Role and Responsibility
Why do you want to attend this training?
Any previous experience in ITIL(r)
One Good service & One Bad Service
Module 1: Introduction to Service Management Lifecycle
Principles of Service Management, Processes, The ITIL(R) Service Lifecycle
Module 2: Service Strategy
Concepts and Models, Processes
Module 3: Service Design
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes
Module 4: Service Transition
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes
Module 5: Service Operations
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes and Functions
Module 6: Continual Service Improvement
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes
Module 7 : Summary and Exam Preparation
Review of Key Concepts and Practice Exam
! ITIL(R) V3 Qualification Scheme: Credits
! ITIL(R) Foundation
! ITIL(R) Service Life Cycle
! Basic Concepts of ITIL(r)
Originally created in late 80s by the UK government
Now truly global and applicable to all IT Services
Focus on process and roles rather than organisation
Version 1 in 1991- focused on UK Government
Version 2 in 2000 - Industry wide and took into account changes
◦ Version 3 in June 2007 – Life Cycle Approach
◦ In 2010 Minister for the Cabinet Office announced the Best
Management Practice functions had moved into the Cabinet Office.
◦ In 2014, the owner ship of ITIL transfer to Axelos from Cabinet
ITSMF(IT Service Management Forum)
◦ The driver behind all things ITIL(R) taken over from OGC.
" USA, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil - Americas
" Australia, India, Singapore - Asia Pacific
" Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, UK - EMEA
Online, Multiple choice, 40 questions. The questions are
selected from the full ITIL(R) Foundation in IT Service
Management examination question bank.
Maximum 60 minutes. Candidates sitting the examination in
a language other than their native language have a maximum
of 75 minutes
65% (26 out of 40)
ATC( Accredited Training Centers) & Prometric.
JAGSAR International is an Global ATC & AEC directly from AXELOS and
& Service Owner
! Service Management
! Process & Process Owner
! Metrics, Interfaces
! Compliance & Governance
# A service is a means of delivering value to customers by
facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the
ownership of specific costs and risks.
Service Owner (vs. Service Manager)
# Role which is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT
# Initiation & Transition, Ongoing Maintenance & Support
# Monitoring & Reporting, Identifying improvement areas in
# Accountable for Service, Primary customer contact for the
# A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing
value to customers in the form of services.
◦ A set of activities which are carried out in a given manner to
achieve the desired objective
◦ A process is
" Yields desired result
" Delivers result to customers
" Responds to specific events or requirements
Process Owner (vis-a-vis Process Manager)
◦ Role responsible for ensuring that a Process is Fit for Purpose.
The Process Owner’s responsibilities include sponsorship,
Design, Change Management and continual improvement of the
Process and its Metrics. This Role is often assigned to the same
person who carries out the Process Manager Role, but the two
Roles may be separate in larger Organizations'.
# A Group of people & their tools used to carry out one or more
processes or activities. For example Service Desk.
# Self contained Units, structuring of organization, Provide Stability
# Functions usually carryout a specialized task
# Different functions coordinate within themselves via processes
Roles (vs. Designation)
# A set of authorities, responsibilities & activities assigned to individual
Metrics or KPIs
# A measurement unit which imparts an ability to “Judge” the
performance of a service
# The overlaps or linkages between two or more processes
# Processes exchange data (input or output) via these linkages
Compliance is adherence to a Standard or Set of
Guidelines or proper consistent practices
Corporate Governance means to promote corporate
Fairness, Transparency & Accountability
IT Governance is an integral part of enterprise/corporate
governance & it ensures that organization’s IT is in
alignment with Strategies & Objectives
The ITIL(R) V3 core is best described as?
A. An Operations Lifecycle
B. An IT Management Lifecycle
C. A Service Lifecycle
D. An Infrastructure Lifecycle
Which of the following statements defines Functions?
1. They design all the services within organization.
2. They are self-contained units with their own capabilities and
3. They are always the primary contact for the customer
4. They are costlier to implement compared to processes
Which of the following statements are correct about Functions?
1. They provide structure and stability to organizations
2. They are self-contained units with their own capabilities and
3. They rely on processes for cross-functional coordination and
4. They are costlier to implement compared to processes
A. 1, 2 and 3only
B. 1, 2 and 4 only
C. All of the above
D. None of the above
Which of the following is NOT one of the ITIL(R) core
A. Service Optimization
B. Service Transition
C. Service Design
D. Service Strategy
A Process owner is responsible for which of the
A. Setting up functions
B. Designing and documenting a Process
C. Responsible for all the processes in the organization
D. Accountable for ITIL(R) processes
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a process?
It is measurable
Delivers specific results
Responds to specific events
A method of structuring an organization
What is the RACI model used for?
A. Documenting the roles and relationships of
stakeholders in a process or activity
B. Defining requirements for a new service or process
C. Analyzing the business impact of an Incident
D. Creating a balanced scorecard showing the overall
status of Service Management
Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
1. Only one person can be responsible for an activity
2. Only one person can be accountable for an activity
A. All of the above
B. 1 only
C. 2 only
D. None of the above
main goal is to encourage Service
Providers to stop and think about why
something is to be done before thinking of
how - that is, to think and act in a strategic
What services should we offer and to whom?
How do we differentiate ourselves from competing alternatives?
How do we truly create value for our customers and
How can we make a case for strategic investments?
How can Financial Management provide visibility and control
over value creation?
How should we define service quality?
How do we choose between different paths for improving
How do we efficiently allocate resources across a portfolio of
How do we resolve conflicting demands for shared resources?
The scope of Service Strategy includes:
! Development of markets, internal and external
! Service assets
! Service Catalogue
! Implementation of strategy
! Financial Management, Demand Management, Service
Portfolio Management and organizational development
! Strategic risks.
The value of a service is therefore determined by what the
customer prefers (preferences), what the customer perceives
(perceptions) and what the customer actually gets (business
Value creation :
Resources and capabilities are types of asset. Organizations use
them to create value in the form of goods and services.
Business case :
A business case is a justification for a significant item of
expenditure. It includes information about costs, benefits,
options, issues, risks and possible problems.
The business case should articulate the reason for undertaking
a service or process improvement initiative. As far as
possible, data and evidence should be provided relating to
the costs and expected benefits of undertaking process
In developing a business case, the focus should not only be on
Return on Investment (ROI) but also on the business value
that Service Improvement brings to an organization and its
customers (Value on Investment – VOI).
The purpose of a service strategy is to articulate how a service
provider will enable an organization to achieve its business
The objectives of strategy management for IT services are to:
! Analyse the internal and external environments in which the
service provider exists, to identify opportunities that will
benefit the organization.
! Identify constraints that might prevent the achievement of
business outcomes, the delivery of services or the
management of services; and define how those constraints
could be removed or their effects reduced.
! Agree the service provider’s perspective and review regularly
to ensure continued relevance. This will result in a clear
statement of the vision and mission of the service provider.
The scope of strategy management is how a business strategy
is used to develop a set of tactics and operations
. The IT strategy is derived from the business strategy, but it
also provides validation of the business strategy. The IT
strategy can determine whether a strategic objective is
technologically possible, and what level of investment would
be required to meet that objective. The business is then able
to decide on whether the objective should be included and at
savings, since investments and expenditure
are matched to achievement of validated business
objectives, rather than unsubstantiated demands
! Increased levels of investment for key projects or
! Shifting investment priorities. The service provider
will be able to de-focus attention from one service,
and re-focus on another, ensuring that its efforts
and budget are spent on the areas with the highest
level of business impact.
how a service provider will use services to achieve the business
outcomes of its customers, thereby enabling the service
provider (whether internal or external) to meet its objectives
The four Ps of strategy:
Utility –Functionality offered by a Product or Service to
meet a particular need. Utility is often summarised as
"what it does".
◦ Fit for purpose
Warranty –A promise or guarantee that a product or
Service will meet its agreed Requirements.
The requirements could be availability, capacity, continuity
◦ Fit for use
Type I Service Provider
◦ An Internal Service Provider that is embedded within a
Business Unit. There may be several Type I Service Providers
within an Organisation
◦ Each BU has it’s own service providers (e.g. HR, Finance etc.)
Type II Service Provider
◦ An Internal Service Provider that provides shared IT Services
to more than one Business Unit.
◦ Each BU uses services from single SSU (e.g. CSS)
Type III Service Provider
◦ A Service Provider that provides IT Services to External
◦ BUs take services from different, authorized external vendors
NOTE – In today’s world, most of the organizations prefer to use mixture
of all types
Delivery model is a graphical representation of components
that help organizations deliver services to customers
◦ Insourcing: Using internal providers only
◦ Outsourcing: Using external vendors
◦ Cosourcing: Combination of insourcing & outsourcing
◦ Partnership or multisourcing: A formal agreement between
2 or more organization to work together. AND/OR using 2
or more vendors to work together & usually
interdependent on each other’s work
◦ BPO: Appointing external vendors to manage Business
◦ ASP: Application Service Provider to provide shared
services (e.g. networks)
◦ KPO: Appointing external vendors to manage domain
Forecasts and findings from external research are validated at
the end of the planning period and found to be accurate within
Number of corrective actions taken to remove constraints, and
the result of those actions on the achievement of strategic
Vision and mission statements have been defined and all staff
members have been trained on what they mean in terms of their
roles and jobs within the organization.
Number of strategic objectives that are not met
Number of changes to internal and external environments
identified, compared with the number of changes made to
The purpose of service portfolio management is to ensure that the
service provider has the right mix of services to balance the
investment in IT with the ability to meet business outcomes.
The objectives of service portfolio management are to:
# Provide a process and mechanisms to enable an organization to
investigate and decide on which services to provide, based on an
analysis of the potential return and acceptable level of risk.
# Maintain the definitive portfolio of services provided, articulating
the business needs each service meets and the business
outcomes it supports.
# Provide a mechanism for the organization to evaluate how
services enable it to achieve its strategy, and to respond to
changes in its internal or external environments.
# Control which services are offered, under what conditions and at
what level of investment.
The scope of service portfolio management is all services a
service provider plans to deliver, those currently delivered
and those that have been withdrawn from service. The
primary concern of service portfolio management is whether
the service provider is able to generate value from the
services. Service portfolio management will therefore track
investments in services and compare them to the desired
Service portfolio management enables the business to make
sound decisions about investments. Services cannot be
implemented because they are a good idea or because they are an
industry standard. They are implemented only if there is a good
business case demonstrating a clear return on investment. Service
portfolio management does this by comparing the outcomes that
are expected by the customer with the investment required to
build and deliver the service.
Customers are able to understand exactly what the service
provider will deliver to them and under what conditions, enabling
them to make decisions about whether the service is a good or
bad investment, and to evaluate additional opportunities that the
service will open. In this way service portfolio management can
also be a tool for innovation for the organization.
The purpose of financial management for IT services is to
secure the appropriate level of funding to design, develop
and deliver services that meet the strategy of the organization
The objectives of financial management for IT services include:
! Defining and maintaining a framework to identify, manage
and communicate the cost of providing services.
! Evaluating the financial impact of new or changed strategies
on the service provider.
! Securing funding to manage the provision of services.
! Facilitating good stewardship of service and customer assets
to ensure the organization meets its objectives. This should
be done together with service asset and configuration
management and knowledge management.
Financial management is normally a well- established and wellunderstood part of any organization. Professional
accountants manage dedicated finance departments, which
set financial policies, budgeting procedures, financial
reporting standards, accounting practices and revenue
generation or cost recovery rules.
Speed of change
Service portfolio management
Financial compliance and control
Value capture and creation.
Percentage of CIs with incorrect financial data
Percentage of cost predictions that are incorrect
Percentage of change management decisions where cost
impact is omitted
Staff time spent on costing activities
Software/hardware overheads in collecting data for cost
Actual costs against budgeted costs
Software license fees vs. available licenses
Performance of suppliers
The purpose of demand management is to understand,
anticipate and influence customer demand for services and to
work with capacity management to ensure the service provider
has capacity to meet this demand .
The objectives of demand management are to:
# Identify and analyse patterns of business activity to
understand the levels of demand that will be placed on a
# Define and analyse user profiles to understand the typical
profiles of demand for services from different types of user
# Ensure that services are designed to meet the patterns of
business activity and the ability to meet business outcomes
# Work with capacity management to ensure that adequate
resources are available at the appropriate levels of capacity to
meet the demand for services, thus maintaining a balance
between the cost of service and the value that it achieves
The scope of the demand management process is to identify
and analyse the patterns of business activity that initiate
demand for services, and to identify and analyse how
different types of user influence the demand for services.
Demand management activities should include:
! Identifying and analyzing patterns of business activity
associated with services
! Identifying user profiles and analyzing their service usage
The main value of demand management is to achieve a balance
between the cost of a service and the value of the business
outcomes it supports.
The other service strategy processes define the linkage between
(and the investment required for) business outcomes,
services, resources and capabilities.
Demand management refines the understanding of how, when
and to what level these elements interact. This enables
executives to evaluate the real investment required to achieve
business outcomes at varying levels of activity.
Patterns of Business Activity:
• A Workload profile of one or more Business Activities. Patterns
of Business Activity are used to help the IT Service Provider
understand and plan for different levels of Business Activity.
• Represents change in pattern of customers demands as
provided by the customer
• Important to track as it helps the organization identify
improvements in existing services or identify future
• PBA will help us understand changing business needs
• A pattern of User demand for IT Services. Each User Profile
includes one or more Patterns of Business Activity.
– Users means people or even processes/functions etc.
– Is usually associated with one or more PBA
A detailed description of an IT Service that is available to
be delivered to Customers. A Service Package includes a
Service Level Package and one or more Core Services and
SLP has a defined level of Utility & Warranty for a given
SP. Each SLP is designed to meet the needs of a
particular Pattern of Business Activity.
◦ E.g. Providing 100 servers is a SP deal but some of
them could be under Gold SLP and some could be
under Silver SLP.
Patterns of business activity are defined for each relevant
Documented user profiles exist and each contains a demand
profile for the services used by that type of user
Capacity plans include details of patterns of business activity
and corresponding workloads.
Techniques to manage demand have been documented in
capacity plans and, where appropriate, in service level
Differential charging (as an example of one such technique)
has resulted in a more even demand on the service over time.
The purpose of the business relationship management process
! To establish and maintain a business relationship between
the service provider and the customer based on
understanding the customer and their business needs.
! To identify customer needs and ensure that the service
provider is able to meet these needs as business needs
change over time and between circumstances.
The main objectives of business relationship management
! Ensure that the service provider understands the customer’s
perspective of service, and is therefore able to prioritize its
services and service assets appropriately
! Ensure high levels of customer satisfaction, indicating that
the service provider is meeting the customer’s requirements
For internal service providers business relationship management
is typically executed between a senior representative from IT
(larger organizations may have dedicated BRMs) and senior
managers (customers) from the business units. Here the
emphasis is on aligning the objectives of the business with the
activity of the service provider.
In external service providers business relationship management
is often executed by a separate and dedicated function of BRMs
or account managers – each one dedicated to a customer, or
group of smaller customers. The emphasis here is on
maximizing contract value through customer satisfaction.
Business relationship management focuses on understanding
how services meet customer requirements.
The value of business relationship management is in the ability
of the service provider to articulate and meet the business
needs of its customers.
Business relationship management creates a forum for ongoing,
structured communication with its customers. This enables
business relationship management to achieve better alignment
and integration of services in the future, as well as to achieve
the current business outcomes.
The focus on customer satisfaction enables the service provider
and customer alike to gauge how effectively the business
objectives are being met.
Customer portfolio :
The customer portfolio is a database or structured document used to
record all customers of the IT service provider
Customer agreement portfolio :
The customer agreement portfolio is a database or structured document
used to manage service contracts or agreements between an IT
service provider and its customers.
Customer satisfaction :
Customer satisfaction is the most important point. People uses Voice
of Customer as one of the tool for this.
Service requirements :
Throughout the service lifecycle business relationship management is
involved in defining and clarifying requirements for service
Business outcomes and customer requirements are
documented and signed off by the customer as input into
service portfolio management and service design processes.
Customer satisfaction and customer retention rates are
Every new service has a comprehensive set of requirements
defined by business managers and staff, and these have been
signed off by both business and IT leadership at the strategy,
design and transition stages.
The service provider is consistently rated above a defined
minimum level in a structured customer satisfaction survey.
“Warranty of a service” means which of the following?
A. The service is fit for purpose
B. There will be no failures in applications and
infrastructure associated with the service
C. All service-related problems are fixed free of charge
for a certain period of time
D. Customers are assured of certain levels of availability,
capacity, continuity and security
Which of the following statements CORRECTLY defines
Insourcing and Outsourcing delivery model options?
A. Insourcing relies on internal resources; outsourcing
relies on external organization(s) resources
B. Insourcing relies on external organization(s) resources;
outsourcing relies on internal resources
C. Insourcing relies on co-sourcing; outsourcing relies on
D. Insourcing relies on knowledge process outsourcing;
outsourcing relies on application service provisioning
Which of the following statements is CORRECT about
patterns of demand generated by the customer’s
A. They are driven by patterns of business activity
B. It is impossible to predict how they behave
C. It is impossible to influence demand patterns
D. They are driven by the delivery schedule generated by
A Service Level Package is best described as?
A. A definite level of utility and warranty associated with a
core service package
B. A description of customer requirements used to
negotiate a Service Level Agreement
C. A description of the value that the customer wants and
for which they are willing to pay
D. A document showing the Service Levels achieved
during an agreed reporting period
Which of the following questions is NOT answered by
Service Portfolio Management?
A. How should our resources and capabilities be
B. What opportunities are there in the market?
C. Why should a customer buy these services?
D. What are the pricing or chargeback models?
The MAIN purpose of the Service Portfolio is to describe
services in terms of?
Service Level Requirements
Service Investment Analysis helps an IT organization to
A. Identify the capital costs to be recovered from customers
B. Justify all incurred costs
C. Derive a value indication for the total lifecycle of a service
D. Specify the exact cost of services
The main goal is the design of a new or changed
service for introduction into the live environment.
• To design services to satisfy business objectives
• To design processes for the design, transition, operation
and improvement of IT services
• To identify and manage risks
• To design secure and resilient IT infrastructures,
environments, applications and data/information resources
• To design measurement methods and metrics for assessing
the effectiveness and efficiency of Service Design
• To produce and maintain IT plans, processes, policies,
standards, architectures, frameworks and documents for the
design of quality IT solutions
• To develop the skills and capability within IT.?
There are five individual aspects in the scope of Service Design:
! The design of new or changed services
! The design of the Service Portfolio, including the Service
! The design of the technology architecture and management
! The design of the processes, roles, responsibilities and skills
! The design of measurement methods and metrics.
The purpose of the design coordination process is to ensure the
goals and objectives of the service design stage are met by
providing and maintaining a single point of coordination and
control for all activities and processes within this stage of the
The main objectives of the design coordination process are to:
# Ensure the consistent design of appropriate services, service
management information systems, architectures, technology,
processes, information and metrics to meet current and
evolving business outcomes and requirements
# Coordinate all design activities across projects, changes,
suppliers and support teams, and manage schedules,
resources and conflicts where required
# Plan and coordinate the resources and capabilities required to
design new or changed services
# Produce service design packages (SDPs) based on service
charters and change requests
The scope of the design coordination process includes all
design activity, particularly all new or changed service
solutions that are being designed for transition into (or out
of, in the case of a service retirement) the live environment.
The design coordination process includes:
! Assisting and supporting each project or other change
through all the service design activities and processes
! Maintaining policies, guidelines, standards, budgets, models,
resources and capabilities for service design activities and
! Coordinating, prioritizing and scheduling of all service design
resources to satisfy conflicting demands from all projects and
! Planning and forecasting the resources needed for the future
demand for service design activities
The main value of the design coordination process to the
business is the production of a set of consistent quality
solution designs and SDPs that will provide the desired
# Through the work of design coordination organizations can:
# Achieve the intended business value of services through
design at acceptable risk and cost levels
# Minimize rework and unplanned labour costs associated with
reworking design issues during later service lifecycle stages
# Support the achievement of higher customer and user
satisfaction and improved confidence in IT and in the services
Design coordination activities themselves fall into two categories:
! Activities relating to the overall service design lifecycle stage
These activities include the development, deployment and
continual improvement of appropriate service design practices, as
well as the coordination of actual design activity across projects
and changes. These activities may be performed by design
coordination process manager(s).
Activities relating to each individual design These activities focus
on ensuring that each individual design effort and SDP, whether
part of a project or simply associated with a change, conforms
with defined practices, and that they produce a design that will
support the required business outcomes. These activities may be
performed by a project manager or other individual with direct
responsibility for the project or change, with the assistance and
guidance of the design coordination process manager(s).
Reduction in the number of subsequent revisions of the
content of SDPs.
Increased satisfaction with the service design activities, within
project and change staff .
Reduced number of issues caused by conflict for service
Reduced number and percentage of emergency change
requests submitted by projects.
Percentage increase in the number of transitioned services
that consistently achieve the agreed service level targets.
The purpose of the service catalogue management process is to provide
and maintain a single source of consistent information on all
operational services and those being prepared to be run
operationally, and to ensure that it is widely available to those who
are authorized to access it.
The objectives of the service catalogue management process are to:
# Manage the information contained within the service catalogue
# Ensure that the service catalogue is accurate and reflects the current
details, status, interfaces and dependencies of all services that are
being run, or being prepared to run, in the live environment,
according to the defined policies
# Ensure that the service catalogue is made available to those approved
to access it in a manner that supports their effective and efficient use
of service catalogue information
# Ensure that the service catalogue supports the evolving needs of all
other service management processes for service catalogue
information, including all interface and dependency information.
The scope of the service catalogue management process is to
provide and maintain accurate information on all services that
are being transitioned or have been transitioned to the live
environment. The services presented in the service catalogue
may be listed individually or, more typically, some or all of the
services may be presented in the form of service packages.
The service catalogue management process covers:
# Contribution to the definition of services and service packages
# Development and maintenance of service and service package
descriptions appropriate for the service catalogue
# Production and maintenance of an accurate service catalogue
# Interfaces, dependencies and consistency between the service
catalogue and the overall service portfolio
The service catalogue provides a central source of information on
the IT services delivered by the service provider organization.
Ensure a common understanding of IT services
and improved relationships between the
customer and service provider by utilizing the
service catalogue as a marketing and
Improve service provider focus on customer
outcomes by correlating internal service
provider activities and service assets to
business processes and outcomes.
Improve efficiency and effectiveness of other
service management processes by leveraging
the information contained in or connected to
the service catalogue
What is Service Catalog?
A single source of information for all the current service offerings
Includes Operational & in Transition Services
E.g. Menu Card in a Hotel
Service Catalog vs. Service Portfolio
Service catalog is a part of Service Portfolio
Service Portfolio depicts the services in their Business Value
Terms i.e. Why customer would buy it from us
Service Catalog depicts what service you would like to offer to
customer (which will be based on customer needs)
Service Portfolio is not usually available to be viewed by Customer
or public whereas Service Catalog may be
Customer-facing services IT services that are seen by the
customer. These are typically services that support the
customer’s business units/business processes, directly
facilitating some outcome or outcomes desired by the
Supporting services IT services that support or ‘underpin’ the
customer-facing services. These are typically invisible to
the customer, but essential to the delivery of customerfacing IT services.
Percentage reduction in the number of variances detected
between the information contained within the service
catalogue and the ‘real-world’ situation
Percentage increase in completeness of the customer-facing
views of the service catalogue against operational services
Increase in measured business user access to intranet-based
Percentage increase in completeness of supporting services
against the IT components that make up those services
The purpose of the SLM process is to ensure that all current and
planned IT services are delivered to agreed achievable
The objectives of SLM are to:
! Define, document, agree, monitor, measure, report and
review the level of IT services provided and instigate
corrective measures whenever appropriate
! Provide and improve the relationship and communication with
the business and customers in conjunction with business
! Ensure that specific and measurable targets are developed for
all IT services
! Monitor and improve customer satisfaction with the quality of
The SLM process should include:
! Cooperation with the business relationship management
process: this includes development of relationships with the
business as needed to achieve the SLM process objectives
! Negotiation and agreement of future service level requirements
and targets, and the documentation and management of SLRs
for all proposed new or changed services
! Negotiation and agreement of current service level requirements
and targets, and the documentation and management of SLAs
for all operational services
! Development and management of appropriate OLAs to ensure
that targets are aligned with SLA targets
! Review of all supplier agreements and underpinning contracts
with supplier management to ensure that targets are aligned
with SLA targets
SLM provides a consistent interface to the business for all servicelevel-related issues. It provides the business with the agreed
service targets and the required management information to
ensure that those targets have been met. Where targets are
breached, SLM provides feedback on the cause of the breach and
details of the actions taken to prevent the breach from recurring.
Thus SLM provides a reliable communication channel and a
trusted relationship with the appropriate customers and business
representatives at a tactical level.
Service Level Requirements (SLR)
Service Level Agreements (SLA)
Operational Level Agreements (OLA)
Underpinning Contracts (UC)
# Percentage reduction in SLA targets threatened
# Percentage increase in customer perception and satisfaction
of SLA achievements, via service reviews and customer
satisfaction survey responses.
# Percentage reduction in SLA breaches caused because of
third-party support contracts (underpinning contracts) .
# Percentage reduction in SLA breaches caused because of
# Total number and percentage increase in fully documented
SLAs in place
# Percentage increase in SLAs agreed against operational
services being run.
# Percentage reduction in the costs associated with service
The purpose of the availability management process is to ensure
that the level of availability delivered in all IT services meets
the agreed availability needs and/or service level targets in a
cost-effective and timely manner
The objectives of availability management are to:
# Produce and maintain an appropriate and up-to-date
availability plan that reflects the current and future needs of
# Provide advice and guidance to all other areas of the business
and IT on all availability-related issues
# Ensure that service availability achievements meet all their
agreed targets by managing services and resources-related
# Assist with the diagnosis and resolution of availability-related
incidents and problems
# Assess the impact of all changes on the availability plan and
the availability of all services and resources
The scope of the availability management process covers the
design, implementation, measurement, management and
improvement of IT service and component availability.
Availability management needs to understand the service and
component availability requirements from the business
perspective in terms of the:
! Current business processes, their operation and requirements
! Future business plans and requirements
! Service targets and the current IT service operation and
! IT infrastructure, data, applications and environment and
! Business impacts and priorities in relation to the services and
The availability management process ensures that the
availability of systems and services matches the evolving
agreed needs of the business. The role of IT within the
business is now pivotal.
The availability and reliability of IT services can directly
influence customer satisfaction and the reputation of the
business. This is why availability management is essential in
ensuring IT delivers the levels of service availability required
by the business to satisfy its business objectives and deliver
the quality of service demanded by its customers.
Vital Business Function (VBF)
# Percentage reduction in the unavailability of services and
# Percentage increase in the reliability of services and
# Effective review and follow-up of all SLA, OLA and
underpinning contract breaches relating to availability
# Percentage improvement in overall endto-end
availability of service
# Percentage reduction in the number and impact of
# Improvement in the MTBF
The purpose of the capacity management process is to ensure
that the capacity of IT services and the IT infrastructure meets
the agreed capacity- and performance-related requirements
in a cost-effective and timely manner. Capacity management
is concerned with meeting both the current and future
capacity and performance needs of the business.
The objectives of capacity management are to:
! Produce and maintain an appropriate and up-to-date capacity
plan, which reflects the current and future needs of the
! Provide advice and guidance to all other areas of the business
and IT on all capacity- and performance-related issues
! Ensure that service performance achievements meet all of
their agreed targets by managing the performance and
capacity of both services and resources
! Assist with the diagnosis and resolution of performance- and
capacity-related incidents and problems
The capacity management process should be the focal point for
all IT performance and capacity issues. Capacity management
considers all resources required to deliver the IT service, and
plans for short-, medium- and long-term business
The capacity management process should include:
! Monitoring patterns of business activity through performance,
utilization and throughput of IT services and the supporting
infrastructure, environmental, data and applications
components and the production of regular and ad hoc reports
on service and component capacity and performance
! Undertaking tuning activities to make the most efficient use
of existing IT resources
! Understanding the agreed current and future demands being
made by the customer for IT resources, and producing
forecasts for future requirements
A well-executed capacity management process will benefit the
! Improving the performance and availability of IT services the
business needs by helping to reduce capacity- and
performance-related incidents and problems
! Ensuring required capacity and performance are provided in
the most cost-effective manner
! Contributing to improved customer satisfaction and user
productivity by ensuring that all capacity- and performancerelated service levels are met
! Supporting the efficient and effective design and transition of
new or changed services through proactive capacity
Business Capacity Management, Service Capacity Management &
Component Capacity Management
Capacity Management Information System
Performance Management, Modeling, Application Sizing
Business Capacity Management
# Prepare trend analysis, forecast model and develop the Capacity
Plan in order to understand future business needs
# Modeling to estimate the best alternative for Capacity deployment
Service Capacity Management
# Understand the functioning of the IT services, resource usage and
variations to ensure that appropriate service agreements can be
# Report on Service profile of the use of services, manage demand
Component Capacity Management
# The Process responsible for understanding the Capacity,
Utilisation, and Performance of Configuration Items.
# Data is collected, recorded and analysed for use in the Capacity
# Optimize use of the current IT resource components such as
bandwidth, network capacity etc.
– Production of workload forecasts on time
– Percentage accuracy of forecasts of business trends
– Timely incorporation of business plans into the
– Reduction in the number of variances from the
business plans and capacity plans
– Increased ability to monitor performance and
throughput of all services and components
– Timely justification and implementation of new
technology in line with business requirements
(time, cost and functionality)
The purpose of the IT service continuity management process is
to support the overall business continuity management (BCM)
process by ensuring that, by managing the risks that could
seriously affect IT services, the IT service provider can always
provide minimum agreed business continuity-related service
The objectives of ITSCM are to:
! Produce and maintain a set of IT service continuity plans that
support the overall business continuity plans of the
! Complete regular BIA exercises to ensure that all continuity
plans are maintained in line with changing business impacts
! Conduct regular risk assessment and management exercises
to manage IT services within an agreed level of business risk
in conjunction with the business and the availability
management and information security management
! Provide advice and guidance to all other areas of the business
and IT on all continuity-related issues
The ITSCM process includes:
! The agreement of the scope of the ITSCM process and the
! BIA to quantify the impact loss of IT service would have on
! Risk assessment and management – the risk identification
and risk assessment to identify potential threats to continuity
and the likelihood of the threats becoming reality. This also
includes taking measures to manage the identified threats
where this can be cost- justified. The approach to managing
these threats will form the core of the ITSCM strategy and
ITSCM provides an invaluable role in supporting the BCM
process. In many organizations, ITSCM is used to raise
awareness of continuity requirements and is often used to
justify and implement a BCM process and business continuity
plans. ITSCM should be driven by business risk as identified
by BCM, and ensure that the recovery arrangements for IT
services are aligned to identified business impacts, risks and
# Increase in success of regular audits of the ITSCM plans to
ensure that, at all times, the agreed recovery requirements
of the business can be achieved.
# Regular successful validation that all service recovery
targets are agreed and documented in SLAs and are
achievable within the ITSCM plans.
# Regular and comprehensive testing of ITSCM plans
# Regular reviews are undertaken, at least annually, of the
business and IT continuity plans with the business areas.
# Regular successful validation that IT negotiates and
manages all necessary ITSCM contracts with third parties.
# Overall reduction in the risk and impact of possible failure
of IT services
The purpose of the information security management process is
to align IT security with business security and ensure that the
confidentiality, integrity and availability of the organization’s
assets, information, data and IT services always matches the
agreed needs of the business.
The objective of information security management is to protect
the interests of those relying on information, and the systems
and communications that deliver the information, from harm
resulting from failures of confidentiality, integrity and
The information security management process should include:
! Business security policy and plans
! Current business operation and its security requirements
! Future business plans and requirements
! Legislative and regulatory requirements
! Obligations and responsibilities with regard to security
contained within SLAs
! The business and IT risks and their management.
Information security management ensures that an information
security policy is maintained and enforced that fulfils the
needs of the business security policy and the requirements of
corporate governance. It raises awareness of the need for
security within all IT services and assets throughout the
organization, ensuring that the policy is appropriate for the
needs of the organization
# Percentage decrease in security breaches
reported to the service desk.
# Percentage decrease in the impact of security
breaches and incidents
# Percentage increase in SLA conformance to
# Increase in the acceptance and conformance of
# Increased support and commitment of senior
# Increased awareness of the security policy and its
contents, throughout the organization
The purpose of the supplier management process is to obtain
value for money from suppliers and to provide seamless
quality of IT service to the business by ensuring that all
contracts and agreements with suppliers support the needs of
the business and that all suppliers meet their contractual
The main objectives of the supplier management process are
! Obtain value for money from suppliers and contracts
! Ensure that contracts with suppliers are aligned to business
needs, and support and align with agreed targets in SLRs and
SLAs, in conjunction with SLM
! Manage relationships with suppliers
! Manage supplier performance
The supplier management process should include:
! Implementation and enforcement of the supplier policy
! Maintenance of an SCMIS
! Supplier and contract categorization and risk assessment
! Supplier and contract evaluation and selection
! Development, negotiation and agreement of contracts
! Contract review, renewal and termination
The main objectives of the supplier management process are to
provide value for money from suppliers and contracts and to
ensure that all targets in underpinning supplier contracts and
agreements are aligned to business needs and agreed targets
within SLAs. This is to ensure the delivery to the business of
end-to-end, seamless, quality IT services that are aligned to
the business’s expectation
# Increase in the number of suppliers meeting the
targets within the contract
# Reduction in the number of breaches of contractual
# Increase in the number of service and contractual
reviews held with suppliers
# Increase in the number of supplier and contractual
targets aligned with SLA and SLR targets
# Reduction in the number of service breaches caused
# Reduction in the number of threatened service
breaches caused by suppliers
“Which of the following is NOT a process within the Service
A. Service Portfolio Management
B. Service Catalogue Management
C. Service Level Management
D. Supplier Management
Which of the following statements regarding Maintainability
1 Maintainability is concerned with how quickly and
effectively a service, a service component or an individual
CI can be restored to its normal working status following
2 Maintainability is the measure of how long a service or
service component can perform its agreed function
3 Maintainability is a measure of compliance to a contract
by a supplier
A. 1 Only
B. 1 and 3 Only
C. 2 Only
D. All the Above
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the overall goal
of Information Security Management?
A. To protect the interests of customers and users by protecting systems
from harm caused by failure of availability, confidentiality or integrity
B. To align IT security with business security requirements and to ensure
that information security is effectively managed in all Service Management
C. To produce and maintain an overall Information Security Policy that
defines the organisation's stance and attitude on all security matters
D. To develop an effective Information Security Management System that
supports the business objectives and Information Security Policies
Which of the following statements is INCORRECT regarding
Service Catalogue Management (SCM)?
A. SCM is responsible for ensuring agreed details of all services
currently being provided, or those being prepared for transition to
the live environment, are included in a Service Catalogue
B. SCM is responsible for ensuring customers are provided with
informative data relating to the services being provided in the live
environment, and that this information is current and relevant
C. SCM is responsible for ensuring details of all pipeline services are
included in the Service Catalogue
D. SCM is responsible for ensuring service attributes, as agreed by
the Service Level Manager and Service Portfolio Manager, are
documented in the Service Catalogue and are kept under strict
Which of the following statements about Supplier
Management is INCORRECT?
A. Supplier Management negotiates internal and external
agreements to support the delivery of services
B. Supplier Management ensures that suppliers meet
C. Supplier Management maintains information in a
Supplier and Contracts Database
D. Supplier Management should be involved in all stages
of the service lifecycle, from Strategy through Design and
Transition to Operations and Improvement
Answer - A
Which of the following items can be located in SCD?
A. Services in Pipeline
C. Contractor agreement details
D. IT services details
Answer - C
Which of the following best describes Operation Level
An Operation section within Service Level Agreements
Agreements between Customer, Service Provider & it’s
Agreements between 2 vendors
Agreements with internal IT departments
Answer - D
Which of the following represents Dormant Contract?
A. A contract signed by Senior Managers and all IT staff
B. A contract with customer for bringing up IT services as
soon as they are down
C. Contract which becomes active only during disaster/
D. Contract used by Information Security Management
Answer - C
The main goals of Service Transition are:
# • To enable the business change project or customer to
integrate a release into their business processes and services
# • To reduce Known Errors and minimize the risks from
transitioning the new or changed services into production
# • To ensure that the service can be used in accordance with
the requirements and constraints specified within the service
requirements. The objectives of Service Transition are:
# • To plan and manage the resources to successfully establish
a new or changed service into production within the predicted
cost, quality and time estimates
# • To ensure there is minimal unpredicted impact on the
production services, operations and support organization
The scope of Service Transition includes the management and
coordination of the processes, systems and functions to
package, build, test and deploy a release into production and
establish the service specified in the customer and stakeholder
The following activities are excluded from the scope of Service
Transition best practices:
! • Minor modifications to the production services and
environment, e.g. replacement of a failed PC or registration of a
! • On-going Continual Service Improvements that do not
significantly impact on the services or Service Provider’s
capability to deliver the services.
Define and implement a formal policy for
! Implement all changes to services through
! Adopt a common framework and standards
! Maximize re-use of established processes
! Align service transition plans with the
planning and support
! Change management
! Service asset and configuration management
! Release and deployment management
! Service validation and testing
! Change evaluation
! Knowledge management.
The purpose of the transition planning and support process is to
provide overall planning for service transitions and to
coordinate the resources that they require.
The objectives of transition planning and support are to:
# Plan and coordinate the resources to ensure that the
requirements of service strategy encoded in service design are
effectively realized in service operation.
# Coordinate activities across projects, suppliers and service
teams where required.
# Establish new or changed services into supported
environments within the predicted cost, quality and time
# Establish new or modified management information systems
and tools, technology and management architectures, service
management processes, and measurement methods and
metrics to meet requirements established during the service
design stage of the lifecycle.
The scope of transition planning and support includes:
! Maintaining policies, standards and models for service
transition activities and processes
! Guiding each major change or new service through all the
service transition processes
! Coordinating the efforts needed to enable multiple transitions
to be managed at the same time
! Prioritizing conflicting requirements for service transition
! Planning the budget and resources needed to fulfil future
requirements for service transition
Effective transition planning and support can significantly
improve a service provider’s ability to handle high
volumes of change and releases across its customer
base. An integrated approach to planning improves the
alignment of the service transition plans with the
customer, supplier and business change project plans
# The release policy should include the following:
# The unique identification, numbering and naming conventions for different
types of release together with a description.
# The roles and responsibilities at each stage in the release and deployment
# The expected frequency for each type of release.
# The approach for accepting and grouping changes into a release.
# The mechanism to automate the build installation and release distribution
processes to improve reuse repeatability and efficiency.
# How the configuration baseline for the release is captured and verified
against the actual release contents e.g. hardware, software, documentation
# Exit and entry criteria and authority for acceptance of the release into each
service transition stage.
◦ Increase in the number of releases implemented
that meet the customer’s agreed requirements in
terms of cost, quality, scope and release schedule
(expressed as a percentage of all releases).
◦ Reduced variation of actual versus predicted
scope, quality, cost and time.
◦ Increased customer and user satisfaction with
plans and communication.
◦ Reduced business disruption due to better
alignment between service transition plans and
◦ Reduction in number of issues, risks and delays.
The purpose of the change management process is to control the
lifecycle of all changes, enabling beneficial changes to be made with
minimum disruption to IT services.
The objectives of change management are to:
! Respond to the customer’s changing business requirements while
maximizing value and reducing incidents, disruption and re-work.
! Respond to the business and IT requests for change that will align
the services with the business needs.
! Ensure that changes are recorded and evaluated, and that authorized
changes are prioritized, planned, tested, implemented, documented
and reviewed in a controlled manner.
The scope should include changes to all architectures, processes,
tools, metrics and documentation, as well as changes to IT
services and other configuration items.
All changes must be recorded and managed in a controlled way. The
scope of change management covers changes to all configuration
items across the whole service lifecycle, whether these CIs are
physical assets such as servers or networks, virtual assets such as
virtual servers or virtual storage, or other types of asset such as
agreements or contracts.
Each organization should define the changes that lie outside the
scope of its change management process. Typically these might
Changes with significantly wider impacts than service changes,
e.g. departmental organization, policies and business operations
– these changes would produce RFCs to generate consequential
Changes at an operational level such as repair to printers or other
routine service components
Reducing failed changes and therefore service disruption,
defects and re-work
Reducing the number of unauthorized changes, leading to
reduced service disruption and reduced time to resolve
Delivering change promptly to meet business timescales
Tracking changes through the service lifecycle and to the
assets of its customers
Contributing to better estimates of the quality, time and cost
Assessing the risks associated with the transition of services
(introduction or disposal)
Types of change request :
Standard change A pre-authorized change that is low risk, relatively
common and follows a procedure or work instruction.
Emergency change A change that must be implemented as soon as
possible, for example to resolve a major incident or implement a
Normal change Any service change that is not a standard change or
an emergency change.
Request for Change (RFCs)
Change Classification & Prioritization
Forward Schedule of Changes (FSC)
Projected Service Availability (PSA)
Projected Service Outage (PSO)
Change Advisory Board (CAB)
Change Management Process Flow
or other teams
ITSCM, Capacity, BRM,
ISM, SLM, R&D, Customer etc.
Back out Plan
Update CMDB &
Success Post Change
# Increase in the percentage of changes that meet
the customer’s agreed requirements, e.g. quality/
# The benefits of change (expressed as ‘value of
improvements made’ + ‘negative impacts
prevented or terminated’) exceed the costs of
# Reduction in the backlog of change requests
# Average time to implement meets SLA targets,
based on urgency/priority/change type
# Increase in accuracy of predictions for time,
quality, cost, risk, resource and commercial
# Increase in scores in survey of stakeholder
satisfaction for the change management process
The purpose of the SACM process is to ensure that the assets
required to deliver services are properly controlled, and that
accurate and reliable information about those assets is
available when and where it is needed. This information
includes details of how the assets have been configured and
the relationships between assets.
The objectives of SACM are to:
# Ensure that assets under the control of the IT organization are
identified, controlled and properly cared for throughout their
# Identify, control, record, report, audit and verify services and
other configuration items (CIs), including versions, baselines,
constituent components, their attributes and relationships.
# Account for, manage and protect the integrity of CIs through
the service lifecycle by working with change management to
ensure that only authorized components are used and only
authorized changes are made.
The scope of SACM includes management of the complete
lifecycle of every CI.
! Service asset and configuration management ensures that CIs
are identified, baselined and maintained and that changes to
them are controlled. It also ensures that releases into
controlled environments and operational use are done on the
basis of formal authorization. It provides a configuration
model of the services and service assets by recording the
relationships between configuration items. SACM may cover
non-IT assets, work products used to develop the services
and CIs required to support the service that would not be
classified as assets by other parts of the business.
! The scope includes interfaces to internal and external service
providers where there are assets and configuration items that
need to be controlled
IT staff to understand the configuration and relationships of
services and the configuration items that provide them
Better forecasting and planning of changes
Successful assessment, planning and delivery of changes and
Resolution of incidents and problems within the service level
Delivery of service levels and warranties
Better adherence to standards, legal and regulatory
obligations (fewer nonconformances)
More business opportunities as the service provider is able to
demonstrate control of assets and services
Traceability of changes from requirements
A service asset is any resource or capability that could contribute to the
delivery of a service. Examples of service assets include a virtual server, a
physical server, a software licence, a piece of information stored in a
service management system, or some knowledge in the head of a senior
A configuration item (CI) is a service asset that needs to be managed in
order to deliver an IT service. All CIs are service assets, but many service
assets are not configuration items. Examples of configuration items are a
server or a software licence. Every CI must be under the control of
A configuration record is a set of attributes and relationships about a CI.
Configuration records are stored in a configuration management database
(CMDB) and managed with a configuration management system (CMS). It
is important to note that CIs are not stored in a CMDB; configuration
records describe CIs that are stored in the CMDB.
Definitive Media Library
Configuration Management System
◦ One or more locations in which the definitive and approved versions of all
software Configuration Items are securely stored. The DML may also contain
associated CIs such as licenses and documentation. The DML is a single
logical storage area even if there are multiple locations. All software in the
DML is under the control of Change and Release Management and is recorded
in the Configuration Management System. Only software from the DML is
acceptable for use in a Release.
◦ It is a system which controls & maintains the record if all CIs in a structured
manner in 1 or more databases known as CMDB
◦ Stores Attributes of CIs, Relationship between CIs
◦ Consists of Multiple layers like Integration, Presentation etc.
Presentation Layer /User Interface
NOTE – CMDB can use Database
technology, it can even be an Excel
Knowledge & Logic processing
Data/Source information gathering
# Improved accuracy in budgets and charges for the assets utilized
by each customer or business unit
# Increase in re-use and redistribution of under-utilized resources
# Reduction in the use of unauthorized hardware and software,
non-standard and variant builds that increase complexity, support
costs and risk to the business services
# Reduced number of exceptions reported during configuration
# Percentage improvement in maintenance scheduling over the life
of an asset (not too much, not too late)
# Improved speed for incident management to identify faulty CIs
and restore service
# Reduction in the average time and cost of diagnosing and
resolving incidents and problems (by type)
# Improved ratio of used licences against paid-for licences
# Improvement in time to identify poor- performing and poorquality assets
The purpose of the release and deployment management process is
to plan, schedule and control the build, test and deployment of
releases, and to deliver new functionality required by the business
while protecting the integrity of existing services.
The objectives of release and deployment management are to:
# Define and agree release and deployment management plans with
customers and stakeholders
# Create and test release packages that consist of related
configuration items that are compatible with each other
# Ensure that the integrity of a release package and its constituent
components is maintained throughout the transition activities,
and that all release packages are stored in a DML and recorded
accurately in the CMS
# Deploy release packages from the DML to the live environment
following an agreed plan and schedule
# Ensure that all release packages can be tracked, installed, tested,
verified and/or uninstalled or backed out if appropriate
The scope of release and deployment management includes the
processes, systems and functions to package, build, test and
deploy a release into live use, establish the service specified
in the service design package, and formally hand the service
over to the service operation functions. The scope includes all
configuration items required to implement a release, for
! Physical assets such as a server or network
! Virtual assets such as a virtual server or virtual storage
! Applications and software
! Training for users and IT staff
! Services, including all related contracts and agreements.
Delivering change, faster and at optimum cost and minimized
Assuring that customers and users can use the new or
changed service in a way that supports the business goals
Improving consistency in implementation approach across the
business change, service teams, suppliers and customers
Contributing to meeting auditable requirements for
traceability through service transition.
Types of Release
# Increased number and percentage of releases that
make use of a common framework of standards, reusable processes and supporting documentation
# Increased number and percentage of releases that
meet customer expectations for cost, time and quality
# Reduced number of CMS and DML audit failures related
# Reduced number of deployments from sources other
than the DML
# Reduced number of incidents due to incorrect
components being deployed
# Number of incidents against the service (low and
The purpose of the service validation and testing process is to
ensure that a new or changed IT service matches its design
specification and will meet the needs of the business.
The objectives of service validation and testing are to:
! Provide confidence that a release will create a new or changed
service that delivers the expected outcomes and value for the
customers within the projected costs, capacity and
! Quality assure a release, its constituent service components,
the resultant service and service capability delivered by a
! Validate that a service is ‘fit for purpose’ – it will deliver the
! Provide assurance that a service is ‘fit for use’ – it will deliver
the agreed warranty
Service validation and testing can be applied throughout the
service lifecycle to quality assure any aspect of a service and
the service providers’ capability, resources and capacity to
deliver a service and/or service release successfully. When
validating and testing an end-to-end service, the interfaces
to suppliers, customers and partners are important. Service
provider interface definitions define the boundaries of the
service to be tested, e.g. process interfaces and
Service failures can harm the service provider’s business and
the customer’s assets and result in outcomes such as loss of
reputation, loss of money, loss of time, injury and death. Key
values to the business and customers from service testing
and validation are, firstly, confidence that a new or changed
service will deliver the value and outcomes required of it and,
secondly, an understanding of the risks
! Types of testing.
! Test models
! Test strategy
! V-Model Testing
◦ Roles and responsibilities for impact assessment and test
activities have been agreed and documented
◦ Increase in the number of new or changed services for which
all roles and responsibilities for customers, users and service
provider personnel have been agreed and documented
◦ Increase in the percentage of impact assessments and test
activities where the documented roles have been correctly
◦ Increase in satisfaction ratings in stakeholder survey of the
service validation and testing process
◦ Reduction in the impact of incidents and errors for newly
The purpose of the change evaluation process is to provide a
consistent and standardized means of determining the
performance of a service change in the context of likely
impacts on business outcomes, and on existing and proposed
services and IT infrastructure. The actual performance of a
change is assessed against its predicted performance. Risks
and issues related to the change are identified and managed.
The objectives of change evaluation are to:
! Set stakeholder expectations correctly and provide effective
and accurate information to change management to make
sure that changes which adversely affect service capability
and introduce risk are not transitioned unchecked
! Evaluate the intended effects of a service change and as much
of the unintended effects as is reasonably practical given
capacity, resource and organizational constraints
Every change must be authorized by a suitable change authority
at various points in its lifecycle; for example before build and
test, before it is checked in to the DML and before it is
deployed to the live environment. Evaluation is required
before each of these authorizations, to provide the change
authority with advice and guidance
Change evaluation is, by its very nature, concerned with value.
Specifically effective change evaluation will establish the use
made of resources in terms of delivered benefit, and this
information will allow a more accurate focus on value in future
service development and change management. There is a
great deal of intelligence that continual service improvement
can take from change evaluation to inform future
improvements to the process of change and the predictions
and measurement of service change performance.
# Reduced number of incidents for new or changed
services due to failure to deliver expected utility or
# Increased stakeholder satisfaction with new or
changed services as measured in customer surveys
# Increased percentage of evaluations delivered by
# Reduced number of changes that have to be backed
out due to unexpected errors or failures.
# Reduced number of failed changes.
# Increased change management personnel satisfaction
with the change evaluation process as measured in
The purpose of the knowledge management process is to share
perspectives, ideas, experience and information; to ensure that
these are available in the right place at the right time to enable
informed decisions; and to improve efficiency by reducing the
need to rediscover knowledge.
The objectives of knowledge management are to:
# Improve the quality of management decisionmaking by ensuring
that reliable and secure knowledge, information and data is
available throughout the service lifecycle
# Enable the service provider to be more efficient and improve
quality of service, increase satisfaction and reduce the cost of
service by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge
# Ensure that staff have a clear and common understanding of the
value that their services provide to customers and the ways in
which benefits are realized from the use of those services
Knowledge management is a whole lifecycle-wide process in
that it is relevant to all lifecycle stages and hence is
referenced throughout ITIL(R) from the perspective of each
publication. It is dealt with to some degree within other
ITIL(R) publications, but this section sets out the basic
concept, from a service transition focus.
Successful management of data, information and knowledge
! Conformance with legal and other requirements, e.g.
company policy, codes of professional conduct
! Documented requirements for retention of each category of
data, information and knowledge
! Defined forms of data, knowledge and information in a
fashion that is easily usable by the organization
! Data, information and knowledge that is current, complete
! Data, information and knowledge to the people who need it
when they need it
◦ Increased number of accesses to the SKMS by
◦ Increased percentage of SKMS searches by
managers that receive a rating of ‘good’
◦ Increased number of times that material is
re-used in documentation such as
procedures, test design and service desk
◦ Increased number of accesses to the SKMS by
service operation teams
◦ Reduced transfer of issues to other people
and more resolution at lower staff levels
◦ Increased percentage of incidents solved by
use of known errors
Service Transition adds value to the business by improving:
a. the management of the technology that is used to
deliver and support services
b. the success rate of changes and releases for the
c. the design of the IT processes
d. the organizational competency for Continual Service
Which of the following is NOT a Change type?
a. Normal Change
b. Emergency Change
c. Known Change
d. Standard Change Answers
Which of the following statements about the Service V-model
1. Using a model such as the V-model builds in service
validation and testing early in the Service Lifecycle.
2. The left-hand side of the V-model represents the
specification of the service requirements down to the
detailed Service Design.
3. The right-hand side of the V-model focuses on the
validation activities that are performed against the
specifications defined on the left-hand side.
4. Customers who sign off the agreed service requirements will
also sign off the Service Acceptance Criteria and test plan:
a. 1 only
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 1, 2 and 3 only
d. All of the above.
Consider the following activities from the Change Management
1 Review the Change
2 Assess and evaluate the Change
3 Authorize the Change
4 Coordinate Change implementation
5 Review Request for Change. Which of the following options
describes the CORRECT order of the activities?
a. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
b. 1, 3, 4, 2, 5
c. 5, 3, 2, 4, 1
d. 5, 3, 4, 2, 1
Which of the following statements about the Configuration
Management System are CORRECT?
1 It will hold details of all of the components of the IT infrastructure
as well as the relationships between these components.
2 At the data level, it consists of one and only one physical
Configuration Management Database.
3 The Service Knowledge Management System includes the
Configuration Management System.
4 It is maintained by Service Asset and Configuration
a. 1 only
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 1, 3 and 4 only
d. All of the above.
Answer - C
How does Problem Management work with Change
By installing changes to fix problems
By issuing RFCs for permanent solutions
By working with users to change their IT configurations
By negotiating with Incident Management for changes in
IT for Problem resolution
Answer - B
Which of the following are objectives of the Release and
Deployment Management process?
1. To ensure there are clear release and deployment plans
2. To ensure that skills and knowledge are transferred to
operations and support staff
3. To ensure there is minimal unpredicted impact on
4. To provide cost justifiable IT capacity that is matched
to the needs of the business
A. 1, 2 and 3 only
B. All of the above
C. 1 and 3 only
D. 1, 3 and 4 only
Answer - A