Abraham Lincoln


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Abraham Lincoln

  1. 1. Abraham Lincoln 16 th president 1861-1865 Republican (1 st GOP) "When it comes to this I should prefer emigrating to some country where they make no pretence of loving liberty -- to Russia, for instance, where despotism can be taken pure, and without the base alloy of hypocrisy."
  2. 2. 1860 election…immediate problems <ul><li>DEEP SOUTH SECEDES </li></ul><ul><li>Why…what did </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln do? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Republican stance <ul><li>NO EXPANSION OF SLAVERY…The Constitution protects slavery where it is. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lincoln stance <ul><li>In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to &quot;preserve, protect, and defend it.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>-First Inaugural Address </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Southern Stance- <ul><li>WE DON’T BELIEVE YOU! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariff issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fugitive Slave Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolitionists- JOHN BROWN!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s own quote:&quot;A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half-slave and half-free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved - I do not expect the house to fall - but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fort Sumter
  7. 7. Who was the aggressor???
  8. 8. Middle South joins the Confederacy <ul><li>AR, TN, NC, and VA </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Border states stay out <ul><li>MO, KY, MD, WV, DE- all have slaves </li></ul>
  10. 10. The War begins…
  13. 13. Bull Run-July 21, 1861
  14. 14. McClellan- “Tardy George”
  15. 15. Robert E. Lee <ul><li>Defensive fight </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled leader </li></ul><ul><li>High Morale </li></ul>
  16. 16. Peninsula Campaign <ul><li>7 days battle…begins in Yorktown! </li></ul><ul><li>June 25 to July 1, 1862 </li></ul><ul><li>What took you so long??? </li></ul><ul><li>Union loss!!! </li></ul>
  17. 17. McClellan…
  18. 18. NEW STRATEGY…TOTAL WAR! <ul><li>1) </li></ul><ul><li>2) </li></ul><ul><li>3) </li></ul><ul><li>4) </li></ul><ul><li>5) </li></ul><ul><li>6) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Winfield Scott- Anaconda Plan
  21. 21. What does the Constitution say? <ul><li>“ preserve, protect, and defend” the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure domestic tranquility, provide for common defense </li></ul><ul><li>To declare War and make Rules concerning Captures on Land + Water </li></ul><ul><li>To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions </li></ul><ul><li>to exercise Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it. </li></ul><ul><li>New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress. </li></ul>
  22. 22. John Pope <ul><li>2 nd Bull Run </li></ul><ul><li>August 29 th -30 th 1862 </li></ul><ul><li>THEY TRICKED ME- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault of my officers and men! </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. LEE AND JACKSON <ul><li>Split into two units, Pope didn’t know who to fight. </li></ul>
  24. 24. So… BRING BACK…
  25. 25. LEE on the move…daring or dumb? <ul><li>Maryland </li></ul><ul><li>22,000 killed </li></ul><ul><li>Sept 17 th , 1862 </li></ul>
  26. 26. Close, but no cigar??? <ul><li>What was McClellan thinking??? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Close enough to a victory.
  28. 28. What does it say? <ul><li>&quot;That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom. </li></ul>
  29. 29. As for McClellan…
  30. 30. Let’s try some others <ul><li>Aaron Burnside </li></ul><ul><li>Fredericksburg disaster </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 men die in </li></ul><ul><li>“Burnside Slaughter Pen” </li></ul>
  31. 31. “Fighting” Joe Hooker <ul><li>His troops love him! </li></ul><ul><li>Loses at Chancellorsville </li></ul><ul><li>But, Stonewall dies- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May 4 th , 1863 </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. General Meade <ul><li>July 1-3, 1863 </li></ul><ul><li>Gettysburg </li></ul><ul><li>“The High Water </li></ul><ul><li>Mark of the </li></ul><ul><li>Confederacy” </li></ul>
  33. 33. The fishhook defense
  34. 34. Day 1- Seminary Hill <ul><li>North retreats through town </li></ul><ul><li>Takes the high defense points </li></ul><ul><li>South- moral victory </li></ul>
  35. 35. Day 2-Devil’s Den, Little Round Top North holds them off
  36. 36. Devil’s den
  37. 37. Day 3- Should we stay or should we go???
  38. 38. FIGHT- Pickett’s Charge
  39. 39. The High Water Mark
  40. 40. The fence!
  41. 41. Matthew Brady
  42. 42. National Cemetery dedication <ul><li>November 19 th , 1863 </li></ul><ul><li>Main speaker- Edward Everett- Congressman, Senator, Governor of Mass, Secretary of State, Harvard Professor </li></ul><ul><li>2 hour speech! </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>“It is the desire that, after the Oration, you, as Chief Executive of the nation, formally set apart these grounds to their sacred use by a few appropriate remarks.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln invited 17 days before- 2 minute speech- Was he done? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Gettysburg Address <ul><li>Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. </li></ul><ul><li>Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. </li></ul><ul><li>But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. </li></ul>
  45. 45. There he is!
  46. 46. 2007 find
  47. 47. Criticism? <ul><li>Lincoln argued that secession would &quot;destroy&quot; the government, but such an argument was simply foolish. ... It was equally absurd for Lincoln to argue that representative government would &quot;perish from the earth&quot; if the Southern states were allowed to secede peacefully. In the Gettysburg Address, Lincoln claimed that the war was being fought in defense of government by consent, but in fact exactly the opposite was true: the Federal government under Lincoln sought to deny Southerners the right of government by consent, for they certainly did not consent to remaining in the Union </li></ul>
  48. 48. More Good News <ul><li>GRANT at Vicksburg </li></ul>
  49. 49. GRANT IS THE MAN! <ul><li>TOTAL WAR! </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tell me what brand of whiskey that Grant drinks. I would like to send a barrel of it to my other generals.”- Abraham Lincoln </li></ul>
  50. 50. SHERMAN takes over in South
  51. 51. 1864 election-Mc Clellan is back!
  52. 52. “ Don’t Change Horses in Midstream”
  53. 53. The Results
  54. 54. Finishing the job… <ul><li>The Wilderness Campaign </li></ul>
  55. 55. Lincoln strolls through Richmond April 4, 1865
  56. 56. Appomattox Court House <ul><li>April 9 th , 1865 </li></ul>
  57. 57. Ford’s Theater
  58. 58. &quot;Now he belongs to the ages&quot; <ul><li>Edwin Stanton- Sec of War </li></ul>
  59. 59. John Wilkes Booth
  60. 60. “ With every man's hand against me, I am here in despair. And why; For doing what Brutus was honored for ... And yet I for striking down a greater tyrant than they ever knew am looked upon as a common cutthroat”
  61. 61. Jefferson Davis captured-May 10, 1865
  62. 62. Jefferson Davis <ul><li>Two years in prison </li></ul><ul><li>Died 1889 </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship-1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Jimmy Carter </li></ul><ul><li>First Monday in June- Southern Holiday </li></ul>
  63. 63. Robert E. Lee <ul><li>President of Washington (and Lee) College </li></ul><ul><li>Died in 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>Pardoned in 1975-restored citizenship-Gerald Ford </li></ul>
  64. 64. 14 th Amendment <ul><li>Section 3. No one shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. </li></ul>
  65. 65. MEANWHILE…the north was busy! <ul><li>Morrill Tariff-35% </li></ul><ul><li>Homestead Act- &quot;Go West, young man, and grow up with the country.&quot; (Horace Greeley) </li></ul><ul><li>Morrill Act </li></ul><ul><li>War bonds and other war initiatives </li></ul>
  66. 66. Would Lincoln be a republican or democrat today?
  67. 67. Lastly…Civil War?