Latin American countries,
knowledge characterization of
 economies: from goods to
      science production
               ...
Summary
•   What is Latin America?
•   Economy and industry
•   Another view of the world
•   Knowledge (Ontologies)
•   P...
Artificial intelligence pioneer
           Ray Kurzweil once said:

     “ I'm an inventor. I became interested in
long-te...
O pioneiro da inteligência artificial
      Ray Kurzweil disse uma vez:

"Eu sou um inventor. Fiquei interessado nas
   te...
What is Latin America?
                                    •      Mexico, Central America,
                               ...
Latin American Languages
                          Latin America is a region of
                          the Americas whe...
Industry Paradigms
•   Classic Management 1920-1940
•   Scientific Management 1950
•   Organizational Behavior 1960
•   In...
Economy Evolution
             CAPITAL

INDUSTRIAL                          KNOWLEDGE ERA
ERA


LABOR                     ...
Products and services
                                                                                                    ...
[4] The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)
    http://www.bea.gov
Population




[5] Data source: United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report.
Population data is from 200...
R+ Expenditure
  D




  [6] Data are from the United Nations Development Programme’s 2004 Human
  Development Report http...
Science papers published per year




   [7] Data are from the World Bank’s 2005 World Development Indicators.
   http://w...
Research & Development
Employes




   [8] Data are from the World Bank’s 2005 World Development Indicators.
   http://www...
Fruit Exports




  [9] Data source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2002.
  http://www.worldmapper.or...
Project definition
"Goods identification that best represents
the largest number of countries in Latin
America and the rel...
Targets
• Use of data goods exports of Latin America economies
  from an international organization (BID).
• Use of intern...
Where are we now? and beyond..

“It always seems impossible until its done.”
              Nelson Mandela

              T...
i.e. Ontological Internet




[4] http://www.genetologisch-onderzoek.nl/index.php/category/philosophy/ontology/
Ontology

• “The specification of conceptualizations,
  used to help programs and humans share
  knowledge“ Tom Gruber, an...
Knowledge Management: I
Use of Ontologies to describe a Domain,
this Ontology can be used to share
information produced by...
Knowledge Management: II
• Ontologies provide a shared and common
  understanding of a domain that can be communicated
  b...
i.e. Ontology contextualization




[5] http://semweb.salzburgresearch.at/apps/rdf-gravity/user_doc.html
[6] http://pt.wik...
Project future “Inter-American
Economy and R+ i observatory”
                   D+


         Create a Inter-American obse...
Latin American Scope organizations
and main indicators

 •   International Classifications
 •   Human Development (Labor)
...
International Classifications
Organizations
•    UN Statistics division
•    WCO World Custom Organization
•    WIPO World...
Labor (Human development)
Organizations
•   ILO International Labor Organization
•   UN United Nations
•   IOM Internation...
CAPITAL and LAND (Geopolitical Organizations)
Organizations
• ELAC Economic Commission for Latin America and Caribbean
• W...
Knowledge I+ i
            D+
Organizations
• Universities
• Research centers
• Cultural organizations

Reports and Indica...
For centuries people assumed that economic growth
resulted for the interplay between capital and labor. Today
we know that...
Contact
          Javier Gramajo López
           jgramajo@fundatics.org
              http://fundatics.org
      http://j...
Project
Automatic contextualization using a
domain Ontologies.

• Information overload
• Paradox of distribution
• Homogen...
Research Lines



     Automatic Conceptualization
  Knowledge Management Systems
  Information Extraction (Wrappers)
Goals
• The main contribution of this research work is to solve a
  problem and develop a useful tool related to the
  exp...
Publications (I)
 ITC sector business incubator: Strategic plan, based on Israel´s
  success cases, ‫תכנית ליישום אסטרטגי...
Publications (II)
 Sak´a Project: Web 2.0 and Semantic knowledge based learning
  assistant tool, Javier Gramajo-López, L...
Publications (III)
 Interface offices for Industry, Academy and State applied to ICT sectors
  (Knowledge Based Economies...
Publications (IV)
 State of the Art: Ontologies. Javier Gramajo López USAC 2005
 An Ontology-based Knowledge Management ...
Latin American countries, knowledge characterization economies: from goods to science production
Latin American countries, knowledge characterization economies: from goods to science production
Latin American countries, knowledge characterization economies: from goods to science production
Latin American countries, knowledge characterization economies: from goods to science production
Latin American countries, knowledge characterization economies: from goods to science production
Latin American countries, knowledge characterization economies: from goods to science production
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Latin American countries, knowledge characterization economies: from goods to science production

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Latin American countries, knowledge characterization economies: from goods to science production

  1. 1. Latin American countries, knowledge characterization of economies: from goods to science production Javier Gramajo López jgramajo@fundatics.org http://fundatics.org http://jgramajo.wordpress.com
  2. 2. Summary • What is Latin America? • Economy and industry • Another view of the world • Knowledge (Ontologies) • Project future “Inter-American economy and R+D+i observatory” • Latin American scope organizations and main indicators – International classifications – Labor (human development) – Capital and Land (geopolitical organizations) – Knowledge I+D+i
  3. 3. Artificial intelligence pioneer Ray Kurzweil once said: “ I'm an inventor. I became interested in long-term trends because an invention has to make sense in the world in which it is finished, not the world in which it is started. " Video Paradigma
  4. 4. O pioneiro da inteligência artificial Ray Kurzweil disse uma vez: "Eu sou um inventor. Fiquei interessado nas tendências a longo prazo por que uma invenção tem que fazer sentido no mundo quando estiver concluída, não quando está sendo iniciada". Video Paradigma
  5. 5. What is Latin America? • Mexico, Central America, Caribbean and South America (20 Countries, 10 dependencies). • Area: 21,069,501 km² 14.1% of Earth's land surface area. • Its population was estimated (2008) at more than 569 million being 8.48% of the world. • GDP Billions of USD 3,027,344 4.97% (2008 International Monetary Fund) [1] Source: United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report. International Mometary Found. The world Factbook-CIA. World population estimates
  6. 6. Latin American Languages Latin America is a region of the Americas where Romance languages (i.e., those derived from Latin) particularly Spanish, Portuguese, and variably French officially spoken. More than 14 (i.e., Spanish, Portuguese, French, Quechua, Aymara, Nahuatl, Mayan languages, Guaraní, English, Haitian Creole, Jamaican Creole, Papiamentu, others). [2] Wikipedia: Latin America http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Am%C3%A9rica_Latina
  7. 7. Industry Paradigms • Classic Management 1920-1940 • Scientific Management 1950 • Organizational Behavior 1960 • Information Systems 1970 • Quality (TQM Total Quality Management) 1980 • Re engineering (BPR Business Process Re engineering) 1990 • Knowledge Management (KM Knowledge Management, Business Intelligence) 2000 • Intellectual management strengths 2010?
  8. 8. Economy Evolution CAPITAL INDUSTRIAL KNOWLEDGE ERA ERA LABOR KNOWLEDGE AGRICULTURAL ERA LAND [3] Fuente: Gorey y Dorat (1996) y Bueno (1998)
  9. 9. Products and services Service Component Value (elementos tangibles e intangibles) World Commerce 2006 Goods USD$ 12,062,000,000,000 Services USD$ 10,660,600,000,000 Product 1990 2030 http://www.unctad.org/Templates/webflyer.asp?docid=9503&intItemID=1634&lang=3 http://www.eclac.org/cgi-bin/getprod.asp?xml=/publicaciones/xml/8/30378/P30378.xml&xsl=/comercio/tpl/p9f.xsl&base=/comercio/tpl/top-bottom.xsl http://www.wto.org/spanish/news_s/news07_s/its_nov07_s.htm http://www.wto.org/spanish/res_s/booksp_s/anrep_s/world_trade_report07_s.pdf
  10. 10. [4] The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) http://www.bea.gov
  11. 11. Population [5] Data source: United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report. Population data is from 2002 http://www.worldmapper.org/
  12. 12. R+ Expenditure D [6] Data are from the United Nations Development Programme’s 2004 Human Development Report http://www.worldmapper.org/
  13. 13. Science papers published per year [7] Data are from the World Bank’s 2005 World Development Indicators. http://www.worldmapper.org/
  14. 14. Research & Development Employes [8] Data are from the World Bank’s 2005 World Development Indicators. http://www.worldmapper.org/
  15. 15. Fruit Exports [9] Data source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2002. http://www.worldmapper.org/ *There were no net exports of fruit recorded for 113 territories.
  16. 16. Project definition "Goods identification that best represents the largest number of countries in Latin America and the relationship that these groups have with the scientific production in the region, based on goods exports of 2007" Research Team: Hernan Chaimovich (USP, Brasil) Jacqueline Leta (UFRJ, Brasil) Javier Gramajo López (fundaTICs, Guatemala) Paula Dorothea Melcop (USP, Brasil) Rogério Mugnaini (USP, Brasil) [10] Latin American economies characterization, Javier Gramajo López, November 2009, Brazil
  17. 17. Targets • Use of data goods exports of Latin America economies from an international organization (BID). • Use of international goods classification HS07. • Use the data to generate groups (Clustering and Classification) of countries by goods. • Use of goods classification to search for scientific production by goods and groups of countries. • Use an ontology to identify the relations between several international organizations data and indicators. • Results: comparative report. [10] Latin American economies characterization, Javier Gramajo López, November 2009, Brazil.
  18. 18. Where are we now? and beyond.. “It always seems impossible until its done.” Nelson Mandela Tsunami Wave
  19. 19. i.e. Ontological Internet [4] http://www.genetologisch-onderzoek.nl/index.php/category/philosophy/ontology/
  20. 20. Ontology • “The specification of conceptualizations, used to help programs and humans share knowledge“ Tom Gruber, an AI specialist at Stanford University.
  21. 21. Knowledge Management: I Use of Ontologies to describe a Domain, this Ontology can be used to share information produced by people: Collective Learning.
  22. 22. Knowledge Management: II • Ontologies provide a shared and common understanding of a domain that can be communicated between people and heterogeneous application systems. • As [Dieter Fensel 2001] described: “Ontologies provide a shared and common understanding of a domain that can be communicated between several applications and people". • The use of Ontologies to describe the knowledge of a particular domain means the use of Domain Ontologies.
  23. 23. i.e. Ontology contextualization [5] http://semweb.salzburgresearch.at/apps/rdf-gravity/user_doc.html [6] http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravidade
  24. 24. Project future “Inter-American Economy and R+ i observatory” D+ Create a Inter-American observatory to relate and identify all the indicators and reports about economy, science, technology and innovation production in Latin America.
  25. 25. Latin American Scope organizations and main indicators • International Classifications • Human Development (Labor) • Geopolitical Organizations (Land and Capital) • Science and Technology (Knowledge I+D+i)
  26. 26. International Classifications Organizations • UN Statistics division • WCO World Custom Organization • WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization • LatiPat (esp@acnet) Main International Classifications • International Patent Classification (IPC) • Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, Goods Classification. • International Family of Economic and Social Classifications • Standard International Trade Classification • International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities Revision 4
  27. 27. Labor (Human development) Organizations • ILO International Labor Organization • UN United Nations • IOM International Organization for Migration • WHO/OMS World Health Organization Main Indicators • Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM) • Human Development Indicators, ICT Development Index • World Migration Report • WHO Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)
  28. 28. CAPITAL and LAND (Geopolitical Organizations) Organizations • ELAC Economic Commission for Latin America and Caribbean • WEF World Economic Forum • OAS Organization of American States • IMF International Monetary Fund • TWB The World Bank • BID Inter-American Development Bank • OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development • CABEI Central American Bank for Economic Integration • CIA The World Fact Book Indicators • OSILAC Science and Technology Indicators • Global Competitiveness Report
  29. 29. Knowledge I+ i D+ Organizations • Universities • Research centers • Cultural organizations Reports and Indicators • RICYT • WIPO • ISI • SCOPUS • OIE • CYTED
  30. 30. For centuries people assumed that economic growth resulted for the interplay between capital and labor. Today we know that these elements are outweighed by a single critical factor: INNOVATION (VIDEO) “Is the source of economic leadership and the foundation for the competitiveness in the global economy” Bill Gates, Washington post 2007 “Innovation is now recognized as the single most important ingredient in any modern economy” The economist magazine Vision of Future and Paradigms Pioneers
  31. 31. Contact Javier Gramajo López jgramajo@fundatics.org http://fundatics.org http://jgramajo.wordpress.com http://www.youtube.com/jgramajo Presentations and articles: http://www.scribd.com/jgramajo
  32. 32. Project Automatic contextualization using a domain Ontologies. • Information overload • Paradox of distribution • Homogeneous information unit • Localization • Relative gravity
  33. 33. Research Lines Automatic Conceptualization Knowledge Management Systems Information Extraction (Wrappers)
  34. 34. Goals • The main contribution of this research work is to solve a problem and develop a useful tool related to the exploitation of The Web. • Define new algorithms requires to use different methodologies from several research areas as Ontologies and Webminig in order to create a general purpose tool that retrieves and organizes information in a useful to both humans and computers way. • Develop an automated process that assists users to contextualize them using mobile devices. • Make a contribution with our methodologies applying them in a intermediate step between the first generation of the web and The Semantic Web.
  35. 35. Publications (I)  ITC sector business incubator: Strategic plan, based on Israel´s success cases, ‫תכנית ליישום אסטרטגיה עסקית מדגרה בתחום‬ ‫ ,טכנולוגיות המידע והתקשורת, ניתוח מקרים של הצלחה בישראל‬Javier Gramajo-López, Isaac Sultan Mejía, November 2009, Engineering Faculty, USAC.  Peer to Peer System Ontology's based, for small and medium Enterprises (SMEs), for supply and demand of services and products. Javier Gramajo López, Raúl del Cid,October 2009, Engineering Faculty, USAC.  E-commerce web-based application, semantic knowledge applied to small and medium business (SMBs), Javier Gramajo-López, Willy Peitzner Rosal, October 2009, Engineering Faculty, USAC.  CIE10 Ontology based System, Javier Gramajo López, Raúl Estuardo Cuyún, October 2009, Engineering Faculty, USAC.
  36. 36. Publications (II)  Sak´a Project: Web 2.0 and Semantic knowledge based learning assistant tool, Javier Gramajo-López, Luis Antonio Pusey Alvarado, Johan Steve Cristales Mendizábal, Cesar Andrés García Roldán, July 2009, Engineering Faculty, USAC.  Transition of the third sector towards the knowledge management through ICTs: Strategic and operational planning, Javier Gramajo- López, María Wualeska Álvarez Bonilla, July 2009, Engineering Faculty, USAC.  Logistic strategy through continuous improvement quality model-based for knowledge management processes implementation applied to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) using ICTs, Javier Gramajo-López, Salomón Herrera Acajabón, June 2009, Engineering Faculty, USAC.  Ubiquity of collaborative learning, the technology as a tool for social semantic learning, Javier Gramajo-López, Huber Raúl Flores Macario, Nov 2008, Engineering Faculty, USAC.
  37. 37. Publications (III)  Interface offices for Industry, Academy and State applied to ICT sectors (Knowledge Based Economies), Javier Gramajo-López, Sergio Gerardo Cifuentes Girón, Mirna Ivonne Aldana Larrazabal , Ana Luisa Chutan Sosa Nov 2008, Engineering Faculty, USAC.  Web-based indexing tool using a domain Ontology applied to small and medium enterprises (SMEs), Javier Gramajo-López, Juan Pablo Caballeros Torres, May 2008, Engineering Faculty, USAC.  Genetic algorithms applied to process of resources assignment, Javier Gramajo-López, Mildred Madaí Caballeros Morales, April 2008, Engineering Faculty, USAC.  Ontology based tool to Management Organizational Knowledge for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), Maria Elizabeth Aldana Díaz, March 2008, Engineering Faculty, USAC.  Economic activities and product domain Ontology applied to small and medium enterprises (SMEs), Javier Gramajo-López, David Armando Chang Ovando, July 2007, Engineering Faculty, USAC.  Prediction using Genetic Algorithms, Javier Gramajo-López, Samuel David Orozco y Orozco, July 2007, Engineering Faculty, USAC.
  38. 38. Publications (IV)  State of the Art: Ontologies. Javier Gramajo López USAC 2005  An Ontology-based Knowledge Management Platform. Arantza Aldea, René Bañares-Alcántara, Jaime Bocio, Javier Gramajo, David Isern, Antonis Kokossis, Laureano Jiménez, Antonio Moreno, David Riaño. Eighteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence IJCAI-03 Workshop, 9-15 August, 2003. Acapulco, México.  Medical Data Extraction from Internet. David Riaño, Javier Gramajo. 16th IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS 2003), pp 379-384, 26-27 June 2003. New York, USA.  Meta-data and ER Model Automatic Generation from Unstructured Information Resources. Javier Gramajo, David Riaño, 5th Joint Conference on Knowledge- Based Software Engineering, pp 187-192, 11-13 September 2002. Maribor, Slovenia.  Diseño Conceptual Automático de Bases de Datos. Javier Gramajo, David Riaño. Dept. Enginyeria Informàtica i Matemàtiques, Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Report DEIM-RR-03-001, January 2003, Tarragona, Spain.  Automatic Extraction of Data Structure. David Riaño, Javier Gramajo, Dept. Enginyeria Informàtica i Matemàtiques, Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Report DEIM-RR-00-004, October 2000, Tarragona, Spain.  Intelligent Search Systems. Javier Gramajo, 3rd Chapter of State of the Art KM technologies and practices, h-TechSight Project IST-2001-33174, p.p. 33-39, July, 2002.

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