Cns blog notes

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Cns blog notes

  1. 1. Central Nervous System
  2. 2. Basic Brain Anatomy <ul><li>Male brains larger than female brains </li></ul><ul><li>Male = 1600 grams Female = 1450 grams </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of three major parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Stem </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by tough sac called the “dura mater” </li></ul><ul><li>Includes sensory areas, motor areas, association areas </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cerebrum <ul><li>Divided into cerebral hemispheres (left, right) </li></ul><ul><li>Form about 83% of brain mass </li></ul><ul><li>Appears “wrinkled” </li></ul><ul><li>Gyri = elevated ridges of tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Sulci = grooves between ridges </li></ul><ul><li>Central sulcus splits anterior/posterior portions of cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Wrinkled tissue greatly increases surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper grooves called “fissures” </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal fissure separates left, right hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse fissure separates cerebrum from cerebellum </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>“ Executive suite” of the nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Allows us to experience LIFE!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Allows us to experience conscious behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Gray in color (gray matter) </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons plus glial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Only 1/8” thick but …….. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrinkled anatomy & surface area = 40% of brain’s mass!! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sensory Areas <ul><li>Afferent division </li></ul><ul><li>Strip of tissue located posteriorly to central sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>Primary somatosensory cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Receives information </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Receives senses from sensitive areas e.g. lips/fingertips/genitals </li></ul><ul><li>Somatosensory association area </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzes temperature, pressure, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Can tell what an object is just by touch </li></ul><ul><li>Visual cortex - vision. Visual association area - sight recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Gustatory cortex - taste. Olfactory cortex - smell </li></ul>
  6. 6. Motor Areas <ul><li>Located anterior to central sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>Primary motor cortex - voluntary muscle movement </li></ul><ul><li>Premotor cortex - skills of a repetetive nature </li></ul><ul><li>Juggling </li></ul><ul><li>Typing </li></ul><ul><li>Dribbling a basketball </li></ul><ul><li>Walking </li></ul>
  7. 7. Misc. Brain Regions ….
  8. 8. Broca’s Area <ul><li>Motor/speech area </li></ul><ul><li>Controls movement of lips along with sound to form speech </li></ul>
  9. 9. Prefrontal Cortex <ul><li>Most complicated of all brain regions!! </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for memory, conscience </li></ul>
  10. 10. Freud’s Personality Divisions <ul><li>Id - driven by pleasure!!! Instinct… </li></ul><ul><li>Ego - Reality component of personality. Tries to balance id and superego. Organized and realistic. </li></ul><ul><li>“ How do I make this work??” </li></ul><ul><li>Superego - morality. “Inner voice” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Thalamus <ul><li>Plays a key role in mediating: </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Motor activities </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>memory </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hypothalamus <ul><li>Visceral control center of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Controls involuntary body functions </li></ul><ul><li>Center for emotional response & behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Body temperature regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates food intake </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates water balance/thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates sleep/wake cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Controls endocrine system functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure center </li></ul>
  13. 13. Amygdala <ul><li>Plays a role in controlling anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Works with hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for anger & fear </li></ul>
  14. 14. Midbrain <ul><li>Pain suppression </li></ul><ul><li>Visual reflex centers </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinates head/eye movements </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pons <ul><li>Controls rhythm of breathing </li></ul>
  16. 16. Medulla Oblongata <ul><li>Respiratory center </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Hiccups </li></ul><ul><li>Swallowing </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lateralization of Cortical Functioning <ul><li>Division of labor in the cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Left hemisphere controls right side of body & vice versa </li></ul><ul><li>In 90% of people: </li></ul><ul><li>Left side of brain = language, analytical, mathematics, logic </li></ul><ul><li>Right side of brain = visual/spatial skills, appreciation of music/arts, emotion, creativity, etc </li></ul><ul><li>“ right-handed” </li></ul><ul><li>The other 10 % of people: </li></ul><ul><li>“ left-handed” or ambidextrous </li></ul><ul><li>Roles reversed on each side </li></ul><ul><li>Brain hemispheres connected by corpus callosum </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cerebellum <ul><li>11% of brain mass </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for timing/patterns of skeletal muscle contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for smooth, coordinated movements </li></ul><ul><li>Driving, typing, playing musical instruments, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Functioning occurs subconsciously; we are not aware of it </li></ul>

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