Latin American countries, knowledge characterization economies: from goods to science production
Latin American countries,
knowledge characterization of
economies: from goods to
Javier Gramajo López
• What is Latin America?
• Economy and industry
• Another view of the world
• Knowledge (Ontologies)
• Project future “Inter-American economy and R+D+i
• Latin American scope organizations and main
– International classifications
– Labor (human development)
– Capital and Land (geopolitical organizations)
– Knowledge I+D+i
Artificial intelligence pioneer
Ray Kurzweil once said:
“ I'm an inventor. I became interested in
long-term trends because an invention has to
make sense in the world in which it is
finished, not the world in which it is started. "
O pioneiro da inteligência artificial
Ray Kurzweil disse uma vez:
"Eu sou um inventor. Fiquei interessado nas
tendências a longo prazo por que uma
invenção tem que fazer sentido no mundo
quando estiver concluída, não quando está
What is Latin America?
• Mexico, Central America,
Caribbean and South
America (20 Countries, 10
• Area: 21,069,501 km² 14.1%
of Earth's land surface area.
• Its population was estimated
(2008) at more than 569
million being 8.48% of the
• GDP Billions of USD
3,027,344 4.97% (2008
International Monetary Fund)
 Source: United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report.
International Mometary Found. The world Factbook-CIA. World population estimates
Latin American Languages
Latin America is a region of
the Americas where Romance
languages (i.e., those derived
from Latin) particularly
Spanish, Portuguese, and
variably French officially
More than 14 (i.e., Spanish,
Portuguese, French, Quechua,
Aymara, Nahuatl, Mayan
languages, Guaraní, English,
Haitian Creole, Jamaican
Creole, Papiamentu, others).
 Wikipedia: Latin America
• Classic Management 1920-1940
• Scientific Management 1950
• Organizational Behavior 1960
• Information Systems 1970
• Quality (TQM Total Quality Management) 1980
• Re engineering (BPR Business Process Re engineering) 1990
• Knowledge Management (KM Knowledge Management,
Business Intelligence) 2000
• Intellectual management strengths 2010?
INDUSTRIAL KNOWLEDGE ERA
 Fuente: Gorey y Dorat (1996) y Bueno (1998)
Products and services
(elementos tangibles e intangibles)
World Commerce 2006 Goods USD$ 12,062,000,000,000
Services USD$ 10,660,600,000,000
 The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)
 Data source: United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report.
Population data is from 2002
 Data are from the United Nations Development Programme’s 2004 Human
Development Report http://www.worldmapper.org/
Science papers published per year
 Data are from the World Bank’s 2005 World Development Indicators.
Research & Development
 Data are from the World Bank’s 2005 World Development Indicators.
 Data source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2002.
*There were no net exports of fruit recorded for 113 territories.
"Goods identification that best represents
the largest number of countries in Latin
America and the relationship that these
groups have with the scientific production in
the region, based on goods exports of 2007"
Hernan Chaimovich (USP, Brasil)
Jacqueline Leta (UFRJ, Brasil)
Javier Gramajo López (fundaTICs, Guatemala)
Paula Dorothea Melcop (USP, Brasil)
Rogério Mugnaini (USP, Brasil)
 Latin American economies characterization, Javier Gramajo López,
November 2009, Brazil
• Use of data goods exports of Latin America economies
from an international organization (BID).
• Use of international goods classification HS07.
• Use the data to generate groups (Clustering and
Classification) of countries by goods.
• Use of goods classification to search for scientific
production by goods and groups of countries.
• Use an ontology to identify the relations between
several international organizations data and indicators.
• Results: comparative report.
 Latin American economies characterization, Javier Gramajo
López, November 2009, Brazil.
Where are we now? and beyond..
“It always seems impossible until its done.”
i.e. Ontological Internet
• “The specification of conceptualizations,
used to help programs and humans share
knowledge“ Tom Gruber, an AI specialist
at Stanford University.
Knowledge Management: I
Use of Ontologies to describe a Domain,
this Ontology can be used to share
information produced by people:
Knowledge Management: II
• Ontologies provide a shared and common
understanding of a domain that can be communicated
between people and heterogeneous application
• As [Dieter Fensel 2001] described: “Ontologies
provide a shared and common understanding of a
domain that can be communicated between several
applications and people".
• The use of Ontologies to describe the knowledge of a
particular domain means the use of Domain
i.e. Ontology contextualization
Project future “Inter-American
Economy and R+ i observatory”
Create a Inter-American observatory
to relate and identify all the indicators and reports
about economy, science, technology and
innovation production in Latin America.
Latin American Scope organizations
and main indicators
• International Classifications
• Human Development (Labor)
• Geopolitical Organizations (Land and Capital)
• Science and Technology (Knowledge I+D+i)
• UN Statistics division
• WCO World Custom Organization
• WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
• LatiPat (esp@acnet)
Main International Classifications
• International Patent Classification (IPC)
• Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System,
• International Family of Economic and Social Classifications
• Standard International Trade Classification
• International Standard Industrial Classification of All
Economic Activities Revision 4
Labor (Human development)
• ILO International Labor Organization
• UN United Nations
• IOM International Organization for Migration
• WHO/OMS World Health Organization
• Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM)
• Human Development Indicators, ICT Development
• World Migration Report
• WHO Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)
CAPITAL and LAND (Geopolitical Organizations)
• ELAC Economic Commission for Latin America and Caribbean
• WEF World Economic Forum
• OAS Organization of American States
• IMF International Monetary Fund
• TWB The World Bank
• BID Inter-American Development Bank
• OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
• CABEI Central American Bank for Economic Integration
• CIA The World Fact Book
• OSILAC Science and Technology Indicators
• Global Competitiveness Report
Knowledge I+ i
• Research centers
• Cultural organizations
Reports and Indicators
For centuries people assumed that economic growth
resulted for the interplay between capital and labor. Today
we know that these elements are outweighed by a single
“Is the source of economic leadership and the foundation for
the competitiveness in the global economy”
Bill Gates, Washington post 2007
“Innovation is now recognized as the single most important
ingredient in any modern economy”
The economist magazine
Vision of Future and Paradigms Pioneers
Javier Gramajo López
Presentations and articles:
Automatic contextualization using a
• Information overload
• Paradox of distribution
• Homogeneous information unit
• Relative gravity
Knowledge Management Systems
Information Extraction (Wrappers)
• The main contribution of this research work is to solve a
problem and develop a useful tool related to the
exploitation of The Web.
• Define new algorithms requires to use different
methodologies from several research areas as Ontologies
and Webminig in order to create a general purpose tool
that retrieves and organizes information in a useful to both
humans and computers way.
• Develop an automated process that assists users to
contextualize them using mobile devices.
• Make a contribution with our methodologies applying
them in a intermediate step between the first generation
of the web and The Semantic Web.
ITC sector business incubator: Strategic plan, based on Israel´s
success cases, תכנית ליישום אסטרטגיה עסקית מדגרה בתחום
,טכנולוגיות המידע והתקשורת, ניתוח מקרים של הצלחה בישראלJavier
Gramajo-López, Isaac Sultan Mejía, November 2009, Engineering
Peer to Peer System Ontology's based, for small and medium
Enterprises (SMEs), for supply and demand of services and products.
Javier Gramajo López, Raúl del Cid,October 2009, Engineering
E-commerce web-based application, semantic knowledge applied to
small and medium business (SMBs), Javier Gramajo-López, Willy
Peitzner Rosal, October 2009, Engineering Faculty, USAC.
CIE10 Ontology based System, Javier Gramajo López, Raúl Estuardo
Cuyún, October 2009, Engineering Faculty, USAC.
Sak´a Project: Web 2.0 and Semantic knowledge based learning
assistant tool, Javier Gramajo-López, Luis Antonio Pusey Alvarado,
Johan Steve Cristales Mendizábal, Cesar Andrés García Roldán, July
2009, Engineering Faculty, USAC.
Transition of the third sector towards the knowledge management
through ICTs: Strategic and operational planning, Javier Gramajo-
López, María Wualeska Álvarez Bonilla, July 2009, Engineering
Logistic strategy through continuous improvement quality model-based
for knowledge management processes implementation applied to small
and medium enterprises (SMEs) using ICTs, Javier Gramajo-López,
Salomón Herrera Acajabón, June 2009, Engineering Faculty, USAC.
Ubiquity of collaborative learning, the technology as a tool for social
semantic learning, Javier Gramajo-López, Huber Raúl Flores Macario,
Nov 2008, Engineering Faculty, USAC.
Interface offices for Industry, Academy and State applied to ICT sectors
(Knowledge Based Economies), Javier Gramajo-López, Sergio
Gerardo Cifuentes Girón, Mirna Ivonne Aldana Larrazabal , Ana Luisa
Chutan Sosa Nov 2008, Engineering Faculty, USAC.
Web-based indexing tool using a domain Ontology applied to small and
medium enterprises (SMEs), Javier Gramajo-López, Juan Pablo
Caballeros Torres, May 2008, Engineering Faculty, USAC.
Genetic algorithms applied to process of resources assignment, Javier
Gramajo-López, Mildred Madaí Caballeros Morales, April 2008,
Engineering Faculty, USAC.
Ontology based tool to Management Organizational Knowledge for
small and medium enterprises (SMEs), Maria Elizabeth Aldana Díaz,
March 2008, Engineering Faculty, USAC.
Economic activities and product domain Ontology applied to small and
medium enterprises (SMEs), Javier Gramajo-López, David Armando
Chang Ovando, July 2007, Engineering Faculty, USAC.
Prediction using Genetic Algorithms, Javier Gramajo-López, Samuel
David Orozco y Orozco, July 2007, Engineering Faculty, USAC.
State of the Art: Ontologies. Javier Gramajo López USAC 2005
An Ontology-based Knowledge Management Platform. Arantza Aldea, René
Bañares-Alcántara, Jaime Bocio, Javier Gramajo, David Isern, Antonis
Kokossis, Laureano Jiménez, Antonio Moreno, David Riaño. Eighteenth
International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence IJCAI-03 Workshop, 9-15
August, 2003. Acapulco, México.
Medical Data Extraction from Internet. David Riaño, Javier Gramajo. 16th IEEE
Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS 2003), pp 379-384,
26-27 June 2003. New York, USA.
Meta-data and ER Model Automatic Generation from Unstructured Information
Resources. Javier Gramajo, David Riaño, 5th Joint Conference on Knowledge-
Based Software Engineering, pp 187-192, 11-13 September 2002. Maribor,
Diseño Conceptual Automático de Bases de Datos. Javier Gramajo, David
Riaño. Dept. Enginyeria Informàtica i Matemàtiques, Universitat Rovira i Virgili.
Report DEIM-RR-03-001, January 2003, Tarragona, Spain.
Automatic Extraction of Data Structure. David Riaño, Javier Gramajo, Dept.
Enginyeria Informàtica i Matemàtiques, Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Report
DEIM-RR-00-004, October 2000, Tarragona, Spain.
Intelligent Search Systems. Javier Gramajo, 3rd Chapter of State of the Art KM
technologies and practices, h-TechSight Project IST-2001-33174, p.p. 33-39,