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Lean Manufacturing and DITA (Gnostyx at DITA Europe 2014)


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Presentation from DITA Europe 2014 on the topic of Lean Manufacturing and DITA. How DITA (Darwin Information Typing Architecture) has been used on Lean Manufacturing projects and how Lean Principles change how we deploy DITA and Content Solutions.

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Lean Manufacturing and DITA (Gnostyx at DITA Europe 2014)

  1. 1. Lean DITA: Lean Manufacturingand DITA Joe Gollner @joegollner
  2. 2. Commentary –DITA Europe 2014 (Munich Germany) This presentation was delivered atthe DITA Europe Conferencein Munich Germanyin November 2014The experience of deploying DITA into projects aimed at facilitating Lean Manufacturing processesled to the observation that content managementand publishing solutions rarely exhibit, but desperatelyneed, the benefits of Lean Manufacturing. This presentation explores what lean contentprocesses might look like….
  3. 3. Philosophy >> Beer >> Lean Manufacturing >> DITA
  4. 4. Agenda: DITA & Lean ManufacturingBackground on Lean ManufacturingDITA on LeanManufacturing ProjectsChallenges withinEnterprise EnvironmentsA Lean ContentProcessing FrameworkLean DITA
  5. 5. Franciscan Friar & Oxford Scholar “Pluralitasnon estponendasine necessitate” “Plurality is not to be posited without necessity” “Entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity” Ockham’s Razor entails removing all extraneous details Eliminating waste Really a Pull modelwhere details are added only if necessary William of Ockham & Ockham’s Razor
  6. 6. From Scholasticism to the Perfection of Beer BrewingMedieval German beer brewing demonstrated the merits of lean manufacturing centuries before it became fashionable
  7. 7. The brewing of beerwas perfected in Germanyin the 13thCentury An innovation thattook root & spread quicklyAdding an Essential Ingredient: Hops
  8. 8. The Lesson of Beer Brewing –Focus on Customer Value Customers pay only for what is of use to them and gives them value. Nothing else constitutes quality. (Peter Drucker)
  9. 9. Toyota Production System Manufacturing Process Best Practices The Machine that Changed the World Womack, Jones & Roos (1990) Popularized Lean Manufacturing Training within Industry (TWI) WWII US Government Initiative to improve industrial productivity Built on Approaches created in WWI Deployed to Japan as part of post-war reconstruction effort Introducing Lean Manufacturing
  10. 10. Muda–Wasted time & effort Seven Forms of Waste Excess Inventory Extra Processing Over Production Unnecessary Transportation Idle Waiting Superfluous Motion Expensive Errors Mura Waste caused by variability Muri Waste caused by over-burdeningThe Tao of Lean Manufacturing –Eliminating Waste
  11. 11. Eliminate Waste Pull resources through the value-stream Amplify Learning Test, refine, re-test, improve Decide as Late as Possible Build options in upstream Deliver as Fast as Possible Get feedback quickly Empower the Team Let the team decide Build Integrity In Strive for internal elegance See the Whole System Focus on the customer value-streamThe Seven Principles of Lean Manufacturing
  12. 12. Adopt a Whole System Perspective Prioritize system optimization over component optimization Engage Integrated Product Teams Enable multi-disciplinary collaboration Embrace a Pull Model as a Design Principle Processes pull only what is needed to satisfy downstream needs Establish Standardized Work Procedures Document every step & relentlessly test, refine, improveCore Building Blocks of a Lean Process
  13. 13. DITA deployed on Lean Projects Aerospace / Defense Two Industry Awards for Lean Manufacturing Innovation Healthcare / Pharmaceuticals Engineering / Manufacturing Two Key Objectives addressed with DITA Information Pull Enabling a pull framework where users receive just-in-time information Standard Work Instructions Specialized DITA definitions ofprocessablework instructionsDeploying DITA into Lean Manufacturing Projects
  14. 14. Operating a Content Value-Stream Flowing just-enough content to support downstream demands Information Pull Users Performing Tasks Establish Content Store Dynamic Delivery Services Integrated Reference Content Content in Source Systems Master Content Sources Information Generated On-Demand User-defined Information Needs Enables System Life Cycle Optimization Support Process Design Process Manufacturing Process Standards & Guidelines
  15. 15. DITA used as a Master Format Accommodated content assets assembled from many sources Permitted theelaboration of richmetadata structures DITA Contentpulled into multiple systems across the supply chainDITA and the Information Pull Solution
  16. 16. Commentary –Establishing Authority Networks The “Information Pull” model is actually more than just a design attribute of anefficiently operatingLean Content Solution. An information pull model establishesan authority networkthat connects primary sources to myriad accountable uses. An authority network allows data fromactual events to be streamed backto the decisions behind them. This establishes the genuine accountabilitythat is essential to all critical functions.
  17. 17. Highly structured descriptions of work tasks Designed to help teams to optimally perform work tasks Provided in a range of formats for use in different environments Ideally designed for both people & supporting software to read Standard Work Instructions
  18. 18. DITA Selected Over numerous options DITA Machinery Task Judged the most complete model(a bit of a surprise) Specialization was stillgoing to be necessary The only real option Complex Content Acquisition Problem SMEs in different units Complex Delivery Many different formatsDITA and Standard Work Instructions
  19. 19. DITA in the Turbulent Sea of Enterprise Systems
  20. 20. Adapting to the Mainstream: Not New but still RoughVolume & complexity of the content was significantDiffering XML support across Enterprise SystemsMany tools placed serious constraints on XML that they usedMost popular authoring tools had serious limitationsChallengesPerformance demands were dauntingSupportability & adaptability were flagged as criticalSupplier Networkmultiplied thesechallengesChallenges fell into two groups that pulled in opposite directionsZero DITA Awareness
  21. 21. When deployed as part of an enterprise solution, content processes face specific demands: Many processes will be called for Many of these will be highly complex Change requests will arrive continually Expected immediately High expectations around quality & speedDITA in the Big Leagues
  22. 22. Commentary –The Ironic Flight Away from Lean The demand for greater precision, control & performance typically leads, when left in the hands of Information Technology (IT) groups, directly to the blind embrace of closed & proprietary tools that achieve none of these goals for long and certainly not when extended across a distributed and changing supply chain. The governance of content solutions, as with the governance of all content assets, must remain with the business stakeholders. This is one reason content is largely invisible to IT Groups or, when seen, despised.
  23. 23. So What Kind of Content Processes Do We Need?
  24. 24. Lean Content Processes Business RequirementsBudget RealitiesPolitical FactorsUser NeedsDemonstration CapabilityModel ImplementationProduction DeploymentContinuous Improvement ContentTechnologiesContent StandardsBest PracticesOpen SourceCommercialContentStrategyLeanMethodologyDiscoverDesignDevelopDemonstrateDeployLean Content ProcessesProcessStepProcessStepContentSpecificationsValidation & AnalysisContent AssetsProcessInformation
  25. 25. Inputs to Lean Processes –Business on Top Business RequirementsBudget RealitiesPolitical FactorsUser Needs
  26. 26. The Working Mechanisms of Lean Content Processes Lean Content ProcessesProcessStepProcessStepContentSpecificationsValidation & AnalysisContent AssetsProcessInformation
  27. 27. Commentary –The Recursive Core of Lean Processes At the center of Lean Content Processeswill be a small, recursive structurerepresented by a process step, associated with specified & validatinginputs and outputs. Also associated witheach process step will be reports providinginsights into the operation of the process stepand providing analytical views of the inputsand outputs. This model can scale infinitely…
  28. 28. Sequence of Outcomes: Escalating Capability Demonstration CapabilityModel ImplementationProduction DeploymentContinuous Improvement
  29. 29. Commentary –The Role of Model Implementations 1 A Model Implementation is what could becalled a didactic implementation in that it seeks to be: Comprehensive in supporting a broad range of functionality Illustrative in demonstrating how different functionality can be implemented It is less important that it exhibit the scalability & performance of a production system. A model implementation acts as a point ofreference for a production deployment.
  30. 30. Commentary –The Role of Model Implementations 2 A Model Implementation acts as a criticallyimportant troubleshooting tool for a production deployment. The productiondeployment outcomes, in total and at key process junctures, can be compared to corresponding outcomes in the Model Implementation. A Model Implementation does not come withthe same burden of completeness & precision that is tied to Reference Implementations.
  31. 31. Mechanisms: The Resources being drawn upon Content Technologies Content Standards Best Practices Open Source Commercial Lean Content Processes draw upon Content Standards, Industry Best Practices, and best-of-breed Content Technologies (starting with open source & introducing commercial tools as necessary)
  32. 32. Pull Model –Streamlining Inputs Articulated in Modular Architecture Self-sufficient, distributable components Articulated in Documentation Fully described instructions & rules Validated Outputs Process steps are individually testable Detailed logging & reporting Model Implementation Open, low-cost, functionally complete Production Implementation Scalable, secure, integrated with enterprise systemsAnatomy of a Lean Content Process (7 Parts)
  33. 33. Enabling the Full Content Life Cycle Content Acquisition Content Management Content Engagement Content Delivery Content Strategy Information Product User Task Guidance Feedback Efficient and Sustainable Content Processes are a Pre-requisite to a Smoothly Functioning Content Life Cycle that delivers value to customers
  34. 34. Lean DITA Nothing Revolutionary Simply the application of rigorous configuration management & lean principles to the use of DITA to achieve business objectives Select Behaviour DITA Open Toolkit DITA Standard Lean DITA Solution Select Models Content Strategy Commercial Technology Customer Value DITA Open Toolkit In this scenario, the DITA OT acts as a Model Implementation
  35. 35. Commentary –Production-grade DITA Deployments The rigorous application of Lean Manufacturing Principles to DITA-based Content Processeshas a number of immediate consequences. It necessitates that organizations deliberatelyestablish production deployments of DITAand DITA processing services that include onlythose models and processing components thatare absolutely necessary. Not for everyone, clearly…. The DITA Standard and the DITA Open Toolkit(which cannot be legitimately considered separately) are treated as Model Implementationsto be used for reference during Production Deployment.
  36. 36. Testing is critically important in all systems Perhaps especially for Content Solutions Unit Tests ConformanceTests Business Tests Compellingbusinessscenariosshowcasing integratedfunctionalityA Digression Concerning Testing The GnostyxDITA Demonstration Set
  37. 37. Commentary –Demonstration DITA Set The GnostyxDITA Demonstration SetEfforts continue to establish a functionallyrealistic demonstration data set for DITA. The design objectives for the demonstration setinclude illustrating the range of content that a DITA solution can be expected to manage & publish including marketing materials, learning content, engineering background information, troubleshootingprocedures, as well as end user documentation. The demonstration data set is also intended to beeasily reconfigurable so that it can be quicklyrebranded to resemble the content of different firms.
  38. 38. Getting Back to What’s Important The customer decides what success looks like The optimization of Content Processes must be completely governed by the provision of customer value
  39. 39. ArsContenta Joe GollnerManaging DirectorGnostyxResearch Inc. jag@gnostyx.comTwitter: @joegollner Blog: The Content Philosopher Aqua Mechanica
  40. 40. Closing Thoughts GnostyxResearch Inc. equips organizations with the tools and knowledge they need to make the most of their content assets. As an independent solution provider that specializes in leveraging open standards and extensible technologies, Gnostyxprovides strategic guidance implementation assistance learning resources extensible technology components The team at Gnostyxsupports customers around the world and works in a wide range of industry sectors. Over two decades, Gnostyxhas developed a particular specialty in supporting organizations managing complex systems within in highly regulated environments.