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1. 1. Introduction to Spreadsheets Fundamental Skills 1
2. 2. Spreadsheets <ul><li>A spreadsheet is an application that is used for performing calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets consist of columns and rows. </li></ul>
3. 3. Spreadsheets <ul><li>The intersection of each row and column is called a CELL </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell is identified by a row and column reference such as A4, D6 etc. </li></ul>
4. 4. Cells <ul><li>Cells can contain either text, numbers or formulas. </li></ul><ul><li>To enter data in the cell it must first be selected (by clicking on the cell) </li></ul>
5. 5. <ul><li>Cells can be formatted to display numbers as either date, currency, percent, decimal and other numerical formats. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common text formatting options are also available </li></ul>
6. 6. Formulas <ul><li>Formulas are used to make a spreadsheet more versatile. </li></ul><ul><li>When writing formulas in a cell an equal sign “=“ is first entered. </li></ul>Mathematical Operations Multiplication * Division / Addition + Subtraction - Relational Operations Equal = Not equal to <> Less than < Greater than > Less than or equal to <= Greater than or equal to >=
7. 7. Formulas <ul><li>Formulas should be written in terms of cell references </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. = C4 + C5 + C6 </li></ul>=C4+C5+C6
8. 8. Formulas <ul><li>Once the formula is entered into the cell the results will be shown. </li></ul>
9. 9. Functions <ul><li>There are many formulas or FUNCTIONS that can be used in a spreadsheet. Functions make calculations easier. </li></ul><ul><li>These functions cover a variety of categories such as mathematics, financial or logical. </li></ul>
10. 10. Functions <ul><li>Common functions include SUM, AVERAGE, MAX and MIN. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions consist of a name, a set of brackets and arguments or parameters. </li></ul><ul><li>Arguments are the values on which the functions operate. </li></ul>
11. 11. SUM <ul><li>The SUM function is one of the most commonly used. It adds up all the numbers in a range of cells. </li></ul>=sum(A1,A2,A3,A4) adds cells A1,A2,A3 and A4 =sum(A1,B6,C67,F2) adds the cells indicated. =sum(A1:B5) adds all the numbers from A1 to B5
12. 12. =sum(C4:C6)
13. 13. AVERAGE <ul><li>The AVERAGE function operates in a similar way as SUM. </li></ul>=AVERAGE(A1,A2,A3,A4) averages cells A1,A2,A3 and A4 =AVERAGE(A1,B6,C67,F2) averages the cells indicated. =AVERAGE(A1:B5) averages all the numbers from A1 to B5
14. 14. =average(D4:D6)
15. 15. MAX and MIN <ul><li>MAX returns the largest value from a range of cells. </li></ul>=MAX(B2:B9) <ul><li>MIN returns the smallest value from a range of cells. </li></ul>=MIN(B2:B9)
16. 16. Highest Profit Lowest Profit =MAX(D4:D6) =MIN(D4:D6) Highest Profit Lowest Profit
17. 17. Repetitive Formulas <ul><li>Often the same formula will need to be applied to different ranges of cells. </li></ul>
18. 18. Repetitive Formulas <ul><li>Instead of entering the same formula in each cell and adjusting the cell reference, it is possible to ‘fill’ the formula across and have the cell referencing adjusted automatically. </li></ul><ul><li>First select the cell with the formula and then either select FILL from the edit menu or use the ‘FILL’ handle. </li></ul>
19. 19. Repetitive Formulas =sum(C4:C6) FILL handle Note: Fill Down may also be used to copy formulas down a column/s =sum(D4:D6) =sum(E4:E6)
20. 20. Absolute References <ul><li>When ABSOLUTE references are used the contents of the formula are not changed when filling down or across. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. the cell references remain the same. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absolute references are indicated by placing a ‘\$’ before the column and/or row reference. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. \$A\$1 </li></ul></ul>
21. 21. Absolute References =C4*\$F\$3 =C5*\$F\$3 =C6*\$F\$3 =C7*\$F\$3