Historically, learners have utilized distance education resources for more than a century: Nonetheless, focus on adult learning has only been introduced in the last half century (Aragon, 2003; Knowles, Holton & Swanson, 2005; Lawson, 1997). Online learning is also a new addition to education, introduced in the last few decades; however, only within the last ten years has it become widespread (Aragon, 2003; Subic & Maconachie, 2004). Online courses foster the “conditions necessary for facilitating and enhancing the capacity for sustained and enduring [lifelong] learning” (Aragon, 2003, p. 5). Further, Subic and Maconachie (2004) assert that “distance education has transformed into what is known today as flexible learning available to anyone at anytime and at any place” (p. 27). This philosophy is apparent in the parent institution for adult and graduate studies. Online facilitators of adult instruction are an integral facet of this new learning process.Reflection:As a teacher, you have determined that you can teach adult’s in the online environment! Authorities (Aragon, 2003; Knowles, et al., 2005) contend that teaching adults is not the same as teaching children: Teaching in the online environment is not the same as teaching in a traditional face to face classroom. Are you prepared?
Before a teacher can teach effectivelyeach one must reflect on his or her own ideals—values, feelings, attitudes (Knowles, et al., 2005). Challenges for Online LearningReflection and dialogue: Reflect on your own personal views that include: What is your definition of “teaching”? Where do you see yourself (a personal evaluation of you as “teacher”); e.g. are you a good teacher, or would you make a good teacher? Why did you go (or, why do you want to go) into teaching? List what you want to personally accomplish? How did you (or have you) accomplish your personal teaching goals? What goals do you still want to accomplish?What are your goals for this workshop. Determine personal learning goals. Compare to workshop agenda goals.Dialogue with peers: Identify personal insights regarding your teaching ideals. Are your ideals compatible with adult education and online learning (as it is presently viewed)?
Teaching vs. Learning – a general perspective is that teaching is the process of providing information from one who knows, such as “the teacher:” Learning is the process undertaken in changing one’s view (Knowles, et al., 2005).Authorities define common terminology:Education is an activity undertaken or initiated by one or more agents that is designed to effect changes in the knowledge, skill, and attitudes of individuals, groups, or communities. The emphasis is on the educator as the “change agent.”Learning emphasizes the person in whom the change occurs, or is expected to occur. Learning is an act or process to foster change in the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the one learning. (Knowles, et al., 2005, p. 10-11)Teaching is imparting knowledge or information that is easily provided in an unchanging environment. However, because knowledge or information is always changing in a living environment, it may be difficult for the teacher to maintain continuity and consistently provide information over time. Therefore, it is apparent that the teacher, in the true meaning of imparting knowledge,would in instead be a facilitator of learning. Additionally, distance education is a term used in educational settings and highlights the media used with the intent to reach non-traditional students by overcoming geographical barriers. (Aragon, 2003, p. 15, 20) Challenges for Online LearningReflection and dialogue: Reflect on your definition of teaching and learning. Write these definitions on a piece of paper to refer to later in the workshop. Identify your expectations of online teacher (or facilitators of learning). Dialogue with peers and identify how each one’s definition may impact the learning environment. Are there identified differences between online learning, compared to other learning environments?
Authorities (Aragon, 2003; Knowles, et al., 2005) agree that two learning paradigms exist: One applies to children, and the other to adults. These paradigms are pedagogy and andragogy, respectively. PedagogyInterestingly, pedagogy is a term that is used in all learning environments, regardless of the learner’s age. However, pedagogy is “derived from the Greek words paid, meaning ‘child’… and agogus meaning ‘leader of’… [denotation] the art and science of teaching children” (Knowles, et al., 2005, p. 61). Others (Aragon, 2003; Gibbons & Wentworth, 2001; Knowles, et al., 2005) contend that pedagogy is a way of teaching, in that a direction is provided and the teacher is the center of learning. Knowles, Holton, and Swanson (2005) emphasize that regardless of age, some pedagogical practices may be appropriate even in adult learners, and some andragogical practices may be appropriate to use with children. This philosophy is contingent on a developmental model that purports the learner’s transition through a natural maturation process: In early years, dependency is high and decreases with time as each one matures, growing and developing in knowledge, skills and experiences (Knowles, et al., 2005). In other words, the process of knowing and the need for knowledge changes with age. AndragogyAndragogy is the process of self-directed adult learning (Aragon, 2003; Gibbons & Wentworth, 2001; Knowles, et al., 2005). There are four suppositions that define adult:The biological definition—a person becomes an adult at the age of reproduction (i.e. early adolescence).The legal definition—an adult is one who can vote, get a driver’s license, marry without consent, etc.The social definition—a person is an adult when he or she performs adult roles, e.g. full-time worker, spouse, parent, voting citizen, etc. The psychological definition—”we become adults when we arrive at a self-concept of being responsible for our own lives, of being self-directing.” (Knowles, et al., 2005, p. 64) It is important to note: The psychological definition is the most critical for adult learning; however, reaching adulthood is done by degrees involving all suppositions of adulthood, thereby having a collective effect (Knowles, et al., 2005). Andragogy has implications for adult learning; that is to say, during the maturation of self-concept the pedagogical model becomes less applicable to learning. Andragogical experts (Aragon, 2003; Knowles, et al., 2005; Lawson, 1997) assert that adult learning environments provide challenges as teachers are most comfortable teaching from a pedagogical perspective (i.e. they do as they were taught); thereby hampering the adult learning process. Challenges for Online LearningReflection and dialogue: In reviewing the learning paradigms… Reflect on your teaching style in relation to pedagogical- and andragogical-styles of learning? Consider the different learning expectations and determine where your learners are in relation to these definitions. How, or would you alter your teaching style, knowing there are differences in learning at different levels of maturity? List those things you would change; and those you would keep in your teaching practice.
Age determines the extent of learner perceptions and influencing factors that create optimal learning. Cyril O. Houle, and later Allen Tough (cited in Knowles, et al., 2005) investigated learner characteristics. Learning characteristics of children:The need to know—learners only need to know what they must learn. There is no application to real-life situations (just a grade).The learner’s self-concept—is the same as the teacher’s concept; i.e. “that of a dependent personality.”The role of the learner’s experience—learner has little experience other than what teacher provides in the classroom setting.Readiness to learn—learners are ready to learn what the teacher tells them, to get a grade and get promoted.Orientation to learning—learners have a subject-centered orientation to learning that is organized to the logical sequence of the subject matter.Motivation—learners are motivated by external motivators, e.g. teacher’s approval or parental pressures. (Knowles, et al., 2005, pp. 62-63)Learning characteristics of adults:The need to know—learners needs to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it. This is one of two adult learning characteristics that has significant implications for adult education.The learner’s self-concept—learners self-concept is that of being responsible for own decisions, and for own lives. They want to be seen as being self directed. They resent other’s wills being imposed on them. Any activity labeled “education” or “training”, adults revert back to “prior conditioning from previous school experiences, put on their dunce hats of dependency, fold their arms, sit back, and say ‘teach me’;” thereby creating an internal conflict of their own self-concept. This conflict causes an impulse to “flee from the situation;” thereby increasing drop-out rate in adult education.The role of the learner’s experience—learners have a great quantity and different quality of experiences, secondary to their length of live. The richest resources for learning lay within the learner themselves. This along may generate both positive and negative aspects for learning. Reflecting of habits, biases, values, and attitudes enhance the learning process.Readiness to learn—”adults become ready to learn those things they need to know and be able to do in order to cope effectively with their real-life situations.” Developmental stages affect the learning process: Readiness to learn can be induced through models of performance, counseling, simulation, and more.Orientation to learning—adult learners are “life-centered (or task-centered or problem-centered) in their orientation to learning;” thus, interest is provided in learning tasks, skills, knowledge, only if it helps in performing tasks or dealing with real-life situations.Motivation –external motivators to learning are helpful (better jobs, promotions, increase pay, etc.); however the most potent motivators are internal pressures (desire for increased job satisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, etc.) Motivation is the second of two major adult learning characteristics in adult education that has significant implications in adult learning. (Knowles, et al., 2005, pp. 64-68) Aragon (2003) contends that even though we are aware of pedagogical- and andragogical-learning differences, we have managed to move the traditional learning setting into the online learning environment and continue the same style of teaching. He uses the terminology “talking from the teaching head and merely passing information to students” (pp. 32-33). Challenges for Online LearningReflection and dialogue: In reviewing learner characteristics… Reflect on your teaching style in relation to pedagogical- and andragogical-characteristics of learning? Consider these different learning expectations and determine where your learners are in relation to the definitions. How, or would you alter your teaching style, knowing there are differences in learning at different levels of maturity? List those things you would change; and those you would keep the same, in your teaching practice. Knowles, et al. (2005) stress that regardless of adult learning characteristics, when placed in a learning environment, the adult learner tends to revert to what is best known—assuming a passive learner-role, and being told what he or she needs to know—thereby creating an internal dissidence with each one’s self-concept. In that same context, Aragon (2003) lists traditional (and pedagogical) face-to-face forms of instruction that have purposely moved to the online environment that includes: “Recorded lectures, online readings, homework assignments, and online tests” (p. 33). Aragon (2003) asserts that for online learning to be effective, the instructional designer and the course instructor MUST seek a new paradigm of instruction. Challenges for Online LearningReflection and dialogue: In reviewing teacher methodologies for learning assignments… Reflect on your delivery of course instruction and learning assignments: Are these methods the best for online instruction? Are these methods the best for adult learners? Discuss different ways that learning can be enhanced in your area of expertise within an adult online nursing program.
Ross-Gordon (2003) contends that transformative learning theory is an alternative to the andragogical paradigm of adult learning. Within the last few decades, transformation learning is taking a forefront in the adult teaching and learning environments. Due to its nature, online learning by means of both synchronous and asynchronous aspects of learner interaction, may enhance learning and change self-concept through processes of meaning making (Baumgartner, 2001). Transformative Learning TheoryInitial development of a second andragogical learning paradigm—transformative learning theory—began in the 1970’s (Kitchenham, 2008). Early on, a number of scholars (as cited in Taylor, 2007, 2008) studied concepts of the transformational learning process. However, Mezirow’s work in transformative learning is currently the model most used (Kitchenham, 2008). Mezirow’s transformative learning theory (Kitchenham, 2008; Meizirow, 1997; Taylor, 2007, 2008) centers on four types of learning and is contingent upon a disorienting event that positions the learner for critical self-reflection, reflective discourse (dialogue about that which is transpiring through the self-reflective process), which ultimately leads to a transformative change in the learner’s self-concept through the process of meaning making. Interestingly, (Merriam, 2004) asserts that the transformational learning model is closely tied to cognitive development and is only applicable to its fullest extent, in those who have reached intellectual maturity, determined to be around thirty years of age.Challenges for Online LearningReflection and dialogue: In reviewing learning paradigms and effective online education for adult learners… Reflect on your personal values and beliefs of effective teaching paradigms. Reflect on the teaching philosophy/beliefs of the parent institution. Discuss consistencies and inconsistencies in your beliefs and those of the parent institution. Identify how, or would you alter your teaching style, knowing there are differences/or consistencies in your philosophy vs. the parent institution? Note. Transformational learning theory is foundational to the nursing program to which all nursing faculty are a part; these theories are topics for future teacher workshops.
From a personal perspective, consider what it means to teach in on online environment.Desai, Hart& Richards(2008) compares traditional face-to-face learning with that of online environments stating: Traditional learning provides synchronous communication… [and is] linear in a sequential pattern. It is structured by time and the environment is closed. ...bound [by] textbooks [that] tends to filter reality and fosters sameness/stability. [Conversely,] …online learning provides asynchronous and synchronous communication. Learning is non-linear in a hyper textual pattern. It is independent of time and has an open environment. Online learning is usually very structured with a sensory of vastness that generates reality and fosters growth/change. (P. 331) Ross-Gordon’s (2003) research on adult learners provide significant insight into several key areas that enhance effective teaching that include:Provide opportunities for adults to exercise self-direction in identifying personal goals, selection of learning strategies, and modes of assessment. Develop the learner’s sense of satisfaction and accomplishment by providing learner-centered instructional activities, personalized instruction, relating course material to student experience, assessing student needs, and maintaining flexibility for personal development. Consider characteristics of adult learners that includes cultural factors, including those with marginalized backgrounds. Instructional content must be relevant to real-life situations, and offer potential for immediate application. Recognize and foster relationships between academic learning and learning in the larger world. Recognize that cognitive development continues well into adulthood.Adult learners require support for apprehension expressed about abilities to learn. Create early opportunities for success to generate confidence; provide information about courses and workshops that enhance self-awareness as learners; create opportunities to improve academic learning strategies.Be sensitive to individual differences. Adult students want professors who understand their circumstances that include learning style, gender, culture/racial background; yet, avoiding over-generalizations and stereotypes. (Pp. 46-50) Challenges for Online LearningReflection and dialogue: Reflect on the key principles and concepts of adult learning that fit with, and are in opposition to your teaching style. Dialogue with peers on key insights.
Aragon (2003) contends, “In order to meet [the online learning environment] challenge, instructional designers must examine their traditional perspective and adopt a philosophy of teaching and learning that is appropriate for online instruction” (p. 33). He emphasizes that the online instructor must match “desired learning goals and instructional methods to the appropriate learning theories,” using multiple methods for effective teaching and learning (p. 33). He provides an Instructional Strategy Framework for Online Learning Environments that includes behavioral, cognitive and social learning theory. This multi-theory design includes seven principles of quality online learning environments:Address individual differences;Motivate the student; Avoid information overload;Create a real-life context;Encourage social interaction;Provide hands-on activities;Encourage student reflection. (Aragon, 2003, pp. 33-42)Following Aragon’s (2003) recommendations for using multiple theories in the online classroom, two pertinent theories that enhance adult learning are:Cognitive theory of multimedia learning—provides a number of multimedia learning principles that uses cognitive theory to enhance information processing (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). Mezirow’s transformative learning theory—enhances learning by embracing the learner’s readiness to learn; uses critical self-reflection and reflective discourse to transform self-concept; and augments knowing through meaning making (a point of enlightenment). This theory is specific to adult learning (Kitchenham, 2008).Note. These theories are foundational to the nursing program to which all nursing faculty are a part; these theories are topics for future teacher workshops. Houle’s (cited in Knowles, et al., 2005) research provides evidence of adult learning categories. Adult’s reasons for continuing education centered on the learner’s conception about the purpose and value of education for themselves. These categories are:Goal-oriented learners use education for clear-cut objectives. Their education usually starts in mid-twenties or after. Education occurs in episodes, beginning with a realization of a need or interest. Typically, they frequent a number of educational institutions. Their learning interest may also be met by taking a course, reading a book, joining a group, or going on a trip. Activity-oriented learners take part in education only when their needs or problems are sufficiently pressing. The circumstances for learning may not be connected to the learning content or the purpose of the activity. These learners are course-takers and group-joiners only to seek social interaction and human relationships that form from the learning activity. They may remain at one institution or attend different places. Learning-oriented learners seek knowledge for its own sake. This learner typically has been engaged in learning throughout his or her life. They participate in activities for the sake of education; being avid readers, group-joiners, and course-takers for the joy of learning alone. They select/seek serious radio or TV programs; make a production out of travel, being prepared to appreciate what they see; choose jobs and make other life decisions, simply for intellectual growth. (P. 55). Facilitators of adult learning can enhance instruction by knowing the principles of adult online learning, the characteristics of adult learners, and the differences in why adult seek education. Understanding and incorporating these principles into his or her online teaching will enhance adult learning. Challenges for Online LearningReflection and dialogue: In reviewing the principles for online learning… Reflect on how these principles impact your teaching style. Dialogue with peers how you plan to implement these principles into your teaching activities.
Using transformational learning principles, the learner will: Consider this workshop as a disorienting dilemma; evaluate specific feelings of anxiety the event may have internally created; Complete a critical self-reflection that includes ideas for change that are centered on learned principles, or reflections during this event. Engage in continued reflective discourse with respected peers, enabling opportunity and desire to make changes in teaching practices; Develop a plan for immediate, short/long term, and life-long change—in Mercer’s (2006) words; form, inform, reform (in other words, a transformation.)
Holvoet jel7006 4 adult learning theory- faculty training
Teacher Workshop<br />Adult Online LearningCan you handle the pressure?<br />HolvoetJEL7006-4<br />1<br />
Introduction and Overview<br />HolvoetJEL7006-4<br />2<br />
Teaching vs. Learning<br />HolvoetJEL7006-4<br />3<br />
Teaching Considerations:Comparing Children and Adults<br />HolvoetJEL7006-4<br />5<br />
Teaching Considerations:Paradigms for Online Learning<br />HolvoetJEL7006-4<br />6<br />
Insights into Teaching Adults in Online Environments<br />HolvoetJEL7006-4<br />7<br />
What, Why, When, Where and How Adults Learn<br />HolvoetJEL7006-4<br />8<br />
Reflection<br />Take a few minutes to reflect on what you have learned, and the implications for your teaching practice.<br />Write three goals that you would like to achieve:<br />One goal identified for this week<br />One goal identified for this year<br />One goal identified with life-long learning implications<br />HolvoetJEL7006-4<br />9<br />
References<br />Aragon, S. (Ed.) (2003). Facilitating learning in online environments: New directions for adult and continuing education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. <br />Baumgartner, L. (Spring 2001). An update on transformational learning. New Directions for Adult & Continuing Education, 89, 15-24. <br />Desai, M., Hart, J., & Richards, T. C. (2008). E-learning: Paradigm shift in education. Education, 129(2), 327-334. <br />Gibbons, H. and Wentworth, G. (2001). Andrological and pedagogical training differences for online instructors. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 4(3). 1-4. Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall43/gibbons_wentworth43.html <br />Kitchenham, A. (2008). The evolution of John Mezirow’s transformative learning theory. Journal of Transformative Education, 6; 104-122. <br />Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (2005) The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Burlington, MA. Elsevier. <br />Lawson, G. (1997). New paradigms in adult education. Adult Learning, 8(3), 10. <br />Mayer, R., & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52. <br />Mercer, J. (2006). Transformational adult learning in congregations. Journal of Adult Theological Education, 3(2), 163-178. doi:10.1558/jate.2006.3.2.163 <br />Merriam, S. B. (2004). The role of cognitive development in Mezirow's transformational learning theory. Adult Education Quarterly, 55(1), 60-68. doi:10.1177/0741713604268891 <br />Mezirow, J. (Summer 1997). Transformative learning: Theory to practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education; 74, 5-12.<br />Ross-Gordon, J. (Summer, 2003). Adult learners in the classroom. New Directions for Student Services, 102, 43-52.<br />Taylor, E. W. (2007). An update of transformative learning theory: A critical review of the empirical research (1999-2005). International Journal of Lifelong Education, 26(2), 173‑191. doi:10.1080/02601370701219475 <br />Taylor, E. W. (Fall 2008). Transformative learning theory. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 119, 5-15. <br />HolvoetJEL7006-4<br />10<br />