Jocelyn L Gagalang, Ph D
To which of the body parts can
you compare syntax with?
traditionally called “Parts of Speech”
Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs
Pronouns, Articles, Prepositions,
-- open sets and are content words, in that
they have particular semantic referents.
Why are they considered content words?
e.g. get, book, library
Major grammatical categories
-- are closed sets, and are function words,
in that they largely fulfill grammatical
functions and are necessary to make a
sentence that is acceptable in form.
e.g. Get the book from the library.
Minor grammatical categories
1. introduce friend them
2. these topics present
3. children imitate
4. various activities launch
5. cheap flights abound
In groups of three, use the following words in complete
sentences. Present your answers to the class.
6. body benefits exercise
7. never jeopardize health
8. summer fun all
9. heed parents’ advice
10. rethink cleanliness
In groups of three, use the following words in
complete sentences. Present your answers to
1. occurs with a determiner before it
proper nouns and some
2. has singular and plural forms
3. has a possessive form (‘s or ‘)
NOUNS: Definition and Characteristics
4. may function as:
subject of a verb: Time flies.
object of a transitive verb:
Faith can move mountains.
complement of a transitive verb:
We call them heroes.
complement of a linking verb:
e.g. Destiny is not chance.
object of a preposition:
e.g. Demitasse is after dinner.
nominative of address:
e.g. Buyers beware!
e.g. Henning Brendt, the alchemist,
discovered phosphorous in
specific names and are capitalized
e.g. University of Rizal System
Write down your own five samples.
According to grammatical number:
collective nouns: e.g. person (jury,
may be treated as singular or plural
count nouns: e.g. box, package, cars
have plural forms
noncount or mass nouns: e.g. cloth,
do not have plural forms except
under special contexts
According to reference
abstract nouns: e.g. imagination,
anger, fear, love, honesty
These refer to concepts, emotions, etc.
concrete nouns: e.g. thunder,
These refer to phenomena which
can be experienced through the
Group yourselves into five and on the
allotted space on the board write down
as many nouns as you can think of within
Explain the type of each noun to the class
with members taking turns.
Write down a summary of your
favorite TV show, book or movie.