A system in which microscopically visible particles are dispersed throughout a less dense liquid or gas from which they are easily filtered but not easily settled because of system viscocity or molecular interactions.
Principles of cleaning
CLEANINGAccumulation of dust, soil, and microbialcontaminants on environmental surfaces isboth aesthetically displeasing and a potentialsource of Nosocomial infections. Effectiveand efficient cleaning methods and schedulesare, therefore, necessary to maintain a cleanand healthy environment in healthcaresettings.”
Scrubbing (frictional cleaning) is the best wayto physically remove dirt, debris andmicroorganisms. Cleaning is required prior to any disinfectionprocess because dirt, debris and other materialscan decrease the effectiveness of many chemicaldisinfectants.Cleaning products should be selected on thebasis of their use, efficacy, safety and cost. Cleaning should always progress from the leastsoiled areas to the most soiled areas and fromhigh to low areas, so that the dirtiest areas anddebris that fall on the floor will be cleaned up last.
Dry sweeping, mopping and dusting should be avoidedto prevent dust, debris and microorganisms from gettinginto the air and landing on clean surfaces. Airborne fungalspores are especially important as they can cause fatalinfections in immuno suppressed person. Mixing (dilution) instructions should be followed whenusing disinfectants. (Too much or too little water mayreduce the effectiveness of disinfectants.)Cleaning methods and written cleaning schedules shouldbe based on the type of surface, amount and type of soilpresent and the purpose of the area.Routine cleaning is necessary to maintain a standard ofcleanliness. Schedules and procedures should beconsistent and posted.
Cleaning solution:Any combination of soap (ordetergent) and water, with orwithout a chemical disinfectant,used to wash or wipe downenvironmental surfaces such asfloors, chairs, bench tops, wallsand ceilings.
1. Disinfectant.Chemical that destroys or inactivatesmicroorganisms.Disinfectants are classified as: low-intermediate- or high-level depending ontheir ability to kill or immobilize some(low- or intermediate-level) or all (high-level)microorganisms (but not all spores).Phenols, chlorine or chlorine-containingcompounds and QUATs are classes ofdisinfectants frequently used to cleannoncritical surfaces such as floors, walls andfurniture.
2.Disinfectant cleaning solution. Products that are a combination of a detergent (soap)and a chemical disinfectant. Not all detergents anddisinfectants are compatible. Several combinations areavailable commercially or can be prepared, such asalkaline detergents with chlorine compounds, alkalinedetergents with quaternary ammonium compounds(QUATs) or other nonionic surfactants, and aciddetergents with iodophors.3.Environmental controls.Standards specifying procedures to be followed for theroutine care, cleaning and disinfection of environmentalsurfaces, beds, bedrails, bedside equipment and otherfrequently touched surfaces.
4.Environmental hygiene. Process of maintaining a clean,healthy and pleasing patient and work environment. 5.Sanitizer. Chemical that reduces the number of bacterialcontaminants to safe levels on inanimate objects based onpublic health requirements (i.e., a chemical that kills99.999% of the specific test bacteria in 30 seconds under theconditions of the test).6.soaps and detergents (terms used interchangeably).Cleaning products (bar, liquid, leaflet or powder) that lowersurface tension, thereby helping remove dirt, debris andtransient microorganisms from hands. Plain soaps requirefriction (scrubbing) to mechanically remove microorganisms;antiseptic (antimicrobial) soaps kill or inhibit the growth ofmost microorganisms.
7.Sterilants. Chemicals used to destroy all forms ofmicroorganisms,including endospores. Most sterilants are also high-leveldisinfectantswhen used for a shorter period of time. Sterilants are usedonly on inanimate objects (e.g., surgical instruments) thatare used in semicritical and critical areas (e.g., surgery).Sterilants are not meant to be used for cleaningenvironmental surfaces.8.Surfactant. Agent that reduces the surface tension ofwater or the tension at the interface between water andanother liquid; a wetting agent found in many sterilants anddisinfectants.9.Type of detergent: Commercial cleaning product (liquid orpowder) that are composed of a hydrophilic (water-seeking)component and a lipophilic (fat-seeking) component and canbe divided into four types: anionic, cationic, amphoteric andnonionic detergents.
N IDEAL CLEANING PRODUCT SHOULD ACCOMPLISH THE FOLLOWING: 1.Suspension of fats (suspend fats in water) 2.Saponification of fats (make fats water-soluble) 3.Surfaction (decrease surface tension of water and allow greater penetration of the agent into the dirt or soil) 4.Dispersion (break up of soil into small particles) 5.Protein destruction (break up proteins) 6.Softening the water (removal of calcium and magnesium)
WHEN SELECTING A DISINFECTANT OR OTHERCLEANING PRODUCT, CONSIDER THEFOLLOWING FACTORS: 1.Intended use 2.Efficacy 3.Acceptability 4.Safety 5.Cost
CLEANING METHODS1. Wet mopping is the most common and preferred method to clean floors.2. Single-bucket (basin) technique: One bucket of cleaning solution is used. The solution must be changed when dirty. (The killing power of the cleaning product decreases with the increased load of soil and organic material present.)
3.Double-bucket technique: Two different buckets are used, one containing a cleaning solution and the other containing rinse water. The mop is always rinsed and wrung out before it is dipped into the cleaning solution. The double-bucket technique extends the life of the cleaning solution (fewer changes are required), saving both labor and material costs.4.Triple-bucket technique: The third bucket is used for wringing out the mop before rinsing, which extends the life of the rinse water.5 .Flooding: followed by wet vacuuming is recommended in the surgical suite, if possible. This process eliminates mopping, thus minimizing the spread of microorganisms. This method increases the contact time of disinfectants with the surface to be cleaned, but it is necessary to leave the floor wet for several minutes. (Flooding is best done at night or at times
7.Dusting is most commonly used for cleaning walls, ceilings, doors, windows, furniture and other environmental surfaces. Dusting is most commonly used for cleaning walls, ceilings, doors, windows, furniture and other environmental surfaces.Clean cloths or mops are wetted with cleaning solution contained in abasin or bucket. The double-bucket system minimizes the contaminationof the cleaning solution.Dry dusting should be avoided and dust cloths and mops should neverbeshaken to avoid the spread of microorganisms.Dusting should be performed in a systematic way, using a startingpointas a reference to ensure that all surfaces have been reached.When doing high dusting (ceiling tiles and walls), check for stains thatmay indicate possible leaks. (Leaks should be repaired as soon aspossible because moist ceiling tiles provide a reservoir for fungalgrowth.)8.Dry vacuuming is only recommended for cleaning of carpets.