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ADL's Mobile Training Implementation Framework (MoTIF) Project


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ADL’s recent research review uncovered the fact that very few actual ID models for mobile learning truly exist. Instead of creating a new ID model, they have presented a framework that can be used to incorporate mobile learning considerations into existing ID models and agile approaches to optimize them for the mobile learner. Ideally, instructional designers should now consider focusing on new opportunities for improving performance and augmenting skills, not just on knowledge transfer.

The flexible approach proposed by the framework takes both instruction and performance support into consideration for the mobile learning task or challenge at hand. This session will provide you with ADL’s mobile learning research findings and an overview of the MoTIF project. This session will specifically address the mLearning considerations during the analysis and design phases. Participants will also receive a list of mobile learning resources and discuss opportunities for getting involved with the community supporting this effort and evolving the framework.

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ADL's Mobile Training Implementation Framework (MoTIF) Project

  1. 1. Sponsored by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness (OUSD P&R)ADL’s MoTIF ProjectmLearnCon, San Jose, CA, June 19, 2013Mr. Jason Haag, Research Analyst, Mobile Learning LeadThe Tolliver Group, Inc. SETA Support for ADL
  2. 2. | Session #7082‣  ADL Initiative was established in 1999 byPresidential Executive Order 13111. The first twoADL Co-Labs opened in Alexandria, VA and Orlando,FL that same year.Advanced Distributed LearningBackground and Vision
  3. 3. 3“Provide access to the highest qualityeducation and training, tailored toindividual needs, delivered cost effectively,anywhere and anytime.”- ADL Vision
  4. 4. | Session #7084ADL Global ReachCanada ADL Partnership LabKingston, ON, CanadaNorway ADLPartnership LabOslo, NorwayUnited KingdomADL Partnership LabBuckinghamshire,United KingdomKorea ADLPartnership LabSeoul, KoreaRomania ADLPartnership LabBucharest, RomaniaLatin America and Caribbean RegionsADL Partnership LabMexico City, MexicoNATO ACT ADLPartnership LabNorfolk, VAADL Co-LabOrlando, FLAcademic ADL Co-LabMadison, WIADL Co-LabAlexandria, VAADL Center for IntelligentTutoring Systems Researchand DevelopmentMemphis, TNPoland ADLPartnership LabWarsaw, Poland
  5. 5. | Session #708 5What a difference 8 years makes. St. Peter’s SquarePhoto Source:
  6. 6. | Session #708 6App Store Turns Five in 2013Happy Birthday!
  7. 7. | Session #708The MoTIF Projectmo·tif   [moh-teef]noun1. a recurring subject, theme, idea, etc.2. a distinctive and recurring form, shape, figure, etc., ina design3. a dominant idea or featureMobile Training Implementation Framework (MoTIF)
  8. 8. | Session #708The MoTIF ProjectWhat is the problem (gap)?Many education and training professionals are creating newmobile content and converting existing eLearning courseswithout consideration of:‣  supporting alternative learning methods (e.g. performancesupport, spaced repetition)‣  leveraging the capabilities of the mobile platform (, sensors, GPS)
  9. 9. | Session #708What is ILDF?• Integrative Learning Design Framework (ILDF)• Developed by Dr. Brenda Bannan (George Mason University)• Incorporates process efficiencies from multiple disciplines:• instructional design (needs analysis, task analysis, eval.)• object oriented software development• product development• and diffusion of innovations (Rogers)• Aims to capture the research-based knowledge relating tolearning context, culture, and technology within the designprocess
  10. 10. | Session #708What is ILDF?Iterative design research cycles to examine deeper aspects of:• learning, cognition• expert and novice perspectives• stakeholder and organizational policy considerationsConsists of 4 Phases:1.  Informed Exploration (needs analysis)2.  Enactment (intervention development)3.  Local Evaluation (road test & iterative feedback loops)4.  Broad Evaluation (diffusion of innovation)
  11. 11. | Session #708What is DBR?• Design-based research addresses complex problems ineducational practice for which no clear guidelines or solutionsare available (Plomp, R. and Nieveen, N., 2007).• The interventions will include such things as strategies,materials, products, and systems – as solutions to the problems• Outcomes will include:• Domain Theories - theories about the context andoutcomes within the instructional design domain and mobilelearning paradigm.• Design Framework - a workflow process and examplesthat will serve as a set of design guidelines for determining amobile learning solution or strategy.• Design Methodologies - guidelines for how to implementthe framework and the expertise that is required.
  12. 12. 12DBR
  13. 13. | Session #708Survey Results• 831 respondents• Help from many professional organizations, including TheElearning Guild (THANK YOU!)• Wide spectrum of countries, professions, roles represented• Report on findings to appear in July 2013• Data will be made available to the public
  14. 14. | Session #708 14What is Mobile Learning?
  15. 15. 15First…What is Learning?
  16. 16. | Session #708 16“Learning is acquiring new, or modifyingexisting, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values,or preferences and may involve synthesizingdifferent types of information.”- Human learning may occur as part of education, personaldevelopment, schooling, or training.
  17. 17. 17DefinitionsFormal Learning
  18. 18. 18“Only 20% of what’s learned on the job actuallycomes from formal learning.”Jay Cross
  19. 19. 19DefinitionsInformal LearningMost of what people learn (or retain and putinto use) is learned as part of doing their work,not through formal training.
  20. 20. | Session #708 20Formal, Non-formal, and InformalCategoriesFormalInformal AutonomousNon-formalInformal DirectedNeed forLearning& GoalsLearningMeansContentgenerationandaccessAssessmentAuthority-controlledx x xLearner-controlledx xIncidental learning (as opposed to deliberative learning) is unplanned learning – learning that happens spontaneouslyand serendipitously in the course of everyday activities. Often the learner is not conscious that learning has occurred.All four of the above paradigms are forms of deliberative learning. Incidental cannot be predicted.Need forLearning &GoalsLearningMeansContentgenerationandaccessAssessmentAuthority-controlledx x x xLearner-controlledNeed forLearning& GoalsLearningMeansContentgenerationandaccessAssessmentAuthority-controlledxLearner-controlledx x x xNeed forLearning& GoalsLearningMeansContentgenerationandaccessAssessmentAuthority-controlledx x xLearner-controlledx x
  21. 21. | Session #708 2170: 20: 10 Learning FrameworkMorgan McCall, Robert W. Eichinger, and Michael M.Lombardo at the Center for Creative Leadership•  70% from real life and on-the-job experiences, tasksand problem solving (day-to-day activities)•  20% from feedback andfrom observing andworking with role models•  10% from formal learningor training
  22. 22. | Session #708 22What is Mobile Learning?
  23. 23. 23ADL Describes, Not DefinesADL Mobile Learning Team“Leveraging ubiquitous mobile technology forthe adoption or augmentation of knowledge,behaviors, or skills through education, training,or performance support while the mobility ofthe learner may be independent of time,location, and space.”
  24. 24. 24DefinitionsLearner-focus + Device-focus = Ubiquitous LearningLearner-centricDevice-centric
  25. 25. | Session #708 25DefinitionsMobile Learning Evaluation Framework (MLEF)‣  Delphi Forum to Develop a New Definition‣  Conducted by University of Southern Queensland‣‣
  26. 26. 26“Think Outside the Course”Mobile Learning Opportunities
  27. 27. 27OpportunitiesPerformance Support
  28. 28. | Session #70828Aurasma – Use Existing Apps?!
  29. 29. 29Mobile eLearning Is NOT Mobile Learning
  30. 30. | Session #708 30
  31. 31. | Session #70831Desktop to Mobile ConversionDesktop Mobile
  32. 32. 32Touch Is Important….BUT
  33. 33. 33“Never tell people how to do things. Tell themwhat to do, and they will surprise you with theiringenuity.”- General George S. Patton
  34. 34. | Session #708 34
  35. 35. | Session #708Responsive DesignThe Boston Globe (Desktop Browser)35
  36. 36. | Session #708Responsive Design36The Boston Globe (Tablet Browser)
  37. 37. Responsive Design: CSS Media QueriesThe Boston Globe (Mobile Browser)37
  38. 38. | Session #708 38Content Size ImpactRESPONSIVE DESIGN RESPONSIBLE DESIGN≠
  39. 39. | Session #708 39“Mobile First” StrategyNaturally Improves Information Architecture
  40. 40. | Session #708 40• What about learning? instructional objectives?• What about performance support?• What about informal learning?• What about mobile device affordances?• What about content strategy (subject matter)?
  41. 41. 41edundantutdatedrivial| Session #708
  42. 42. | Session #708 42The Effectiveness of Mobile Course DeliveryResearch Findings2011 Research & I/ITSEC Paper•  Converted DoD-wide eLearning course (Trafficking inPersons) to a mobile format•  Limited to mobile conversion only (no change tosubject matter)•  Discovered SCORM doesn’t work on mobile browsers•  Led to new research questions regarding ID modelsfor mobile learning (e.g., will ADDIE and ID modelswork?)
  43. 43. | Session #70843Low Hanging Fruit: Mobile eLearningDesktop Mobile
  44. 44. | Session #708 44Mobile Learning: Not Just Another Delivery MethodResearch Focus2012 Research & I/ITSEC Paper•  Literature review on the topic of learning theories andID models for mobile learning•  ID models should be agnostic of technology (weproposed a framework; we don’t need another model!)•  Further research is necessary to determine themobile-specific considerations during the learningdesign process•  Framework Approach: high-level; strong emphasis onconsidering performance support and constructivistapproach
  45. 45. | Session #708MobileLearningMicrostrategy(ADL)LearningApproach(ADL)- Formal- Informal- Incidental- Autonomous- DirectedInstructionalTactics(Dabbagh)- Fading…- Outlining…- Exploration...LearningTheory(Dick & Carey)CognitiveLevel ofObjective(Blooms RevisedTaxonomy)- Behaviorist- Cognitivist- Constructivist- Create- Evaluate- Analyze- Apply- Understand- Remember?Type ofObjective(Gagne, Dick & Carey)- Verbal Info- Intellectual Skill- Affective- Psychomotor
  46. 46. 47Bloom’s TaxonomyRethinking Blooms Direction
  47. 47. 48Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy (Kathy Shrock)Moving Away from Linear ThinkingThe interlocking of thecognitive process
  48. 48. | Session #708The MoTIF ProjectWhat is the problem (gap)?Many education and training professionals are creating newmobile content and converting existing eLearning courseswithout consideration of:‣  supporting alternative learning methods (e.g. performancesupport, spaced repetition)‣  leveraging the capabilities of the mobile platform (, sensors, GPS)
  49. 49. | Session #708What’s the approach to the solution?Lead a collaborative project informed by data collected from theglobal education and training community to investigate &determine:1.  Is there a need for a design process workflow orframework?2.  Is there a need to better understand how to implementalternative learning approaches as part of a mobile learningstrategy?3.  Is there a need to better understand mobile devicecapabilities used for learning?  The MoTIF Project
  50. 50. | Session #70851Organizations
  51. 51. | Session #708The MoTIF ProjectTarget Audience‣ Educator: a teacher or professor of a specialized subject in an educational setting toinclude both online environments and physical classrooms.‣ Instructional Designer: one who creates planned learning experiences with the goal ofthe learner acquiring knowledge or skills.‣ Instructor/Trainer: one who prepares or guides learners toward specific vocational ortraining objectives that satisfy job-related tasks or skills.‣ Learning Content Creator: anyone responsible for creating media assets to support alearning experience.‣ Manager: one who directs, controls, or manages the business operations of a team,program, or organization focused on education or training goals.‣ Researcher: one who condudts research into theory and best practices for develoingeducation, instruction, or training materials‣ Student: currently participating in a educational or training related program
  52. 52. Survey Results: Target Audience
  53. 53. Survey Results: Experience
  54. 54. Survey Results: Mobile Experience
  55. 55. Survey Results: Most Promising
  56. 56. Survey Results: Devices for mLearning
  57. 57. | Session #7081. Mobile Workflow Process & Framework?  The MoTIF Project
  58. 58. Survey Results: LickertThe  overall  learning  strategy  or  instruc.onal  design  should  be  re-­‐evaluated  when  conver1ng  elearning  courses  and  other  learning  materials  to  a  mobile  format.
  59. 59. Survey Results: LickertA  new  design  workflow  process/model  op.mized  for  mobile  learning  could  improve  my  ability  to  contribute  to  educa1on  or  training  projects.
  60. 60. Survey Results: LickertThe  ID  process  for  mobile  learning  should  be  different  from  the  ID  process  for  tradi1onal  elearning.Strongly Agree
  61. 61. | Session #7082. Alternative Learning Approaches?• Performance Support• Team-based Learning• Spaced Repetition (spaced learning)• Constructivist (discovery / experiential learning)• Connectivist (social learning / network ofconnections)• Heutagogy (learning how to learn/self-directed)  The MoTIF Project
  62. 62. 63“Humans more easily remember or learn items when they are studied afew times over a long period of time (spaced presentation),rather than studied repeatedly in a short period time (massedpresentation)”Will Thalheimer, PhDOpportunitiesSpaced Repetition - Hermann Ebbinghaus
  63. 63. 64Two studies evaluated textmessaging interventions:1.  Small trial in liver transplant patientsfound that a text-message medicationreminder system involving children andparents reduced rates of biopsy-provenrejection.2.  Large trial found that a simple text-message intervention in which parentsreceived up to five weekly text messagesincreased influenza vaccination rates in alow-income population.Text Messaging InterventionsConsumer Health Information Technology (CHIT)
  64. 64. | Session #7083. Device Capabilities / Affordances• Camera (capturing video and images, augmentedreality, Quick Response (QR) Code reading)• Document viewer (eBooks, PDFs• Geolocation (GPS, geo-fencing, maps)• Internal sensors (accelerometer, barometer,compass, gyroscope, proximity)• Media viewer / playback (images, videos, audios,podcasts)The MoTIF Project
  65. 65. | Session #7083. Device Capabilities / Affordances (Cont’d)• Messaging (Short Message Service (SMS),Multimedia Message Service (MMS)• Microphone (voice recording, podcast)• Notification (alert, sound, vibrate)• Search (discovery, quick-reference, search engine)• Short-range communication (Bluetooth, near fieldcommunications (NFC), radio-frequency identification(RFID))  The MoTIF Project
  66. 66. Survey Results: LickertThere  is  a  general  understanding  within  the  educa.on  and  training  community  about  how  and  when  to  use  the  capabili1es  of  mobile  devices  for  learning.
  67. 67. Survey Results: LickertThere  is  a  general  understanding  within  my  organiza.on    about  how  and  when  to  use  the  of  mobile  devices  for  learning.
  68. 68. 69Capabilities/Affordances
  69. 69. Survey Results: LickertMobile  learning  examples  that  are  categorized  by  mobile  could  be  helpful  to  the  community  in  designing  mobile  learning  projects.
  70. 70. Survey Results: Demographics
  71. 71. Survey Results: Demographics
  72. 72. Survey Results: Demographics
  73. 73. There  is  a  general  lack  of  best  prac.ces  or  guidelines  for  designing  mobile  learning.  Survey Results: Lickert
  74. 74. | Session #70875Additional Focus Areas•  Mobile Learning best practices / guidelines (forlearning designers)•  Experience API JavaScript wrapper andprototype•  Experience API design implications for mobile•  Informal learning•  Spaced learning•  Leveraging sensors•  What SCORM functionality is needed?
  75. 75. | Session #708Current Status• Data Collection:• Survey (March 26 – April 26, 2013)• Focus Group & Interviews (June 2013)• Needs Analysis Report (July 2013)Next Steps:• Build project site for community / stakeholders• What are the interventions/solutions (e.g. framework &catalog of mobile learning examples)• Would the target audience & stakeholders use them?• Refine framework & catalog based on iterative feedback• Continue with other phases of ILDF Research ApproachThe MoTIF Project
  76. 76. Related Projects‣  The MoTIF Project‣  ISD & Learning Designfor Mobile•  Alternative Approaches•  Device Affordances•  Workflow Process‣‣  adlmobile@adlnet.govWednesday, June 19, 2013 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM | Session#708
  77. 77. 78Resourceshttp://mlhandbook.adlnet.gov78
  78. 78. 79ResourcesNewsletter & Archive –
  79. 79. 80Related Activities•  Mobile Decision Path – TSWG (2013)•  Interagency Mobile Learning Webinar Series July16-18 (•  xAPI Mobile Learning Examples (Fall 2013)•  xAPI Designer WG:•  The MoTIF Project (Next Steps):•  Phase I: Focus Groups/Interviews (June 2013)•  Needs Analysis Report (July 2013)•  Phase II: Design Framework Interventions(August 2013)
  80. 80. Your Design Challenges?
  81. 81. 82Let’s Connect!@ADLmobileJason HaagMobile Learning LeadADL Technical TeamThe Tolliver Goup, Incjason.haag.ctr@adlnet.govTwitter: @mobilejson