AUTHENTIC AND ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHODS

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AUTHENTIC AND ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHODS

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AUTHENTIC AND ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHODS

  1. 1. AUTHENTIC AND ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHODS
  2. 2.  In the education industry, alternative assessment or portfolio assessment is in direct contrast to what is known as performance evaluation, traditional assessment, standardized assessment or summative assessment.
  3. 3. Alternative Assessment Is also known under various other terms including:  Authentic assessment  Integrative assessment  Holistic assessment  Assessment for learning  Formative assessment
  4. 4. Authentic Assessment Gives students situations that occur in the real-world which require them to apply their relevant skills and knowledge.
  5. 5. Characteristics of authentic assessment  Requires student to develop responses rather than select from predetermined options.  Elicits higher order thinking in addition to basic skills.  Directly evaluate holistic projects.  Synthesize with classroom instruction.  Uses sample of student work (portfolios) collected over an extended time period.
  6. 6. Characteristics of authentic assessment  Stems for clear criteria made known to students.  Allows for the possibility of multiple human judgment.  Relate more closely to classroom learning.  Teaches students to evaluate their own work.
  7. 7.  These characteristics of traditional assessment methods, they cannot be called “fair”.  Even if the tests are inappropriate in the context of the students, they are forced to accept the assessment method used.  A test is fair when it is appropriate, that is, when it is personalized, natural, and flexible; when it can be modified with pinpoint specific abilities and function at the relevant level of difficulty; and when it promotes a rapport between examiner and the students.
  8. 8.  Authentic assessment is designed to be criterion reference rather than norm- reference.  Such evaluation identifies strengths and weaknesses, but does not compare or rank students.  Assessment procedure does not determine in advance the number of students who will pass or fail a given course as in the case of norm-reference system.
  9. 9.  Authentic assessment is often based on performance.  Students are asked to demonstrate their knowledge, skills or competencies in whatever way they find appropriate.  There are several challenges in using authentic assessment methods.  They include managing its time-intensive nature, ensuring curricular validity, and minimizing evaluator bias.
  10. 10. Classroom assessment techniques  Classroom assessment techniques include the class of assessment procedures called action research.  In these techniques a teacher uses varieties of tools and practices that allow them to access accurate and relevant information about the quality of student learning and the quality of his teaching as well.
  11. 11. Classroom assessment techniques  The main goal of Classroom assessment techniques is not to grade a students nor evaluate a teacher but rather that the information gathered be used for facilitating interaction and dialogue between the students and a teacher on the quality of learning process and thus, find ways and means to improve the process.
  12. 12. Classroom assessment techniques  Classroom assessment techniques provide both teachers and students with “in process” information on how well students are learning what the curriculum intends.
  13. 13. 3 basic questions CATs ask are:  What are the essential skills and knowledge I am trying to teach?  How can I find out whether students are learning them?  How can I help the students learn better?
  14. 14. Basic steps in Classroom assessment techniques 1. Choose a learning goal to assess. 2. Choose an assessment techniques 3. Apply the technique 4. Analyze the data and share the results with the students 5. Respond to the data
  15. 15. Teachers “menu” of evaluation tools 1. Check the students background knowledge 2. Identify areas of confusion 3. Enable students to self-assess their learning level 4. Determine the students learning style 5. Target and build specific skills
  16. 16.  If classroom assessment techniques is used in a classroom setting, the teacher often finds that the results of his investigation can be shared with other teachers who are similarly situated.  It therefore becomes necessary to publish his findings and thus contribute to the field of knowledge and to the list of best practices in teaching.
  17. 17. Creating a Portfolio Assignment
  18. 18. In order to create a portfolio assignment for the students, it is necessary to establish a series of questions which has to be addressed in designing a portfolio assignment.
  19. 19. 7 essentially questions in development of a portfolio assignment  Purpose – What is the purpose of the portfolio?  Audience – In what audiences will the portfolio be created?  Content – What samples of student work will be included?  Process – What processes(e.g., selection of work to be included, reflection on work, conferencing) will be engaged in during the development of the portfolio.
  20. 20.  Management – How will time and materials will be managed in the development of the portfolio?  Communication – How and when will the portfolio be shared with pertinent audiences?  Evaluation – If the portfolio is to be used for evaluation, when and how should it be evaluated?
  21. 21. Purpose – What is the purpose of the portfolio?
  22. 22.  Portfolio are not easy to prepare and they require much time and resources to complete.  It is important that both the students and the teacher understand clearly why they are preparing the portfolio.  In the case of the portfolio that tells the students’ ability to solve linear equation in two unknowns, the compilations need to clearly relate to this particular subject matter.
  23. 23. Audience – In what audiences will the portfolio be created?
  24. 24.  Who will eventually see the portfolio?  It goes without saying that this too is an important question hand in hand with the statement of portfolio objectives.  By identifying the audience who will want to examine the portfolio, the students are also appropriately guided as to the content and levels of materials that they need to compile in the portfolio.
  25. 25.  Students need to keep their audiences in mind as they proceed through each step of developing their portfolios.  A good method for checking whether a portfolio serves the anticipated audiences is to imagine different members of those audiences viewing the portfolio.
  26. 26. Content – What samples of student work will be included?
  27. 27.  Once the purpose of the audience established, it is now time to determine just what the portfolio will contain.  The contents of the portfolio depends to a large extent of the purpose and audience identified.
  28. 28.  When we ask questions: “What should be included” the natural answer would be a question like “what the story do you want to tell?” and “who do you want to tell it to?”.
  29. 29. Considerations relatively to the questions of content:  Hypothetically, there is no limit as to what can be included in a portfolio.  The important keyword will be “manageability”: can you manage a large amount of content in the portfolio.  Can you actually manage to go through all materials as a teacher? (e.g., cd-roms, audio-tapes, DVD's, letters, projects etc.)
  30. 30. Other Content  In addition to samples of student work and reflection upon that work, a portfolio might also include a table of contents or a cover letter (both typically composed by the student) to aid a reader in making sense of the purposes, processes and contents of the portfolio.  This can be particularly useful if the portfolio is to be shared with external audiences unfamiliar with the coursework such as parents, other educators and community
  31. 31. Process – What processes will be engaged in during the development of the portfolio.
  32. 32.  One of the greatest attributes of the portfolio is its potential for focusing on the processes of learning.  We emphasize the products students create or the outcomes they achieve.  As a result, the products or outcomes are not as good as we or the students would like because they are often unsure how to get started, how to self-diagnose or self-correct or how to determine when a piece of work is "finished.”
  33. 33. focus on three of the most common:  selection of contents of the portfolio;  reflection on the samples of work and processes;  conferencing about the contents and processes.
  34. 34. selection of contents of the portfolio  Identifying the purpose(s) for the portfolio should drive the selection process.  How samples are selected might also differ depending on the purpose. For example, for an evaluation portfolio, the teacher might decide which samples need to be included to evaluate student progress.  Finally, a showcase portfolio might be designed to include significant input from the student on which samples best highlight achievement and progress, or the teacher might primarily make
  35. 35. How might the selection take place?  What I will describe below are just a few of the many possible avenues for selecting which samples will be included in a portfolio.  But these examples should give you a good sense of some of the choices and some of the decisions involved.
  36. 36. When?  when a sample of work is completed - at the point a piece of work is ready to be turned in (or once the work has been returned by the teacher) the student or teacher identifies that work for inclusion in the portfolio  at periodic intervals - instead of selecting samples when they are completed, the samples can be stored so that selection might occur every two (three, six or nine) weeks or once (twice or three times) every quarter (trimester or semester)  at the end of the ... unit, quarter, semester, year, etc.
  37. 37. By whom?  by the student -- students are the most common selectors, particularly for portfolios that ask them to reflect on the work selected. Which work students select depends on the criteria used to choose each piece (see below).  by the teacher -- teachers may be the selector, particularly when identifying best pieces of work to showcase a student's strengths or accomplishments.  by the student and teacher -- sometimes portfolio selection is a joint process involving conversation and collaboration.
  38. 38.  by peers -- a student might be assigned a "portfolio partner" or "portfolio buddy" who assists the student in selecting appropriate pieces of work often as part of a joint process involving conversation and collaboration. A peer might also provide some reflection on a piece of work to be included in the portfolio.  by parents -- parents might also be asked to select a piece or two for inclusion that they particularly found impressive, surprising, reflective of improvement, etc.
  39. 39. Based on what criteria?  best work - selection for showcase portfolios will typically focus on samples of work that illustrate students' best performance in designated areas or the culmination of progress made
  40. 40.  evidence of growth -- selection for growth portfolios will focus on identifying samples of work and work processes (e.g., drafts, notes) that best capture progress shown on designated tasks, processes or acquisition of knowledge and skills. For example, students might be asked to choose samples of earlier and later work highlighting some skill or content area  samples of rough drafts and final drafts  work that traces the development of a particular product or performance  samples of work reflecting specifically identified strengths and weaknesses
  41. 41.  evidence of achievement -- particularly for showcase and evaluation portfolios, selection might focus on samples of work that illustrate current levels of competence in designated areas or particular exemplars of quality work  evidence of standards met -- similarly, selection could focus on samples of work that illustrate how successfully students have met certain standards
  42. 42.  favorite/most important piece -- to help develop recognition of the value of the work completed and to foster pride in that work, selection might focus on samples to which students or parents or others find a connection or with which they are particularly enamored  one or more of the above -- a portfolio can include samples of work for multiple reasons and, thus, more than one of the above criteria (or others)
  43. 43. Reflection on Samples of Work  Simply selecting samples of work as described above can produce meaningful stories about students, and others can benefit from "reading" these stories.  But the students themselves are missing significant benefits of the portfolio process if they are not asked to reflect upon the quality and growth of their work.
  44. 44.  As Paulson and Meyer (1991) stated, "The portfolio is something that is done by the student, not to the student."  Most importantly, it is something done for the student.  The student needs to be directly involved in each phase of the portfolio development to learn the most from it, and the reflection phase holds the most promise for promoting student growth.
  45. 45. In the reflection phase students are typically asked to  comment on why specific samples were selected or  comment on what they liked and did not like in the samples or  comment on or identify the processes involved in developing specific products or performances or  describe and point to examples of how specific skills or knowledge improved (or did not) or
  46. 46.  identify strengths and weaknesses in samples of work or  set goals for themselves corresponding to the strengths and weaknesses or  identify strategies for reaching those goals or  assess their past and current self-efficacy for a task or skill  or complete a checklist or  survey about their work or  some combination of the above
  47. 47. Reflection sheets  Probably the most common portfolio reflection task is the completion of a sheet to be attached to the sample (or samples) of work which the reflection is addressing.  The possibilities for reflection questions or prompts are endless, but some examples I have seen include
  48. 48. Selection questions/prompts  Why did you select this piece?  Why should this sample be included in your portfolio?  How does this sample meet the criteria for selection for your portfolio?  I chose this piece because ....
  49. 49. Growth questions/prompts What are the strengths of this work? Weaknesses? What would you work on more if you had additional time? How has your ______ (e.g., writing) changed since last year? What do you know about ______ (e.g., the scientific method) that you did not know at the beginning of the year (or semester, etc.)? Looking at (or thinking about) an earlier piece of similar work, how does this new piece of work compare? How is it better or worse? Where can you see progress or improvement? How did you get "stuck" working on this task? How did you get "unstuck"? One skill I could not perform very well but now I can is ....
  50. 50. Goal-setting questions/prompts  What is one thing you can improve upon in this piece?  What is a realistic goal for the end of the quarter (semester, year)?  What is one way you will try to improve your ____ (e.g., writing)?  One thing I still need to work on is ....  I will work toward my goal by ....
  51. 51. Evaluation questions/prompts  If you were a teacher and grading your work, what grade would you give it and why?  Using the appropriate rubric, give yourself a score and justify it with specific traits from the rubric.  What do you like or not like about this piece of work?  I like this piece of work because ....
  52. 52. Effort questions/prompts  How much time did you spend on this product/performance?  The work would have been better if I had spent more time on ....  I am pleased that I put significant effort into ....
  53. 53. Overall portfolio questions/prompts  What would you like your _____ (e.g., parents) to know about or see in your portfolio?  What does the portfolio as a whole reveal about you as a learner (writer, thinker, etc.)?  A feature of this portfolio I particularly like is ....  In this portfolio I see evidence of ....
  54. 54. Other reflection methods  write a letter to a specific audience about the story the portfolio communicates  write a "biography" of a piece of work tracing its development and the learning that resulted  write periodic journal entries about the progress of the portfolio  compose an imaginary new "chapter" that picks up where the story of the portfolio leaves off  orally share reflections on any of the above questions/prompts
  55. 55. Reflection as a process skill Good skill development requires four steps:  Instruction and modeling of the skill;  Practice of the skill;  Feedback on one's practice;  Reflection on the practice and feedback.

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