According to Greenland (2003)1. Specify the performance outcomes.2. Select the focus of the3. Select an appropriate degree of realism.4. Select the performance situation.5. Select the method of observing, recording, and scoring.
Specify the Performance outcomes• consist of behaviour and content.• Behaviour – expressed as a verb. E. g. locate, select, touch, draw, design…• Content - output of the learning process E.g. a bar graph, a treasure map, a dress…
Example of instructional objectives in the psychomotor domain• Select the appropriate statistical tool Behavior Content
• Design a pattern for making a t – shirt• Conduct an action research• Make oral report• Construct a table of specification
Select the focus of the AssessmentProcess (procedure), product, or somecombination of both the process and theproduct
Guidelines to be Observed in Process1. The steps involved in a certain process should be arranged in their correct sequence.2. The procedure must be observable.3. The observation of the correct sequencing of steps is necessary for another tasks to be performed.
4. The analysis of the steps involved in a process can be help improve a particular product.5. Assessment of the process is used only when no product is possible as an output.
Guidelines to be Consider in Product1. A variety of procedures may be employed to come up with an equally good and acceptable product.2. The process is unavailable at the moment.
3. The procedure has already been mastered very well.4. The resulting product possesses qualities or characteristics that can be identified and judged.
Selecting an Appropriate Degree of RealismThe degree of realism can be illustrate using DALE ‘S CONE OF EXPERIENCE
HIGH Text Pictures or Audio only Video and/or multimedia Dramatization of live demonstration Simulation and role play Real- life experiencesLOW
Examples of various degrees of REALISM Degree of Realism Situation Place the students in an actual bookstore where• High Realism each student shows how to locate, select and pay for the books and real money.
Set up a mock bookstore where each• Moderate realism student demonstrates how to locate, select, and pay for the book using real books and “ play money.’
Select the Performance Situation1. Paper – and – pencil performance2. Identification test3. Structured performance test4. Simulated performance5. Work samples - Gronlund (2003)
Standard in Judging Student Performance Kind of Standard Illustrative ExamplesTime complete an experiment in one hourRate read aloud 100 words per minuteError count 1 to 100 without errorPrecision measure a piece of wood within ½ of a centimeterQuantity locate 20 books about spiders in the library