Activity Option…• Conferences• Instructional Games• Parties, Assemblies, Field Trips and Extracurricular Activities• Community- Based Learning
Discussions Discussions aredesigned to stimulate students to respond diversely and at higher cognitive levels to what they have been learning. - Good and Brophy (1991)
During discussions, “teacher and students, workingas a group, share opinions in order to classifyissues, relate new knowledge to their priorknowledge or experience, or attempt to answer aquestion or solve problems.
When students with disabilities are included indiscussions, it may be necessary to modify andadjust the types and levels of questions asked.Some students may be able to participate andcontribute better if asked recall and specific-information questions rather than questionsrequiring analysis of presented information.
Advantages DisadvantagesProviding a forum for Some students will notstudents to present their participateopinions and to respond tothose of their classmatesChallenging students to make Some students will haveconnections between content difficulties hearing orand their personal experience concentrating on what others have to say and may miss out on a great deal of contentShifting curricular focus to Not all students will be willingwhat is most important to to make contributions in frontstudents of a large group
PRESENTATIONSThis activity option offers ways to communicateinformation to individual students, dyads,cooperative groups, and large groups.It is important to match the presentation formats tothe students’ needs and characteristics.
EXPERIMENTS AND LABORATORY EXPERIENCESExperimentschallenge students todevelop hypothesesand investigate themto determine whetherthey are true or willhold under differingsituations.
They require students to observe, collect andanalyse data, communicate their ideas to others,classify information and findings, and measure,compute and predict.
Experiments and lab require teachers to set thestage carefully for learning and to examine whatneeds to be done to accommodate student needsand differences. Part of this planning involves takinginto consideration students’ prior experiences inconducting experiments, their learning styles, andtheir motivation to participate.
SIMULATIONS Through simulation, students gain “almost first- hand experience” of what it would be like to be involved intimately with the concepts, ideas and performance being discussed.
Simulation may be used when access to authenticcontexts is unavailable, although it is known thatlearning skills in authentic contexts helps to ensuregreater generalization and maintenance ofunderstanding.Simulation may also be used to raise awareness ofdisability.
Implementation of simulation can be especiallychallenging. The attempt to convert a classroom intosetting similar to a targeted setting can fall short andfall to help students generalize skills to actualenvironment.
Good and Brophy (1991) describe learning centers as places “where students can go to work independently or inLEARNING CENTERS cooperation with peers on various learning projects.”
Learning centers are places where all the materials andequipment needed for a particular task are provided andwhere students can go to complete those task.
Advantages1. They provide opportunities for independent study and add flexibility to the classroom because they expand the range of learning opportunities available.2. They encourage students to become independent learners who monitor their own progress.3. Centers allow teachers to individualize instruction.4. Learning centers allow teachers to broaden the scope of the curriculum.
PACKETSPackets are collection ofactivities that studentscomplete individually.Packets may contain aset of worksheets, a list ofdirections and suppliesneeded for completingtasks.
In many instances, packets reflect individualizedinstruction, containing activities that target students’specific needs and skills.Packets may be in the form of individual folders,three- ring binders, files on the computer or activitylists posted in learning centers.
Instructional Goals research skills,critical thinking and problem – solving skills,writing and presentation skills, and (for acollaboratively completed project); andskills for working effectively with others.
Students of all ages can engage in project learning.Initially, and for younger children, projects may be ofshort duration and take one or two days to complete.At first, projects may be highly structured by theteacher. As students, gain skills in project-basedlearning, projects may be completed over extendedperiods and require students to do most of theorganizing for completion.
To increase authenticity and value for students withsevere or multiple disabilities, it may be helpful ifprojects are completed in community- basedsettings. The projects may be conducted with thesupport of nondisabled peers or with naturalsup[ports found in community environments.
Conferences- individual sitting down toC discuss a topic, product, or event- areO another learning experience or instructional activity. Conferences allow for in-depthF exploration and discussion of students’E learning understanding and experiences and they help to forge connection betweenR students, teacher, parents and other.ECES
Types of Conferences• Peer Conferences• Student- Adult Conferences
Peer ConferencesThese conferences may also be used to solveproblems in the classroom or school community.They can be specifically designed to supportstudents with disabilities.Student with disabilities may conference withnondisabled peers to learn strategies for makingfriends, for getting along with authority figures in theschool and community environments.
Student- Adult ConferencesFrom student- adult conferencing, students gainpersonal insight into themselves as learners andyoung citizens and adult learn to see children asindividuals with their own unique needs andconcerns. The adult may be the classroom teacher,instructional assistant, related services provider,administrator, parent or community individual.
Board games, word searches, logic problems andother instructional games are excellent motivatorsfor students while teaching and reinforcing skills.Games also provide authentic situations fordevelopment of interpersonal skills.
To be educationally meaningful, games must beconnected with curricular goals and objectives.However, teacher should be clear about the purposeof games and how they can be used to supportstudent learning.
PARTIES, ASSEMBLIES, FIELD TRIPS,AND EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES Finn (1989) discusses the role of extracurricular activities in reducing withdrawal from school and also states that involvement may (a) increase students’ identification with school, (b) increase their sense of belonging and (c) allow them opportunities to become attached to school.
There is a need of discussion to the caregiver orguardians of the student with disability to what mayhappen in the field trip and whether the excursion mightprovide an opportunity for student to work on IEP goals,benchmarks, and objectives such as walking with eyesand head up, listening for certain voices and movingtoward them, or trying new thing whether he or shethroughout understands them or not.
Two Approaches for Identifying Appropriate Activities• Analyzing Attributes• Addressing Multiple Intelligences
ANALYZING ACTIVITY ATTRIBUTESEach activity has attributes that influence when andwhy teachers choose to include it in their instruction.Activity attributes include authenticity, performancedemands, alignment with curriculum, groupingarrangement and material and equipment.
1. Authenticity The authenticity of an activity is the degree to which it is representative of what individuals outside school setting are called on to do in their daily lives.
• Authenticity may be viewed as being high to low. High authentic tasks mirror role performances individuals carry out outside school, such as balancing a checkbook, making purchase at a local store, making phone calls, writing letters and notes, or preparing summary reports on the job.
Low- authenticity tasks in and of themselves are not poor teaching opportunities or experiences – they may play a vital role in students’ acquiring and practicing basic skills.
Including authentic tasks in the curriculum can behighly motivating for students.
2. Performance Demands Performance demands are what students are required to do complete or participate in an activity or tasks. Performance demands also may view as being on a continuum.• Awareness of performance demands allows teachers to modify and adapt learning experiences to reflect student needs.
3. Alignment with curriculum Alignment with curriculum refers to what degree of learning experience match what has been identified as important in the curriculum.
Some learning experiences are highly motivating forboth teachers and student but have very little time todo with students learning key concepts or target lifeperformance. Such experiences must be carefullyscreened for instructional intent and their abilityabout those ends.
The match of between an experience and thecurriculum should be assessed to ensure thatselected experiences maximize students’opportunities to learn and take advantage ofacademic learning time.
4. Group Arrangement The way in which student work, whether individual, or in group is another activity attribute. Consideration of grouping arrangement – individual working alone or in dyads, cooperative groups, large groups – helps teachers to structure activities to support students’ needs and goal achievement.•
5. Material and equipment requirements While selecting activities to include in lessons, it is helpful to anticipate – while the plan is being developed – what materials and equipment will be needed to carry out the lessons successfully, and to avoid last- minute searches for materials.
• This attributes is especially important to teachers working with individuals with disabilities. For example, planning ahead of time for the reading materials needed is important for a teacher of a student with visual impairment
ADRESSING MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES• A second approach to the selection of activities involves the application of the theory of multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1982) to instructional practice and is proposed by Armstrong (1994). Armstrong encourages teachers to consider all types of intelligence when selecting activities and designing lesson plans.
• His procedure for lesson design emphasizes expanded notions of the activities that may be most appropriate in meeting objectives by addressing seven (logical- mathematics, spatial, musical, bodily- kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, linguistic) of eight intelligences.
Procedures in Addressing Multiple Intelligences1. Identify the objective.
2. Ask questions about how each intelligence will beaddressed in the lesson.
3. Consider all the possibilities for including the sevenintelligences to meet the objective.
4. Brainstorm ideas about how to include each of theintelligences in the lesson.
5. Select approaches and activities from thebrainstormed list.
6. Develop a plan that arranges these ideas in asystematic order.