By international agreement, the original 121.5 MHz (civil) and 243 MHz (military) beacons are no longer be sensed by satellites starting in 2009 </li></ul>
  153. 154. Landlines <ul><li>If they are still functioning, use the telephone and fax whenever the message might be too sensitive for radio </li></ul><ul><li>Fax is also useful for sending long lists, and where accuracy is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Do not tie up a radio frequency sending a long list of supplies if a working fax or phone is available </li></ul>
  154. 155. Couriers <ul><li>Sensitive or very lengthy message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fax and phone lines are out of service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hand delivery might be the best choice if travel is possible </li></ul>Acting as a courier does not eliminate the use of radio, since couriers need to be dispatched from place to place
  155. 156. Sample Emergency Network
  156. 157. And Don’t Forget <ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>WebEOC </li></ul><ul><li>Packet </li></ul>
  157. 158. Scenario 18-1 <ul><li>You are driving on an Interstate highway in a rural area and you come upon an accident with a severely injured driver. You have a cell phone and a modified Amateur Radio which covers the local Fire Department frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When is it legal to summon for help on the Fire Department frequency? </li></ul></ul>
  158. 159. Scenario 18-2 <ul><li>You are the on duty NCS Operator and you have been given an ICS-213 form with a page long handwritten message that needs to be sent to a local shelter. Operational in the EOC are Amateur Radio equipment, landline phones, facsimile machines, and PCs with email connectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul>
  159. 160. Scenario 18-3 <ul><li>You are the Amateur Radio Operator on duty at the Hospital. An EMT in the field needs additional instructions from a physician at the hospital. The physician does not have an Amateur Radio license. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul>
  160. 161. Lesson 18 Activity <ul><li>Develop a list of at least three potential uses for non-ham radios in public service or emergency communication efforts in your area. You may base this on past or potential events. Specify which alternate radio system(s) best meets the need of each situation on your list and explain why. </li></ul>
  161. 162. Lesson 18 Questions <ul><li>Which can you NOT use to identify your transmissions on Citizens' Band radio? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your Amateur call, if you were licensed when 11-meters was an Amateur allocation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With your old Class D call sign, if you had one. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A self-assigned identifier. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A tactical call sign. </li></ul></ul>
  162. 163. Lesson 18 Questions <ul><li>Which is the best course of action for summoning help via CB? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use channel 1, since the lowest frequency has the longest ground-wave signal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call at regular intervals on Channels 9 and 19 for a response. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call only on channel 9, since it is designated for assistance and emergencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Say &quot;Break-Break&quot; or &quot;MAYDAY&quot; on any channel. </li></ul></ul>
  163. 164. Lesson 18 Questions <ul><li>Which is NOT an advantage of using Family Radio Service (FRS) systems? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are readily available at low cost. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation of FRS radios is simple and requires little training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no requirement for licensing to use FRS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low transmitter power </li></ul></ul>
  164. 165. Lesson 18 Questions <ul><li>Who may currently license a GMRS system with the FCC? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A privately owned business, for routine communications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual, for family and personal use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A charitable institution, for benevolent purposes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A local repeater club. </li></ul></ul>
  165. 166. Lesson 18 Questions <ul><li>Which is NOT true of the MURS? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A station license is not required. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power output is limited to 2 watts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radios operate in the VHF band </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data emissions are permitted </li></ul></ul>
  166. 167. Lesson 18 References <ul><li>Multiple Use Radio Service (MURS) rules </li></ul><ul><li>Family Radio Service rules </li></ul><ul><li>General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) rules </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen's Band (CB) rules </li></ul><ul><li>For a detailed discussion of the FCC Rules on Amateur Radio emergency communication, please see the ARRL FCC Rule Book , Chapter 5. </li></ul>
  167. 168. 10 Minute Break
  168. 169. Lesson 19 - What to Expect in Large-Scale Disasters
  169. 170. Onset: Critical Communication Requirements in a Disaster <ul><li>Huge increase in the volume of traffic on public-safety radio channels, accompanied by prolonged waiting periods to gain access </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment outages occur at key locations </li></ul><ul><li>Messages are not handled in order of priority </li></ul><ul><li>Urgent messages are often lost </li></ul><ul><li>Need arises for agencies to communicate with one another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatible radio systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfamiliar or unattainable frequencies, names, terms, and procedures </li></ul></ul>
  170. 171. Onset: Critical Communication Requirements in a Disaster <ul><li>Large-scale situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact locations at distances beyond the range of a given radio or system (50 to 350 miles or more) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Message reply delays are experienced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deferred decisions on crucial matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message duplication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Messages with widely differing priorities </li></ul>
  171. 172. Different modes of communication <ul><li>Different modes of communication are required in addition to voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume data in printed form data modes, high-speed packet, and facsimile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morse code or PSK31 under difficult reception conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoded data for extreme privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Television--mobile, portable, aeronautical, and marine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone interconnections from/to radio systems </li></ul></ul>
  172. 173. Operational Problems Arise <ul><li>High-volume traffic circuits with no supply of message forms </li></ul><ul><li>Using the only printed forms available that were designed for a different, unrelated agency or function </li></ul><ul><li>Attempting to decipher scribbling from untrained message writers; using scribes who cannot understand radio parlance or read through QRM </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming inundated with traffic volume so heavy it results in confusion over which messages are to be sent, which were sent, which have been received for delivery, and which have been received to be filed for ready reference. </li></ul>
  173. 174. What Happens in the First 72 Hours? <ul><li>Takes time to overcome the obstacles to placing fully activated mutual aid resources into operation </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest concentration of relief effort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally found in the incorporated cities served by agencies with paid professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming their equipment, facilities and personnel remain operable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Suburbs and isolated areas of a county </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffer from remoteness from fire departments, public works, law enforcement and the services of all other agencies </li></ul></ul>
  174. 175. What Happens in the First 72 Hours? <ul><li>The public is often isolated, unable to call for help or determine the nature and extent of the disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Should they make plans to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Wait it out.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare to evacuate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actually evacuate with some possessions to a safe place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain physical aid for an impending catastrophe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer aid to a relative, friend or neighbor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of information results in further attempted use of the telephone when the system is already saturated </li></ul>
  175. 176. What Happens in the First 72 Hours? <ul><li>The opportunity to call for help is often unavailable to most citizens during the first 72 hours </li></ul>
  176. 177. What Happens in the First 72 Hours? <ul><li>Distorted public perceptions develop through misinformation </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast stations (those still on the air) initially disseminate rumors in the absence of factual information </li></ul><ul><li>People walk aimlessly seeking a route to family and friends </li></ul><ul><li>Many, fearful of looting, remain in hazardous buildings, or return, as do shopkeepers, to salvage valuables </li></ul><ul><li>As darkness falls, rumors of looting are generated some true </li></ul>
  177. 178. What Happens in the First 72 Hours? <ul><li>Word circulates about shelter locations </li></ul><ul><li>Some displaced persons stay at homes of friends, relatives or strangers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Others are housed at public shelters into the fourth day, still searching for family members elsewhere, and without communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to notify concerned distant relatives is not afforded except via Amateur Radio and the American Red Cross </li></ul>
  178. 179. What Happens in the First 72 Hours? <ul><li>Later, often too late, information trickles in about problem areas or cases that have been overlooked due to the lack of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Some potential evacuees are overlooked </li></ul><ul><li>Survival instincts prevail </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-agency communication is poor to non-existent </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of 72 hours, the disaster area remains in virtual isolation except for helicopter service for known critical cases and official use </li></ul>
  179. 180. What Happens in the First 72 Hours? <ul><li>Amateur Radio operators from neighboring counties and states offer to help but are often unable to cross the roadblocks established to limit access by sightseers and potential looters </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganized local volunteers often lack essential skills and orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Costly mistakes are made and systems bog down </li></ul>
  180. 181. What Happens in the First 72 Hours? <ul><li>The dead pose a serious health problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress rises among the citizenry. </li></ul><ul><li>Little overall assessment emerges in the first 72 hours about available emergency resources and relief supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>Shortages are apparent and growing </li></ul><ul><li>Travel continues to be difficult and slow </li></ul><ul><li>Relief supplies trickle in to uncertain storage locations </li></ul>
  181. 182. What Happens in the First 72 Hours? <ul><li>Food and water shortages have become critical </li></ul><ul><li>Normal water sources may have been cut off or contaminated </li></ul><ul><li>Relief efforts are mounted when someone takes charge, makes a decision, and directs the efforts of others. </li></ul><ul><li>The command and control process of directing requires communication - the ingredient in short supply in all disasters </li></ul>
  182. 183. What Happens in the First 72 Hours? <ul><li>At critiques following a disaster, as always, the cry is heard: &quot;Next time we must be better prepared!&quot; </li></ul>By the way, this lesson was written prior to Katrina… What did we learn from the past???
  183. 184. <ul><li>What About After the Disaster? </li></ul>
  184. 185. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing <ul><li>CISS is the adverse psychological and/or physiological reaction to a stressful incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search and Rescue personnel are particularly susceptible to this due to the very nature of their job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Six phases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction and a description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of the factual material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing of initial thoughts/feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing of emotional reactions to the incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction about normal stress reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of the symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closing and further needs assessment </li></ul></ul>
  185. 186. Traumatic Crisis <ul><li>An event in which people experience or witness: </li></ul><ul><li>Actual or potential death or injury to self or others. </li></ul><ul><li>Serious injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of homes, neighborhood, or valued possessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of contact with family/close relationships. </li></ul>
  186. 187. Traumatic Stress <ul><li>Traumatic stress may affect: </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical health. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal reactions. </li></ul>
  187. 188. Mediating Factors <ul><li>Prior experience with a similar event </li></ul><ul><li>The intensity of the disruption in the survivors’ lives </li></ul><ul><li>Individual feelings that there is no escape, which sets the stage for panic </li></ul><ul><li>The emotional strength of the individual </li></ul><ul><li>The length of time that has elapsed between the event occurrence and the present </li></ul>
  188. 189. Stabilizing Individual <ul><li>Assess the survivors for injury and shock. </li></ul><ul><li>Get uninjured people involved in helping. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide support by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathizing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help survivors connect with natural support systems. </li></ul>
  189. 190. Avoid Saying . . . <ul><li>“ I understand.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don’t feel bad.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ You’re strong/You’ll get through this.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don’t cry.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It’s God’s will.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It could be worse” or “At least you still have . . .” </li></ul>
  190. 191. Lesson 19 Activity <ul><li>Make a list of the natural disasters most likely to occur in your home area, and order them from most to least likely. For the most likely disaster on your list, discuss the preparations made by local emergency communication groups to deal with a related communication emergency. </li></ul>
  191. 192. Lesson 19 Questions <ul><li>What is the first thing that happens after a disaster has occurred? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Federal Emergency Management Agency arrives on the scene. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Red Cross and Salvation Army arrive with food and bedding for victims. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive increase in the volume of traffic on public-safety radio channels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The press provides up to date and accurate information to the public. </li></ul></ul>
  192. 193. Lesson 19 Questions <ul><li>Which of the following statements is NOT true of interagency communication? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many agencies use incompatible radio systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many agencies are reluctant to use each other's radio system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies all use the same radio systems and frequencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amateur Radio can be used to link agencies. </li></ul></ul>
  193. 194. Lesson 19 Questions <ul><li>In the first 72 hours of a disaster situation, where is the greatest concentration of relief effort to be found? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suburban areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside the affected area. </li></ul></ul>
  194. 195. Lesson 19 Questions <ul><li>Which organization handles health and welfare messages on behalf of the victims? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARES. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RACES. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Weather Service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Red Cross. </li></ul></ul>
  195. 196. Lesson 19 Questions <ul><li>What is the usual situation in a disaster during the initial 72 hours? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The disaster area remains in virtual isolation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The disaster is over and everybody can go home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A few victims still need assistance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication systems are back to normal. </li></ul></ul>
  196. 197. Lesson 19 References <ul><li>ARRL Public Service Communications Manual </li></ul><ul><li>For more information on the FCC Rules, please see The ARRL's FCC Rule Book , chapter 5 on providing emergency communications. </li></ul><ul><li>For additional general information, please see The ARRL Operating Manual , chapter on emergency communications. See also the ARRL ARES Field Resources Manual . </li></ul><ul><li>For local information, or to learn more about ARES and NTS net operation in your area, contact your Section Manager (SM) (, your Section Emergency Coordinator (SEC) or District Emergency Coordinator (DEC). See also The ARRL Net Directory for a list of ARES and NTS nets operating in your area. </li></ul>
  197. 198. Lesson 20 - Hazardous Materials Awareness
  198. 199. Hazardous Materials <ul><li>HazMat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any substances or materials, which if released in an uncontrolled manner (e.g., spilled), can be harmful to people, animals, crops, water systems, or other elements of the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amateur radio operators may encounter HazMat incidents, or to assist with emergency communications in such incidents </li></ul>
  199. 200. Hazardous Materials . . . <ul><li>Corrode other materials </li></ul><ul><li>Explode or are easily ignited </li></ul><ul><li>React strongly with water </li></ul><ul><li>Are unstable when exposed to heat or shock </li></ul><ul><li>Are toxic to humans, animals, or the environment </li></ul>
  200. 201. HazMat <ul><li>Explosives </li></ul><ul><li>Gases </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable and combustible liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable solids or substances </li></ul><ul><li>Poisonous and infectious substances </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive materials </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosives </li></ul>
  201. 202. Sources of Hazardous Materials <ul><li>Chemical plants </li></ul><ul><li>Service stations </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials waste sites </li></ul><ul><li>Transport vehicles </li></ul>
  202. 203. Hazardous Materials Incident Preparedness <ul><li>Find out what could happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Address the hazards in your emergency plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice and maintain your plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the warning and information system for your community. </li></ul>
  203. 204. During a Hazardous Materials Incident <ul><li>Call for help immediately and let the experts handle the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Stay away from the incident site. </li></ul><ul><li>If outside, stay upstream, uphill, and upwind. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT be tempted to get just a little closer so that you can read placards or other items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If in a motor vehicle, stop and find shelter. </li></ul><ul><li>If asked to evacuate, do so immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>If requested, stay indoors—shelter in place. </li></ul>
  204. 205. During a Hazardous Materials Incident <ul><li>If you are able to see from a safe position , look for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The four-digit number on a placard or orange panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The four-digit number preceded by the initials UN/NA on a shipping paper, package or drum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The name of the material on the shipping papers, placard, or package </li></ul></ul>
  205. 206. Identifying Hazardous Materials in Transit Name Chemical Class Symbol Symbol Chemical Number Chemical Class
  206. 207. Identifying Hazardous Materials in Transit Orange Red White Red Red & White Red & White Blue Yellow White Yellow & White Black & White
  207. 208. Identifying Stored Hazardous Materials
  208. 209. Reporting a HazMat Incident <ul><li>When reporting a HazMat incident, include the following information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify yourself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give your current location and the location of the incident, i.e. street address or cross streets, road and mile marker, distance from nearest town, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Briefly describe what you see (from a distance), i.e. liquid spill, gaseous cloud, etc, and any placard numbers or other information you can safely see. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a gaseous cloud or liquid spill exists, give the direction the contaminant is flowing or moving. Give any pertinent weather or other information you can observe from a safe distance that might help the experts in responding to the incident. Be concise. </li></ul></ul>
  209. 210. Reporting a HazMat Incident <ul><li> </li></ul>
  210. 211. Lesson 20 Activities <ul><li>Describe how you would handle the following situation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are traveling through a rural area right behind a tornado, reporting damage and casualties to the local fire and police agencies as you go. Cresting a hill, you see a tank trailer overturned on the road ahead. No one else is around. A variable wind is blowing the leaking fumes in several directions unpredictably. You cannot see the placards on the truck from where you are. </li></ul></ul>
  211. 212. Lesson 20 Questions <ul><li>Which of the following BEST describes where you should be located when in the vicinity of a HazMat incident? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Far away enough to ensure your safety. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downhill and downwind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close enough to read the numbers on any placards with your naked eyes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alongside emergency responders wearing exposure suits. </li></ul></ul>
  212. 213. Lesson 20 Questions <ul><li>Which federal agency is responsible for warning the public about hazardous materials containers and shippers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Emergency Management Agency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Response Plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Communications System. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Transportation. </li></ul></ul>
  213. 214. Lesson 20 Questions <ul><li>Before transmitting in the area of a HazMat incident what should you always do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First identify the agents by reading the placard or container labels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be far enough away so that no vapors or fumes are present. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait to report the incident until police or fire officials have arrived. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take action to stop or contain any agents that might be leaking. </li></ul></ul>
  214. 215. Lesson 20 Questions <ul><li>On the sides of transporting vehicles how are different classes of hazardous materials identified? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four-digit numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warning labels and/or icons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of the answers are correct. </li></ul></ul>
  215. 216. Lesson 20 Questions <ul><li>Which information will give responding authorities the most useful information? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placard color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Icon types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warning labels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four-digit numbers </li></ul></ul>NOTE: This is the old Question #4 from the previous version of the Level 1 book. This question might still be on some of the tests.
  216. 217. Lesson 20 Questions <ul><li>Gasoline tankers filling the neighborhood gas station's underground tanks are identified with a placard bearing which of the following? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1203 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1993 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2706 </li></ul></ul>
  217. 218. Lesson 20 References <ul><li>Details of the placards and emergency response procedures can be found in the comprehensive DOT Emergency Response Guidebook, copies of which may be available for your review at your local Emergency Management, police, sheriff or fire department. A copy is also available online at: </li></ul><ul><li>You may also consult your Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) or State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) concerning what role Amateur Radio might have in your local plan. For more information about hazardous materials in general, contact FEMA, Technological Hazards Division, Federal Center Plaza, 500 C St., SW, Washington, DC, 20472 (202) 646-2861. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional related links: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  218. 219. Lesson 21 - Marine Communications
  219. 220. Definitions <ul><li>Vessel : A general term for all craft capable of floating on water and larger than a rowboat. </li></ul><ul><li>Ship : A general term for larger seagoing vessels of every kind. </li></ul><ul><li>Boat : A term applied to smaller craft propelled by oars, sails or engines. </li></ul><ul><li>Marine : An adjective meaning related to or connected with the sea. </li></ul>
  220. 221. Type of Marine Radio <ul><li>VHF-FM, (156 to 162 MHz) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective range from ship to ship of 10 to 15 miles, and ship to shore of 20-30 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vessels that routinely travel outside this distance generally have MW/HF-SSB, satellite communications or both </li></ul><ul><li>CW communication on MW/HF is no longer used </li></ul><ul><li>No license is currently required for pleasure boats operating on the FM channels in US territorial waters </li></ul>
  221. 222. VHF-FM <ul><li>FCC limits VHF-FM marine radios to a maximum of 25 watts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radios are also required to be capable of 1-watt operation for short range and in-harbor use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VHF and MW/HF marine radio use is restricted to vessels on the water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of portables or mobiles to communicate with crew on shore is not allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marinas, marine towing services, and fish canneries may be licensed for limited base operations on certain channels </li></ul></ul>
  222. 223. Channel Selection <ul><li>Marine FM frequencies have been assigned channel numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel 16 has been designated worldwide as a distress and calling frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All vessels are required to maintain a listening &quot;watch&quot; on FM 16 while underway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FM 9 has been designated as an alternate calling frequency </li></ul></ul>
  223. 224. Frequencies for key marine VHF channels FM 9 156.45 Calling FM 22 157.1 Coast Guard - NOTAMS FM 16 156.8 Calling/Distress FM 23 157.15 Coast Guard FM 17 156.85 State/local gov't shore sta. FM 68 156.425 Intership FM 18 156.9 Commercial Intership FM 69 156.475 Intership FM 21 157.05 Coast Guard FM 83 157.175 Coast Guard Auxillary
  224. 225. Restricted Channels <ul><li>Some channels are not for public use </li></ul><ul><li>FM 83 is reserved for use by the Coast Guard Auxiliary </li></ul><ul><li>FM 22 is for public communication with the Coast Guard, but may not be used by boaters unless specifically instructed to do so by the Coast Guard radio operator on FM 16 </li></ul><ul><li>FM 22 is also used by the Coast Guard to broadcast &quot;Notice To Mariners&quot; messages (NOTAMS), after announcing them on FM 16. </li></ul><ul><li>FM 6 is an Inter-Ship Safety channel, and is often used for search and rescue operations. </li></ul><ul><li>List of all marine channels and their assigned uses can be seen at </li></ul>
  225. 226. Spoken Emergency Signals <ul><li>&quot;MAYDAY MAYDAY&quot; — The highest priority urgency call. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vessel calling is threatened by grave or immediate danger and requires immediate assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;PAN PAN&quot; (pronounced &quot;pawn-pawn&quot;) — known as an &quot;urgency&quot; call </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vessel calling has an urgent message concerning the safety of a vessel or person </li></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;SECURITE&quot; (pronounced &quot;securitay&quot;) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Official messages about the safety of navigation or important weather warnings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;SILENCE&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declared by Coast Guard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only units involved in incident may transmit on frequency under order lifted by Coast Guard </li></ul></ul>
  226. 227. Incident Reporting <ul><li>Two types of incidents that hams may need to report directly to the Coast Guard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vessels in distress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reported directly to the nearest Coast Guard station </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil or chemical spills into public waters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coast Guard's National Response Center at 1-800-424-8802 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NRC Internet Web site </li></ul></ul></ul>
  227. 228. Distress Calls <ul><li>Listen first to see if the Coast Guard responds within a minute or two </li></ul><ul><li>If not, attempt to gather the following information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position of the vessel involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of persons on board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of the distress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name of the vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call sign (if any) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length and type of vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any descriptive features — number of masts, flying bridge, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather conditions on scene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On board emergency equipment: life raft, Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) and class of EPIRB if possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency being used to communicate with the vessel </li></ul></ul>
  228. 229. Distress Calls <ul><li>Contact either 911 dispatch or the closest Coast Guard facility by phone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In some cases, a local fire or police boat may be able to respond more quickly than the