The application of the Firma Model
Sociomedia UXSF 2015 Summer by J Hobbs
Hi. Again.
Hi. Again.
Recap. Why the need for the Firma Model?
A humanistic approach to design should place improving
people’s lives, individually and collectively, at the heart of
its ...
A humanistic approach however does not mean that we
can bias our research focus towards users at the expense
of understand...
Sustainability and accountability require that we consider
all players in the problem-ecology such that we may
place the w...
RESEARCH IDEATION PROTOTYPING
RESEARCH IDEATION PROTOTYPING
A MODEL FOR RESEARCH A MODEL FOR CHANGE A MODEL FOR CRITIQUE
Case study
Designing with and for small- scale urban farmers in Soweto
http://paulberkowitz.co.za/one-of-these-johannesburg-wards-is-not-like-the-others/
Michael Denne : http://paulberkowitz.co.za/one-of-these-johannesburg-wards-is-not-like-the-others/
Enabling access to information
Hassenzahl’s Three Level Hierarchy of Needs
Methodology:
Contextmapping (co-design)
Generative tools
Generative tools:
Participants make and then reflect
Data
Collected and coded
History
• Apartheid
• Poor communities
• Lack of resources, infrastructure and access
to land
Economy
• Farming is regarded as a good career
• Provide a good product
• Compete with commercial farmers
• Struggle to se...
Culture
• Farming is a common heritage
• Strong oral tradition
• Religious
• African
• Paternal
• Culture of entitlement
•...
Politics
• Political favoritism
• Government infighting effects service
• Policy inconsistencies
• Lack solidarity
• JHB C...
Society
• Farmers are perceived as not of value
• Farming is not see as a career
• (unless you are rich)
• Community is gr...
Physical environment
• Natural threats
• Water accessibility issues
• Waste and litter
• Farming improves the environment
...
Technological environment
• Online banking
• Love google
• Olyx, Facebook, Whatapp, etc
• Regard tech as a sign of progres...
Legacy
• Farmers had previous careers
• Different ambitions
• No formal jobs available
• Desperation
• Natural curiosity l...
Organisation
• Socially connected to local community
• Self organised
• Farmers Forum
• Struggle to organise themselves ef...
Marketplace
• Family consumption
• Walk-ins
• Schools, Nursery Schools, Hospitals
• Spaza shops
• Erratic consumers
• Farm...
Users - Soweto Farmers
• Formally educated
• Family providers
• Want sustainable farming
• Relate well to other farmers
• ...
The resulting strategy and solution remain contextually relevant
Further applications
The model for research
The model for research
Ways to use the model:
• Planning research activities
• A tool for multi-stakeholder engagement wor...
The model for strategy
The model for strategy
Ways to use the model:
• For guiding and enriching ideation through, for example, facilitated
co-de...
The model for critique
The model for critique
Ways to use the model:
• It may also be applied in the critique of design work that has been
conduc...
Design tools mapping
It seemed to us that the logical next step
for the development of the model was to
identify design methods, techniques and...
Logical, yes. Easy, no.
IT’S A MESS!
IT’S A MESS!
1. There are literally hundreds of techniques
2. Many techniques are the same but go by different names
3. Many techniques...
In short, before we could begin we needed
to do some IA
Scope:
For the first iteration we would only include design
techniques. We will enrich the index later with techniques
fro...
Sources:
Again, we limited our references to 6 sources with the
intention of enriching and testing ourselves later.
Sources
Sources
The index (1)
Techniques, methods, approaches
for the areas of concern across:
1. Research
2. Strategy
3. Critique
The index (2)
Research, strategy and critique are too broad for the
design process so we further mapped techniques (etc.)
...
The index (3)
A taxonomy, labeling and a lot of cleaning up!
The index 3:
A taxonomy, labeling and a lot of cleaning up!
The index 3:
A taxonomy, labeling and a lot of cleaning up!
The index 3:
A taxonomy, labeling and a lot of cleaning up!
Working with students
4th year digital design students are required to
conceptualise a project from problem identification
through to finished d...
Our first step in the process is to have them explore a
problem of their choice through the use of the Firma
Model for res...
Braamfontein
use
rs
lega
cy
mark
et
organi
sation
economics
politics
history
cultureandsociety
unemployment
Urbanpoor
prev...
kabelo mokhari, UJ Dept of MultiMedia
Anecia Pienaar, UJ Dept of MultiMedia
Tasmin Jade Donaldson, UJ Dept of MultiMedia
Self reflection
Thank you
www.firma-design.com
The Application of the Firma Model
The Application of the Firma Model
The Application of the Firma Model
The Application of the Firma Model
The Application of the Firma Model
The Application of the Firma Model
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The Application of the Firma Model
The Application of the Firma Model
The Application of the Firma Model
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The Application of the Firma Model

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Discover how the Firma Model by Jason Hobbs and Terence Fenn has been applied to social design challenges, it's use in education, for the self reflection of the designer and as a basis for a taxonomy of design tools and techniques. Presented at the Spring UXSF in Tokyo, Japan 2015 hosted by Sociomedia.

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  • The three primary aims of the Firma Model are to:
     
    Provide a generic research framework that can be applied to broadly and deeply explore and define problem ecologies
    Identify key areas of concern within the problem ecology and thus assist in articulating the design strategy (i.e. how should the areas of concern be changed)
    Lastly, provide the basis for critiquing the resultant design solution based on a knowledge of what the problem was and the desired change
  • It provides traceability, sustainability and accountability
  • Soweto
    Michael Denne (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soweto#/media/File:Soweto-002.jpg)
  • Soweto
  • Soweto
  • Izindaba Zokudla
  • PARTICIPANTS USE CREATIVE TOOLS SUCH AS COLLAGE AND CLAY
  • TO RESPOND TO PROBLEMS SET BY THE DESIGNER
  • DATA IS GENERATED PRINCIPALLY WHEN THE PARTICIPANTS DISCUSS THEIR CREATIONS
  • In general participants responded well to the exercises although many at first considered the task to be “for children”.

    Once the discussions of the artefacts begun, they become very engaged and often my role was only to redirect or end the conversation.

    Having the designed artefacts as the focal point of the conversation did allow for insights to emerge in real time that became critical to the authors understanding of the farmers needs.

    For example, in the second exercise many of the farmers modeled farm equipment such as mulchers, tractors, water purification systems, (not very imaginative).

    At first these items seemed to offer very little relation to a possible interaction design solution however it soon became apparent that what was been described was the farmers need to expand production and farm more smartly utlising semi- industrial methods and smarter business practice.

    This became a highly informative insight that orientated much of the later design strategy.
  • ORGANISATION RELATED TO REQUIRED INFORMATION CONTENT
  • ORGANISATION RELATED TO FARMERS CURRENT APPROACHES TO ACCESSING INFORMATION
  • CLASSIFIED IN TERMS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DATA
  • EACH X 10
  • EXTRACTED DATA FROM SECONDARY RESERCH SOURCES

    LED TO FAIRLY COMPLEX DATA SET

    HAD TO BE COMMUNICATED BACK TO THE FARMERS
  • NOT SO MUCH INTO I.A PATTERNING AND COMPLEX DATA
  • APPLIED THE DATA TO THE MODEL AND USED AS THE PRIMARY COMMUNICATION TOOL TO ENSURE THAT MY

    INTERPRETATION OF THE FARMERS EXPERIENCES WAS ACCURATE.
  • WE AMENDED AND CONFIRMED
  • PRIORITSE WHAT WAS MOST MEANINFUL TO THE FARMERS
  • Amongst other things, an effective design strategy should include the purpose of the design effort (a description of why the problem is a problem and to whom) and a clear articulation of the change expected as a result of the design intervention. Without these two elements it would be difficult to guide the solutioning process and evaluate its impact with any rigor.
     
    It follows then that the design strategy would emerge from design research (rather than as an input) and prior to solutioning.

    For the purposes of design strategy, the Firma Model assists in clearly describing what the problem is, the specific areas of concern at play and the affected stakeholders in the problem ecology. Knowing this, it becomes possible to then articulate how these areas of concern (their stakeholders and relationships) should change as a result of the design intervention to move from a problem ecology to a solution ecology.

  • Using what was familiar to the farmers, channeled through the fictional characters in a narrative form, allowed the farmers to engage with the problem contexts in meaningful way and provide clear and purposeful feedback about the accuracy of the mapping.


  • Accountability, sustainability and the Golden Thread
  • Accountability, sustainability and the Golden Thread
  • Accountability, sustainability and the Golden Thread
  • THE GOLDEN THREAD - traceability

  • User testing of prototype
  • The Model applied in design research and strategy provides a strong basis for critique. Knowing which areas are of concern, and how they (and others) should change, makes knowing where to look to understand impact, a logical progression.

    Many measures already exist to understand change within the fields and disciplines interested within individual areas of concern. Economics has its measures, businesses have their measures, marketplaces have their measures, etc. All of these measures can be applied in harmony with the Firma Model.

    Where we believe additional value is offered through the use of the Model is:
     
    In understanding the impact across multiple areas of concern (the systemic dimensions of the problem / solution ecology),
    In providing a framework and research that spans areas of concern such that a broad view can be taken to observe and identify unintended consequences of change, and
    Having provided a solution hypothesis, if the change required does not occur (or occurs with new problems), it is possible to trace the thinking back to the initial understanding of the problem ecology to revisit either its interpretation and or the solution upon which it evolved.



  • https://www.flickr.com/photos/mdxinteractiondesign/2318390956
  • Generative tools
  • Generative tools
  • Master index: just under 200 items after clean up
  • Research
  • Teaching modules for students
  • Escuela Superior De Diseño, Madrid
  • The Application of the Firma Model

    1. 1. The application of the Firma Model Sociomedia UXSF 2015 Summer by J Hobbs
    2. 2. Hi. Again.
    3. 3. Hi. Again. Recap. Why the need for the Firma Model?
    4. 4. A humanistic approach to design should place improving people’s lives, individually and collectively, at the heart of its ambition. Design also requires that these solutions are accountable and sustainable.
    5. 5. A humanistic approach however does not mean that we can bias our research focus towards users at the expense of understanding complex problems in their totality.
    6. 6. Sustainability and accountability require that we consider all players in the problem-ecology such that we may place the well-being of the system centre stage. That the ultimate solution is humanistic is just one of the challenges we face as designers.
    7. 7. RESEARCH IDEATION PROTOTYPING
    8. 8. RESEARCH IDEATION PROTOTYPING A MODEL FOR RESEARCH A MODEL FOR CHANGE A MODEL FOR CRITIQUE
    9. 9. Case study
    10. 10. Designing with and for small- scale urban farmers in Soweto
    11. 11. http://paulberkowitz.co.za/one-of-these-johannesburg-wards-is-not-like-the-others/
    12. 12. Michael Denne : http://paulberkowitz.co.za/one-of-these-johannesburg-wards-is-not-like-the-others/
    13. 13. Enabling access to information
    14. 14. Hassenzahl’s Three Level Hierarchy of Needs
    15. 15. Methodology: Contextmapping (co-design)
    16. 16. Generative tools
    17. 17. Generative tools: Participants make and then reflect
    18. 18. Data Collected and coded
    19. 19. History • Apartheid • Poor communities • Lack of resources, infrastructure and access to land
    20. 20. Economy • Farming is regarded as a good career • Provide a good product • Compete with commercial farmers • Struggle to secure capital • Cant access price information • Farming business needs to improve • Contribute to the local economy
    21. 21. Culture • Farming is a common heritage • Strong oral tradition • Religious • African • Paternal • Culture of entitlement • Urban
    22. 22. Politics • Political favoritism • Government infighting effects service • Policy inconsistencies • Lack solidarity • JHB City has food plan- not effective in execution
    23. 23. Society • Farmers are perceived as not of value • Farming is not see as a career • (unless you are rich) • Community is grateful for produce • Security issues: theft and vandalism
    24. 24. Physical environment • Natural threats • Water accessibility issues • Waste and litter • Farming improves the environment • Difficult to access markets due to poor transport • Poor local amenities
    25. 25. Technological environment • Online banking • Love google • Olyx, Facebook, Whatapp, etc • Regard tech as a sign of progress • Find content often hard to understand • Farmers use the internet frequently • Hate browsing- cost to much in data
    26. 26. Legacy • Farmers had previous careers • Different ambitions • No formal jobs available • Desperation • Natural curiosity led them to farming • Knowledge gaps
    27. 27. Organisation • Socially connected to local community • Self organised • Farmers Forum • Struggle to organise themselves effectively • Clash with poor city organisation
    28. 28. Marketplace • Family consumption • Walk-ins • Schools, Nursery Schools, Hospitals • Spaza shops • Erratic consumers • Farmers have poor marketing skills • Threats: Commercial wholesalers, cheap unhealthy food
    29. 29. Users - Soweto Farmers • Formally educated • Family providers • Want sustainable farming • Relate well to other farmers • Aspire to be better farmers • Enjoy learning • Very committed to farming
    30. 30. The resulting strategy and solution remain contextually relevant
    31. 31. Further applications
    32. 32. The model for research
    33. 33. The model for research Ways to use the model: • Planning research activities • A tool for multi-stakeholder engagement workshops • Data mapping, tagging and categorization (affinity modeling) • Conducting research GAP analysis
    34. 34. The model for strategy
    35. 35. The model for strategy Ways to use the model: • For guiding and enriching ideation through, for example, facilitated co-design workshops • The validation of ideas as prototypes in testing under conditions that are reflective of the problem-ecology
    36. 36. The model for critique
    37. 37. The model for critique Ways to use the model: • It may also be applied in the critique of design work that has been conducted by other designers or organisations. • To apply across various design projects where a consistent model is required (for example, in a design competition spanning multiple topics), • Or in comparing work dealing with a single topic perhaps from radically disparate contexts (for example, three different design solutions for public transport, one from New York, one from Lagos and one from Warsaw).
    38. 38. Design tools mapping
    39. 39. It seemed to us that the logical next step for the development of the model was to identify design methods, techniques and tools that could be used during research, strategy and critique within the areas of concern.
    40. 40. Logical, yes. Easy, no.
    41. 41. IT’S A MESS!
    42. 42. IT’S A MESS!
    43. 43. 1. There are literally hundreds of techniques 2. Many techniques are the same but go by different names 3. Many techniques offer just minor variations on one another 4. Some techniques are just variations in application 5. Some techniques aren’t techniques at all: they’re methods or approaches 6. Sometimes names are just descriptors of groups beneath
    44. 44. In short, before we could begin we needed to do some IA
    45. 45. Scope: For the first iteration we would only include design techniques. We will enrich the index later with techniques from business, marketing, etc.
    46. 46. Sources: Again, we limited our references to 6 sources with the intention of enriching and testing ourselves later.
    47. 47. Sources
    48. 48. Sources
    49. 49. The index (1) Techniques, methods, approaches for the areas of concern across: 1. Research 2. Strategy 3. Critique
    50. 50. The index (2) Research, strategy and critique are too broad for the design process so we further mapped techniques (etc.) into a generic HCD design process DISCOVERY STRATEGY IDEATION TESTING PROTOTYPE
    51. 51. The index (3) A taxonomy, labeling and a lot of cleaning up!
    52. 52. The index 3: A taxonomy, labeling and a lot of cleaning up!
    53. 53. The index 3: A taxonomy, labeling and a lot of cleaning up!
    54. 54. The index 3: A taxonomy, labeling and a lot of cleaning up!
    55. 55. Working with students
    56. 56. 4th year digital design students are required to conceptualise a project from problem identification through to finished design solution.
    57. 57. Our first step in the process is to have them explore a problem of their choice through the use of the Firma Model for research.
    58. 58. Braamfontein use rs lega cy mark et organi sation economics politics history cultureandsociety unemployment Urbanpoor previous am bitions desperation curiosity Centralpoint educated Youngpopulation Pro-regenerationYouth aspire to work in Braam Shift in identity Art & design appreciation Cultural Hub Civic engagement Voyeuristic Hedonic Theft & vandalism Diversity Diversity Fashion brands Info overload Public agency Inclusive Socialdivide lack historical back- ground Social disparities Informal traders Established Consistantconsumer patterns Saturated Weekend go-ers interconnected Good communication Meet-ups self- organised Tech-savvy Development Business savvy Improvedcity management Univesities needmoreaccessto localmarkets no form al jobs physicalenvironment technologicalenvironment mass- urbanisation poverty Pvt owned buildings waste and pollution Nelson Mandela Bridge econom ically divided society servicedelivery issues Live& work climate changeCentral Renewed spacesBeautificationCultural ArcHeritage Sites Visual information Live music Dancing Perform ance art Efficient transport system Plethora of signage use the internet frequently own at least 1 mobile phone Popularity of internet cafes find most of their information via the net Facebook M xit IoT W earables M usic WhatsApp Urban regeneration characterised by the increased accessibility to the net range of phones vary from smart to dumbregard technology as a sign of progress Uber online banking SMSing natural threatsclose to informal markets Theatre Parks Art Meets global standards Meets global place standards RooftopsNightlifeTrafficRea Vaya Bicycles Focuson economic viability land distribution eduction gaps job creationSocial capital Creation of new m arkets Informal traders competing with pvt sector fast-paced Niche-stores New Money “World classcity” Urban poorEntrepenurialInvestments Exclusivity Young workforce Localvs international farmerslack solidalitary politicsof self-interest Pvt marketself-interest dealing with political favoritism dealingwithpoliticalaffiliations dealing with infighting in Governm ent poorpolicycontinuance Rhythm Pragmaticsociety Apartheid UrbanPoor Slumlords Colonial Oldmoney Disseminated Lackof education Buildings Lackof infrastructure Lackof interest Lackof resources Socialdisparities Snap Scan QR codes Device crazy! Technology Precinct WiFi Tasmin Jade Donaldson, UJ Dept of MultiMedia
    59. 59. kabelo mokhari, UJ Dept of MultiMedia
    60. 60. Anecia Pienaar, UJ Dept of MultiMedia
    61. 61. Tasmin Jade Donaldson, UJ Dept of MultiMedia
    62. 62. Self reflection
    63. 63. Thank you www.firma-design.com

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