Chapter Menu The Chemistry of Life Section 23.1 Proteins Section 23.2   Carbohydrates Section 23.3   Lipids Section 23.4  ...
Section 23-1 Section 23.1  Proteins <ul><li>Describe  the structures of amino acids and proteins. </li></ul>polymer:  larg...
Section 23-1 Section 23.1  Proteins  (cont.) protein amino acid peptide bond peptide Proteins perform essential functions,...
Section 23-1 Protein Structure <ul><li>Proteins   are organic polymers made of amino acids linked together in a specific o...
Section 23-1 Protein Structure  (cont.) <ul><li>Each amino acid has a central carbon atom, with four groups arranged aroun...
Section 23-1 Protein Structure  (cont.)
Section 23-1 Protein Structure  (cont.) <ul><li>The amino and carboxyl groups provide bonding sites for linking amino acid...
Section 23-1 Protein Structure  (cont.) <ul><li>The amide bond that joins the two amino acids is called a  peptide bond . ...
Section 23-1 Protein Structure  (cont.) <ul><li>Peptide chains of ten or more amino acids are called polypeptides. </li></ul>
Section 23-1 Protein Structure  (cont.) <ul><li>When a chain reaches 50 or more amino acids, it is called a protein. </li>...
Section 23-1 Protein Structure  (cont.) <ul><li>Long chains of amino acids fold in unique shapes determined by the interac...
Section 23-1 Protein Structure  (cont.)
Section 23-1 The Many Functions of Proteins <ul><li>An  enzyme   is a biological catalyst. </li></ul><ul><li>A catalyst lo...
Section 23-1 The Many Functions of Proteins  (cont.)
Section 23-1 The Many Functions of Proteins  (cont.) <ul><li>Some proteins are involved in transporting smaller particles ...
Section 23-1 The Many Functions of Proteins  (cont.) <ul><li>Structural proteins are founding collagen, which makes up ski...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-1 Section 23.1 Assessment Which...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-1 Section 23.1 Assessment Amino...
End of Section 23-1
Section 23-2 Section 23.2  Carbohydrates <ul><li>Describe  the structures of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysacch...
Section 23-2 Section 23.2  Carbohydrates  (cont.) carbohydrate monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide Carbohydrates pr...
Section 23-2 Kinds of Carbohydrates <ul><li>Carbohydrates   are compounds that contain multiple hydroxyl groups as well as...
Section 23-2 Kinds of Carbohydrates  (cont.) <ul><li>Glucose is a six-carbon sugar that is present in high concentration i...
Section 23-2 Kinds of Carbohydrates  (cont.) <ul><li>Disaccharides   are formed when two monosaccharides are bonded togeth...
Section 23-2 Kinds of Carbohydrates  (cont.) <ul><li>Polysaccharides   are polymers of simple sugars made up of 12 or more...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-2 Section 23.2 Assessment Carbo...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-2 Section 23.2 Assessment Which...
End of Section 23-2
Section 23-3 Section 23.3  Lipids <ul><li>Describe  the structures of fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and stero...
Section 23-3 Section 23.3  Lipids  (cont.) lipid fatty acid triglyceride saponification Lipids make cell membranes, store ...
Section 23-3 What is a lipid? <ul><li>A  lipid   is a large, nonpolar biological molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids ,...
Section 23-3 What is a lipid?  (cont.) <ul><li>Saturated fats contain only single bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fat...
Section 23-3 What is a lipid?  (cont.) <ul><li>Triglycerides  are formed when three fatty acids are bonded to a glycerol b...
Section 23-3 What is a lipid?  (cont.) <ul><li>Saponification   is the hydrolysis of a triglyceride using an aqueous solut...
Section 23-3 What is a lipid?  (cont.) <ul><li>Phospholipids   are triglycerides in which one fatty acid is replaced by a ...
Section 23-3 What is a lipid?  (cont.) <ul><li>Waxes   are lipids formed by combining a fatty acid with a long-chain alcoh...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-3 Section 23.3 Assessment A tri...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-3 Section 23.3 Assessment Fatty...
End of Section 23-3
Section 23-4 Section 23.4  Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Identify  the structural components of nucleic acids. </li></ul>genetic i...
Section 23-4 Structure of Nucleic Acids <ul><li>A  nucleic acid   is a nitrogen-containing biological polymer that is invo...
Section 23-4 Structure of Nucleic Acids  (cont.) <ul><li>Each nucleotide has three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic phos...
Section 23-4 DNA: The Double Helix <ul><li>DNA consists of two long chains of nucleotides wound together to form a spiral ...
Section 23-4 DNA: The Double Helix  (cont.) <ul><li>DNA contains four different nitrogenous bases. </li></ul><ul><li>Adeni...
Section 23-4 DNA: The Double Helix  (cont.) <ul><li>The side-by-side base pairs are close enough to form hydrogen bonds. <...
Section 23-4 DNA: The Double Helix  (cont.) <ul><li>Watson and Crick used their model to predict how DNA’s chemical struct...
Section 23-4 RNA <ul><li>RNA is also a nucleic acid. </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of RNA differs from DNA in three ways...
Section 23-4 RNA  (cont.) <ul><li>RNA allows cells to use genetic information found in DNA. </li></ul>
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-4 Section 23.4 Assessment Which...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-4 Section 23.4 Assessment Which...
End of Section 23-4
Section 23-5 Section 23.5  Metabolism <ul><li>Distinguish  between anabolism and catabolism. </li></ul>redox process:  a c...
Section 23-5 Section 23.5  Metabolism  (cont.) metabolism catabolism anabolism ATP Metabolism involves many thousands of r...
Section 23-5 Anabolism and Catabolism <ul><li>The set of chemical reactions carried out within an organism is its  metabol...
Section 23-5 Anabolism and Catabolism  (cont.) <ul><li>Anabolism   refers to the metabolic reactions that use energy and s...
Section 23-5 Anabolism and Catabolism  (cont.)
Section 23-5 Anabolism and Catabolism  (cont.) <ul><li>ATP  is a nucleotide that functions as the universal energy-storage...
Section 23-5 Photosynthesis <ul><li>The process that converts energy from sunlight to chemical energy in the bonds of carb...
Section 23-5 Cellular Respiration <ul><li>Oxygen produced during photosynthesis is used by living things during  cellular ...
Section 23-5 Fermentation <ul><li>Cells can extract energy from glucose in the absence of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellul...
Section 23-5 Fermentation  (cont.) <ul><li>Fermentation   is the process by which glucose is broken down in the absence of...
Section 23-5 Fermentation  (cont.) <ul><li>In alcoholic fermentation, yeast and some bacteria can ferment glucose to produ...
Section 23-5 Fermentation  (cont.) <ul><li>In lactic acid fermentation, when the oxygen supply is depleted, cellular respi...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-5 Section 23.5 Assessment Which...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-5 Section 23.5 Assessment What ...
End of Section 23-5
Resources Menu Chemistry Online Study Guide Chapter Assessment Standardized Test Practice Image Bank Concepts in Motion
Study Guide 1 Section 23.1  Proteins Key Concepts <ul><li>Proteins are biological polymers made of amino acids that are li...
Study Guide 2 Section 23.2  Carbohydrates Key Concepts <ul><li>Carbohydrates are compounds that contain multiple hydroxyl ...
Study Guide 3 Section 23.3  Lipids Key Concepts <ul><li>Fatty acids are long-chain carboxylic acids that usually have betw...
Study Guide 4 Section 23.4  Nucleic Acids Key Concepts <ul><li>Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides, which consist of...
Study Guide 5 Section 23.5  Metablism Key Concepts <ul><li>Living organisms undergo catabolism and anabolism. </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Chapter Assessment 1 What are biological p...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Chapter Assessment 2 Carbonyl and hydroxyl...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Chapter Assessment 3 Cell membranes are us...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Chapter Assessment 4 Nucleotides are the m...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Chapter Assessment 5 Energy from sunlight ...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>STP 1 Which of the following is NOT true a...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>STP 2 Which of the following is NOT true a...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>STP 3 What is the condensed structural for...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>STP 4 What is the oxidation number of Zn i...
<ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>STP 5 Glucose is considered a ____.  A. si...
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CIM Table 23.1	Amino Acid Examples Figure 23.21	The Structure of DNA
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Cmc chapter 23

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Cmc chapter 23

  1. 2. Chapter Menu The Chemistry of Life Section 23.1 Proteins Section 23.2 Carbohydrates Section 23.3 Lipids Section 23.4 Nucleic Acids Section 23.5 Metabolism Exit Click a hyperlink or folder tab to view the corresponding slides.
  2. 3. Section 23-1 Section 23.1 Proteins <ul><li>Describe the structures of amino acids and proteins. </li></ul>polymer: large molecules composed of many repeating units called monomers <ul><li>Explain the roles of proteins in cells. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Section 23-1 Section 23.1 Proteins (cont.) protein amino acid peptide bond peptide Proteins perform essential functions, including regulation of chemical reactions, structural support, transport of materials, and muscle contractions. denaturation enzyme substrate active site
  4. 5. Section 23-1 Protein Structure <ul><li>Proteins are organic polymers made of amino acids linked together in a specific order, not just random chains of amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids are organic molecules that have both an amino group and an acidic carboxyl group. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Section 23-1 Protein Structure (cont.) <ul><li>Each amino acid has a central carbon atom, with four groups arranged around it: an amino group, carboxyl group, hydrogen atom, and variable side chain. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Section 23-1 Protein Structure (cont.)
  7. 8. Section 23-1 Protein Structure (cont.) <ul><li>The amino and carboxyl groups provide bonding sites for linking amino acids together. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Section 23-1 Protein Structure (cont.) <ul><li>The amide bond that joins the two amino acids is called a peptide bond . </li></ul>
  9. 10. Section 23-1 Protein Structure (cont.) <ul><li>Peptide chains of ten or more amino acids are called polypeptides. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Section 23-1 Protein Structure (cont.) <ul><li>When a chain reaches 50 or more amino acids, it is called a protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 20 different amino acids exist. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Section 23-1 Protein Structure (cont.) <ul><li>Long chains of amino acids fold in unique shapes determined by the interaction among amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Denaturation is the process in which a protein’s natural three-dimensional structure is disrupted. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Section 23-1 Protein Structure (cont.)
  13. 14. Section 23-1 The Many Functions of Proteins <ul><li>An enzyme is a biological catalyst. </li></ul><ul><li>A catalyst lowers the activation energy of a reaction by stabilizing the transition states. </li></ul><ul><li>A substrate refers to the reactant in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>The spot to which the substrates bind is called the active site . </li></ul><ul><li>Substrates must fit the active site in the same way puzzle pieces fit together. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Section 23-1 The Many Functions of Proteins (cont.)
  15. 16. Section 23-1 The Many Functions of Proteins (cont.) <ul><li>Some proteins are involved in transporting smaller particles throughout the body. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Section 23-1 The Many Functions of Proteins (cont.) <ul><li>Structural proteins are founding collagen, which makes up skin, ligaments, tendons, and bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Other proteins make up fingernails, hair, fur, and wool. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones are chemical messenger molecules that carry signals from one part of the body to another. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-1 Section 23.1 Assessment Which best describes a protein? A. a building block B. a biological polymer C. an enzyme D. a catalyst
  18. 19. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-1 Section 23.1 Assessment Amino acids in a protein are linked together by ____. A. ionic bonds B. hydrogen bonds C. peptide bonds D. temporary dipole
  19. 20. End of Section 23-1
  20. 21. Section 23-2 Section 23.2 Carbohydrates <ul><li>Describe the structures of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. </li></ul>stereoisomers: a class of isomers whose atoms are bonded in the same order but are arranged differently in space <ul><li>Explain the functions of carbohydrates in living things. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Section 23-2 Section 23.2 Carbohydrates (cont.) carbohydrate monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide Carbohydrates provide energy and structural material for living things.
  22. 23. Section 23-2 Kinds of Carbohydrates <ul><li>Carbohydrates are compounds that contain multiple hydroxyl groups as well as carbonyl groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides are the simple sugars, composed of five or six carbon atoms. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Section 23-2 Kinds of Carbohydrates (cont.) <ul><li>Glucose is a six-carbon sugar that is present in high concentration in blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is a major source of immediate energy for the body. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Section 23-2 Kinds of Carbohydrates (cont.) <ul><li>Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides are bonded together. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Section 23-2 Kinds of Carbohydrates (cont.) <ul><li>Polysaccharides are polymers of simple sugars made up of 12 or more monomers. </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen is an important polysaccharide found in animals that is used to store energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Starch and cellulose are also important polysaccharides found in starch. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-2 Section 23.2 Assessment Carbohydrates contain which two functional groups? A. amine and hydroxyl B. carbonyl and amide C. carbonyl and aldehyde D. hydroxyl and carbonyl
  27. 28. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-2 Section 23.2 Assessment Which of the following is considered a monosaccharide? A. glucose B. glycogen C. starch D. cellulose
  28. 29. End of Section 23-2
  29. 30. Section 23-3 Section 23.3 Lipids <ul><li>Describe the structures of fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids. </li></ul>nonpolar: without separate positive and negative areas or dipoles <ul><li>Explain the functions of lipids in living organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify some reactions that fatty acids undergo. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate the structure and function of cell membranes. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Section 23-3 Section 23.3 Lipids (cont.) lipid fatty acid triglyceride saponification Lipids make cell membranes, store energy, and regulate cellular processes. phospholipid wax steroid
  31. 32. Section 23-3 What is a lipid? <ul><li>A lipid is a large, nonpolar biological molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids , the building blocks of lipids, are long-chain carboxylic acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids are placed in two groups: saturated and unsaturated. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Section 23-3 What is a lipid? (cont.) <ul><li>Saturated fats contain only single bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fats contain one or more double bonds. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Section 23-3 What is a lipid? (cont.) <ul><li>Triglycerides are formed when three fatty acids are bonded to a glycerol backbone. </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides can be solids or liquids at room temperature. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Section 23-3 What is a lipid? (cont.) <ul><li>Saponification is the hydrolysis of a triglyceride using an aqueous solution of a strong base to form carboxylate salts and glycerol. </li></ul><ul><li>Saponification is used to make soaps. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Section 23-3 What is a lipid? (cont.) <ul><li>Phospholipids are triglycerides in which one fatty acid is replaced by a polar phosphate group. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membranes are made up of a double layer of phospholipids, called a lipid bilayer. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Section 23-3 What is a lipid? (cont.) <ul><li>Waxes are lipids formed by combining a fatty acid with a long-chain alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Both plants and animals make waxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids are lipids that have multiple cyclic rings in their structures. </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-3 Section 23.3 Assessment A triglyceride in which a fatty acid is replaced by a phosphate group is a ____. A. wax B. phospholipid C. steroid D. fatty acid
  38. 39. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-3 Section 23.3 Assessment Fatty acids, the building blocks of lipids, are composed of what? A. triglycerides B. steroids C. amides D. long-chain carboxylic acids
  39. 40. End of Section 23-3
  40. 41. Section 23-4 Section 23.4 Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Identify the structural components of nucleic acids. </li></ul>genetic information: an inherited sequence of RNA or DNA that causes traits or characteristics to pass from one generation to the next nucleic acid nucleotide <ul><li>Relate the function of DNA to its structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the structure and function of RNA. </li></ul>Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic information.
  41. 42. Section 23-4 Structure of Nucleic Acids <ul><li>A nucleic acid is a nitrogen-containing biological polymer that is involved in the storage and transmission of genetic information. </li></ul><ul><li>The monomer that makes up a nucleic acid is called a nucleotide . </li></ul>
  42. 43. Section 23-4 Structure of Nucleic Acids (cont.) <ul><li>Each nucleotide has three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic phosphate group </li></ul><ul><li>Five-carbon monosaccharide </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous base </li></ul>
  43. 44. Section 23-4 DNA: The Double Helix <ul><li>DNA consists of two long chains of nucleotides wound together to form a spiral structure. </li></ul><ul><li>The spiral structure is known as a double helix. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Section 23-4 DNA: The Double Helix (cont.) <ul><li>DNA contains four different nitrogenous bases. </li></ul><ul><li>Adenine </li></ul><ul><li>Thymine </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosine </li></ul><ul><li>Guanine </li></ul>
  45. 46. Section 23-4 DNA: The Double Helix (cont.) <ul><li>The side-by-side base pairs are close enough to form hydrogen bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Guanine always bonds to cytosine, and thymine always bonds to adenine. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Section 23-4 DNA: The Double Helix (cont.) <ul><li>Watson and Crick used their model to predict how DNA’s chemical structure enables it to function. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA stores genetic information of a cell in the cell’s nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>The two chains are complementary, the mechanism by which genetic material of a cell is copied. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Section 23-4 RNA <ul><li>RNA is also a nucleic acid. </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of RNA differs from DNA in three ways. </li></ul><ul><li>RNA contains adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil (but never thymine). </li></ul><ul><li>RNA contains sugar ribose instead of sugar deoxyribose. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is a double helix while RNA is a single strand. </li></ul>
  48. 49. Section 23-4 RNA (cont.) <ul><li>RNA allows cells to use genetic information found in DNA. </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-4 Section 23.4 Assessment Which is NOT part of a nucleotide? A. nitrogenous base B. lipid C. phosphate group D. sugar
  50. 51. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-4 Section 23.4 Assessment Which is NOT a difference between RNA and DNA? A. DNA is a double helix; RNA a single strand. B. DNA is a nucleic acid; RNA is not. C. DNA has thymine; RNA has uracil. D. DNA contains deoxyribose sugar; RNA contains ribose sugar.
  51. 52. End of Section 23-4
  52. 53. Section 23-5 Section 23.5 Metabolism <ul><li>Distinguish between anabolism and catabolism. </li></ul>redox process: a chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred from one atom to another <ul><li>Describe the role of ATP in metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast the processes of photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and fermentation. </li></ul>
  53. 54. Section 23-5 Section 23.5 Metabolism (cont.) metabolism catabolism anabolism ATP Metabolism involves many thousands of reactions in living cells. photosynthesis cellular respiration fermentation
  54. 55. Section 23-5 Anabolism and Catabolism <ul><li>The set of chemical reactions carried out within an organism is its metabolism . </li></ul><ul><li>Catabolism refers to the metabolic processes that break down complex biological molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, triglycerides, and nucleic acids for the purpose of forming smaller building blocks and extracting energy. </li></ul>
  55. 56. Section 23-5 Anabolism and Catabolism (cont.) <ul><li>Anabolism refers to the metabolic reactions that use energy and small building blocks to synthesize complex molecules needed by an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Catabolism and anabolism are linked by common building blocks that catabolic reactions produce and anabolic reactions use. </li></ul>
  56. 57. Section 23-5 Anabolism and Catabolism (cont.)
  57. 58. Section 23-5 Anabolism and Catabolism (cont.) <ul><li>ATP is a nucleotide that functions as the universal energy-storage molecule in living cells. </li></ul>
  58. 59. Section 23-5 Photosynthesis <ul><li>The process that converts energy from sunlight to chemical energy in the bonds of carbohydrates is called photosynthesis . </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis results in the reduction of carbon atoms in carbon dioxide as glucose is formed. </li></ul>
  59. 60. Section 23-5 Cellular Respiration <ul><li>Oxygen produced during photosynthesis is used by living things during cellular respiration , the process in which glucose is broken down to form carbon dioxide, water, and large amounts of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular respiration is the major energy-producing process in living organisms. </li></ul>
  60. 61. Section 23-5 Fermentation <ul><li>Cells can extract energy from glucose in the absence of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular respiration produces 38 mol of ATP per 1 mol glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentation produces 2 mol ATP per 1 mol of glucose. </li></ul>
  61. 62. Section 23-5 Fermentation (cont.) <ul><li>Fermentation is the process by which glucose is broken down in the absence of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>There two common kinds of fermentation: alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation. </li></ul>
  62. 63. Section 23-5 Fermentation (cont.) <ul><li>In alcoholic fermentation, yeast and some bacteria can ferment glucose to produce ethanol. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholic fermentation is used to make bread, form tofu, and produce ethanol in alcoholic beverages. </li></ul>
  63. 64. Section 23-5 Fermentation (cont.) <ul><li>In lactic acid fermentation, when the oxygen supply is depleted, cellular respiration stops. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells produce lactic acid and a small amount of energy from lactic acid fermentation of glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>Build-up of lactic acid is what results in burning pain in the muscles during strenuous exercise. </li></ul>
  64. 65. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-5 Section 23.5 Assessment Which process is the major energy-producing process in living organisms? A. photosynthesis B. cellular respiration C. alcoholic fermentation D. lactic acid fermentation
  65. 66. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Section 23-5 Section 23.5 Assessment What process breaks down glucose in the absence of oxygen? A. anabolism B. catabolism C. cellular respiration D. fermentation
  66. 67. End of Section 23-5
  67. 68. Resources Menu Chemistry Online Study Guide Chapter Assessment Standardized Test Practice Image Bank Concepts in Motion
  68. 69. Study Guide 1 Section 23.1 Proteins Key Concepts <ul><li>Proteins are biological polymers made of amino acids that are linked by peptide bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Protein chains fold into intricate three-dimensional structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins have many functions in the human body, including functions within cells, functions between cells, and functions of structural support. </li></ul>
  69. 70. Study Guide 2 Section 23.2 Carbohydrates Key Concepts <ul><li>Carbohydrates are compounds that contain multiple hydroxyl groups (–OH) and a carbonyl functional group (C=O). </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates range in size from single monomers to polymers composed of hundreds or thousands of monomers. </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides in aqueous solution exist in both open-chain and cyclic structures. </li></ul>
  70. 71. Study Guide 3 Section 23.3 Lipids Key Concepts <ul><li>Fatty acids are long-chain carboxylic acids that usually have between 12 and 24 carbon atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds; unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids can be linked to glycerol backbones to form triglycerides. </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids are lipids that have multiple-ring structures. </li></ul>
  71. 72. Study Guide 4 Section 23.4 Nucleic Acids Key Concepts <ul><li>Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides, which consist of a nitrogen base, a phosphate group, and a sugar. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA and RNA are the information-storage molecules of a cell. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is double stranded, and RNA is single stranded. </li></ul>
  72. 73. Study Guide 5 Section 23.5 Metablism Key Concepts <ul><li>Living organisms undergo catabolism and anabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis directly or indirectly provides all living things with energy. </li></ul><ul><li>The net equation for cellular respiration is the reverse of the net equation for photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  73. 74. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Chapter Assessment 1 What are biological polymers made of amino acid monomers called? A. enzymes B. peptides C. nucleotides D. proteins
  74. 75. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Chapter Assessment 2 Carbonyl and hydroxyl groups are found in which group? A. lipids B. fatty acids C. carbohydrates D. proteins
  75. 76. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Chapter Assessment 3 Cell membranes are usually made of what? A. fatty acids B. cellulose C. triglycerides D. phospholipids
  76. 77. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Chapter Assessment 4 Nucleotides are the monomers of what biological polymer? A. nucleic acid B. nitrogenous bases C. polysaccharides D. polypeptides
  77. 78. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>Chapter Assessment 5 Energy from sunlight is harnessed by which process? A. alcoholic fermentation B. cellular respiration C. photosynthesis D. catabolism
  78. 79. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>STP 1 Which of the following is NOT true about cellulose? A. It is a polysaccharide. B. It is easily digestible by humans. C. It is produced by plants. D. It is a carbohydrate.
  79. 80. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>STP 2 Which of the following is NOT true about DNA? A. DNA contains the nitrogenous base thymine. B. DNA is usually double stranded. C. DNA contains the nitrogenous base uracil. D. DNA contains deoxyribose sugar.
  80. 81. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>STP 3 What is the condensed structural formula of 1-pentanol? A. CH 3 (CH 2 ) 4 OH B. CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 COOH C. CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 CH=O D. CH 2 -O-(CH 2 ) 3 CH 3
  81. 82. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>STP 4 What is the oxidation number of Zn in Zn(NO 3 ) 2 ? A. +2 B. +3 C. +5 D. +6
  82. 83. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>STP 5 Glucose is considered a ____. A. simple sugar B. polysaccharide C. fatty acid D. nucleotide
  83. 84. IB Menu Click on an image to enlarge.
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  101. 102. CIM Table 23.1 Amino Acid Examples Figure 23.21 The Structure of DNA
  102. 103. Help Click any of the background top tabs to display the respective folder. Within the Chapter Outline, clicking a section tab on the right side of the screen will bring you to the first slide in each respective section. Simple navigation buttons will allow you to progress to the next slide or the previous slide. The “Return” button will allow you to return to the slide that you were viewing when you clicked either the Resources or Help tab. The Chapter Resources Menu will allow you to access chapter specific resources from the Chapter Menu or any Chapter Outline slide. From within any feature, click the Resources tab to return to this slide. To exit the presentation, click the Exit button on the Chapter Menu slide or hit Escape [Esc] on your keyboards while viewing any Chapter Outline slide.
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