Content Fusion:
or, There’s a Piece of Data
Lodged in my Document                                 Joe Gollner
            ...
Content Challenges at Hand
      Volume
      Complexity
      Change
      Validity
        Accuracy
        Currency
   ...
The Real Content Challenge
  Massive growth
    In the sophistication of systems
    In the volume of content
    becoming...
Not All Swarms are Destructive




        Locusts                  Traders
The Virtuous Swarm of Content and Technology




       Facebook                 Twitter
The Questions to be Addressed

  How is content changing?
  How is technology changing?
  How are organizations changing?
...
Stepping Stones
  A Brief History of
  Content Technologies

  Case Study:
  Mommy, where do Airplanes
  come from?

  The...
A Brief History of Content Technologies
 Paperwork:
 The Empire of
 Documents

 The evolution of
 open content
 technologi...
In the Beginning

…were table(t)s…




…and
 books…
Paperwork: The Empire of Documents




19th
Century
Mechanizing Documents
Storing Documents
Accessing Documents
Transporting Documents
Transacting Documents




Order entry,
accounting,
inventory,
shipping,…
War
Production
Memex
                  Adapting to the Exponential Growth in
                         Knowledge Resources




Seeking a n...
Knowledge Application with Technology
               Leveraging Knowledge through Automation




                         ...
Augmenting Human Intelligence
      Leveraging Automation to Assist Personal and Team Productivity


 Douglas Engelbart


...
The Internet
                                                Connecting Organizations
                                    ...
The Vision of Hyper-Text
 Envisioning content forms that reflect how people think and collaborate




  Theodor (Ted) Holm...
Proprietary Content Formats
    Limiting the Interchangeability and Usefulness of all data types
CALS – Tackling the Interchange Problem
      PROBLEM            INTERIM SOLUTION                    GOAL




            ...
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)




      1940      1960      1980    2000
SGML
  SGML
    Reflected human communication patterns
    Provided substantial flexibility
    Automated processing was “...
The World Wide Web
                       Where there’s a Will there’s a Way




      1940      1960             1980    ...
World Wide Web – The Success of Simplicity
  Original Objective (1989)
    “to allow information sharing within
          ...
Extensible Markup Language (XML)




                                          Source: Microsoft
      1940       1960    ...
The Key Innovations of XML
 The Key Innovations of XML:
   Fusing the innovations of SGML and the Web
      naming somethi...
XML
 The driving focus for XML
 has been facilitating a revolution
 in the way technology
 applications are designed,
 dev...
Service Oriented Architectures (SOA)




                                                     Source: Microsoft
       194...
Web 2.0 – The Social Web




The second                            Emergent
revolution in                     consequence
...
Web 2.0 – All About Engagement
  Web 2.0 has been called “The Participatory Web”
  Key technical elements include:
     AJ...
The Semantic Web
 Introducing a formal, interchangeable
 expression of meaning suitable to
 automated processing.
 Essenti...
Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA)




DITA provides an evolving framework for handling content and its challen...
Office Open XML (OOXML)




             ISO/IEC 29500:2008
              (not without protest)

               Ubiquitous...
A Matrix of Derivative Applications
  The Next Generation of Derivative Applications
     Draw upon massive volumes of con...
Mommy, where do airplanes comes from?

A Case Study
From the Mind of a Genius, of course!




                      2

        1                       3         Most
        ...
The Real Content Lifecycle behind Airplanes
    A Library of Engineering Standards is the starting point
    Each step in ...
The Real Answer Looks More Like This




                             4
           2
                   3
  1             ...
The Complex Content Interrelationships
   Engineering Standards
     Provide content controls, inputs & references for the...
Changing the Way We Think About Content
 An Integrated View of Content
    Controls
    Sources (Inputs)
    Outputs
    R...
The Assembly before the Assembly
The Nature of Content Services
                           Content Services
                           break down into:
   ...
The Governing Content Architecture
Enriching Content Assets to Support the Vision
Content Oriented Architecture (COA)
                     Repository
Strategies for Integrating Data, Logic & Text
    Legacy standards information is typically “mixed”
       Data is often d...
Enterprise Content Processes
The Truth about Content
Content is how we Communicate
                          Content is the physical form
                           of human c...
The Content Ecosystem
                       Content connects everything




   Content populates an ecosystem where peopl...
Documents as Authoritative Content Transactions
            The document has proven to be an indispensible
            dev...
The Four Dimensions of Content Transactions
When content
is deployed within
documents,
it will exist for a
specific time,
...
Implications of this Dimensional Perspective
All document types
participate in each
of the dimensions.

Different document...
The True Nature of Content
Content is the persistent physical form of human communication transactions.
It is highly compl...
Core Definitions
   Data
     Data is the meaningful representation of experience

   Information
     Information is the ...
Content and the Knowledge Dynamic




 Ideally, content would fully expose data, information & knowledge in a way
        ...
The Emergence of Intelligent Content
  The Evolution of
  Content Technologies
    Makes it possible to encode
    content...
The Meaning of Intelligent Content
    Intelligent Content
       Expresses its full
       meaning in an open
       mann...
The Function of Intelligent Content

Intelligent content
can play the
unique role
of integrating
knowledge assets,
technol...
The Significance of Intelligent Content
  In the Age of Intelligent Content
     The persistence of content
     becomes m...
Some More Questions
 What are the practical
 implications?

 What practices need to be
 put in place to work with
 Intelli...
The Virtuous Swarm of Content & Technology




Questions?
References
   This presentation leverages material developed in the
   following papers:
     The Emergence of Intelligent...
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Content Fusion; or, There a Piece of Data Lodged in my Document

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This presentation attempts to introduce the concept of Intelligent Content. Appropriately, it was delivered as a featured presentation at Intelligent Content 2009. It traces the history of open markup technologies and argues that this history underlies many of the innovations now occuring online and many that are only becoming visible on the horizon.

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Content Fusion; or, There a Piece of Data Lodged in my Document

  1. 1. Content Fusion: or, There’s a Piece of Data Lodged in my Document Joe Gollner jgollner@stilo.com / www.stilo.com Vice President Enterprise Solutions Stilo International
  2. 2. Content Challenges at Hand Volume Complexity Change Validity Accuracy Currency Correctness Time To create To manage To find To use Cost
  3. 3. The Real Content Challenge Massive growth In the sophistication of systems In the volume of content becoming available In the diversity of content sources becoming available Ironic Consequence of the Knowledge Age The Ignorance Explosion We are not keeping up with the systems and content we are creating Technology change is not predictable: swarm patterns of collective action
  4. 4. Not All Swarms are Destructive Locusts Traders
  5. 5. The Virtuous Swarm of Content and Technology Facebook Twitter
  6. 6. The Questions to be Addressed How is content changing? How is technology changing? How are organizations changing? or How does content need to change? How does technology need to change? How do organizations need to change?
  7. 7. Stepping Stones A Brief History of Content Technologies Case Study: Mommy, where do Airplanes come from? The Truth about Content The Emergence of Intelligent Content
  8. 8. A Brief History of Content Technologies Paperwork: The Empire of Documents The evolution of open content technologies The current state of open content technologies
  9. 9. In the Beginning …were table(t)s… …and books…
  10. 10. Paperwork: The Empire of Documents 19th Century
  11. 11. Mechanizing Documents
  12. 12. Storing Documents
  13. 13. Accessing Documents
  14. 14. Transporting Documents
  15. 15. Transacting Documents Order entry, accounting, inventory, shipping,… War Production
  16. 16. Memex Adapting to the Exponential Growth in Knowledge Resources Seeking a new medium in which documents would become more manageable & more dynamic 1940 1960 1980 2000
  17. 17. Knowledge Application with Technology Leveraging Knowledge through Automation The modern organization cannot survive without automation as a means to encapsulate & leverage knowledge 1940 1960 1980 2000
  18. 18. Augmenting Human Intelligence Leveraging Automation to Assist Personal and Team Productivity Douglas Engelbart Workstation - 1966 An integrated working environment in which “paperwork” was performed electronically & with great efficiency Workstation - 1968 1940 1960 1980 2000
  19. 19. The Internet Connecting Organizations to form Knowledge Enterprises Combining the capabilities of research facilities to undertake more challenging projects 1940 1960 1980 2000
  20. 20. The Vision of Hyper-Text Envisioning content forms that reflect how people think and collaborate Theodor (Ted) Holm Nelson 1940 1960 1980 2000
  21. 21. Proprietary Content Formats Limiting the Interchangeability and Usefulness of all data types
  22. 22. CALS – Tackling the Interchange Problem PROBLEM INTERIM SOLUTION GOAL STDS Supplier Client Supplier Client Supplier and Client 1940 1960 1980 2000
  23. 23. Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) 1940 1960 1980 2000
  24. 24. SGML SGML Reflected human communication patterns Provided substantial flexibility Automated processing was “difficult” Adopted in documentation-intensive sectors Charles Goldfarb Military, Aerospace and Commercial Publishing The Father of SGML The Key Innovation of SGML: naming something (understanding) is different than describing what should be done with it (behaviour) naming something is the important part naming something and defining its behaviour benefits from sophistication
  25. 25. The World Wide Web Where there’s a Will there’s a Way 1940 1960 1980 2000
  26. 26. World Wide Web – The Success of Simplicity Original Objective (1989) “to allow information sharing within internationally dispersed teams” HTML: a simple use of a complex standard Sir Tim Berners-Lee The Father The Key Innovation of the Web: of the Web deciding what to do (intention) is different than determining how it should be done (execution) deciding what to do is the important part communicating an intention and successfully executing it benefits from simplicity
  27. 27. Extensible Markup Language (XML) Source: Microsoft 1940 1960 1980 2000
  28. 28. The Key Innovations of XML The Key Innovations of XML: Fusing the innovations of SGML and the Web naming something (understanding) is different than describing what should be done with it (behaviour) deciding what to do (intention) is different than determining how it should be done (execution) Yuri Rubinsky The Spiritual Father XML exhibits an unresolved tension between of XML Sophistication to meet the needs of application integration Simplicity to meet the needs of people interacting with technology
  29. 29. XML The driving focus for XML has been facilitating a revolution in the way technology applications are designed, developed and deployed This addressed the failure of preceding approaches to adapt to genuinely open systems This focus explains a great deal about the character of XML
  30. 30. Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) Source: Microsoft 1940 1960 1980 2000 2010
  31. 31. Web 2.0 – The Social Web The second Emergent revolution in consequence web adoption of integration 1940 1960 1980 2000 2010
  32. 32. Web 2.0 – All About Engagement Web 2.0 has been called “The Participatory Web” Key technical elements include: AJAX – Asynchronous JavaScript and XML simple syndication protocols – RSS / ATOM simplified web services – Aggregator APIs Folksonomies – collaborative tagging Processable content – XHTML / CSS / Microformats Addressable, traceable, dynamic, collaborative content – wiki / blog Much closer to the original idea behind the ‘web’ The centrality of XML in making this possible is often missed
  33. 33. The Semantic Web Introducing a formal, interchangeable expression of meaning suitable to automated processing. Essential for marshalling radically distributed services. Content for Machines 1940 1960 1980 2000 2010
  34. 34. Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) DITA provides an evolving framework for handling content and its challenges more gracefully than previously. Application layers are given a chance to adapt. 1940 1960 1980 2000 2010
  35. 35. Office Open XML (OOXML) ISO/IEC 29500:2008 (not without protest) Ubiquitous XML 1940 1960 1980 2000 2010
  36. 36. A Matrix of Derivative Applications The Next Generation of Derivative Applications Draw upon massive volumes of content Rely heavily on reusable portable application modules, standard interfaces, cloud resources, & open content Evolve rapidly to meet new demands and to leverage availability of new resources Enable dynamically assembled solutions & personalized performance support tools [the digital enterprise connects to the personal knowledge appliance]
  37. 37. Mommy, where do airplanes comes from? A Case Study
  38. 38. From the Mind of a Genius, of course! 2 1 3 Most common answer but 4 wrong!
  39. 39. The Real Content Lifecycle behind Airplanes A Library of Engineering Standards is the starting point Each step in the process Reuses & references this source documentation Introduces new content & initiates changes in preceding content
  40. 40. The Real Answer Looks More Like This 4 2 3 1 5 6 6
  41. 41. The Complex Content Interrelationships Engineering Standards Provide content controls, inputs & references for the design process Become an integral part of all subsequent content Derive their authority from their status as documents
  42. 42. Changing the Way We Think About Content An Integrated View of Content Controls Sources (Inputs) Outputs References (Mechanisms) Notable Considerations References include revisions Controls govern validation Outputs cover the full spectrum
  43. 43. The Assembly before the Assembly
  44. 44. The Nature of Content Services Content Services break down into: Document Services Delivery of formatted documents that facilitate business transactions Data Services Provide highly precise inputs to applications Logic Services Provide highly precise sequencing guidance to people, processes & applications
  45. 45. The Governing Content Architecture
  46. 46. Enriching Content Assets to Support the Vision
  47. 47. Content Oriented Architecture (COA) Repository
  48. 48. Strategies for Integrating Data, Logic & Text Legacy standards information is typically “mixed” Data is often difficult to isolate & Logic is often hidden as implicit Linked models are preferable (division of responsibilities)
  49. 49. Enterprise Content Processes
  50. 50. The Truth about Content
  51. 51. Content is how we Communicate Content is the physical form of human communication Content is meaningful because it entails context Narrative Structures Implied Associations Associative Memory Associative Memory Intended Results Acquired Perspectives Acquired Perspectives Imperfect Expression Imperfect Interpretation Content is typically serialized due to the ways we express, store and interpret information
  52. 52. The Content Ecosystem Content connects everything Content populates an ecosystem where people receive, internalize, modify, use, create and share that content. In this way, content evolves.
  53. 53. Documents as Authoritative Content Transactions The document has proven to be an indispensible device for communicating and retaining content as part of business transactions Historically documents have also caused problems for content: redundancy proliferation, format orientation, and potential obsolescence
  54. 54. The Four Dimensions of Content Transactions When content is deployed within documents, it will exist for a specific time, assume a particular format, be related to other documents, and be used to execute business of varying degrees of formality. This framework helps us to understand how the documents, and their content, will need to be managed.
  55. 55. Implications of this Dimensional Perspective All document types participate in each of the dimensions. Different document types are mapped differently into each dimension. The coverage of the dimensions will be primarily determined by the semantic depth of the content embodied in each document type.
  56. 56. The True Nature of Content Content is the persistent physical form of human communication transactions. It is highly complex because it must facilitate the exchange of semantics ranging from how we represent experience (data), through how we communicate with others (information), to how we record and evolve our understanding of the world (knowledge). This scale determines the semantic depth of the content.
  57. 57. Core Definitions Data Data is the meaningful representation of experience Information Information is the meaningful organization of data communicated in a specific context with the purpose of informing others Knowledge Knowledge is the meaningful organization of information, expressing an evolving understanding of a subject and establishing a basis for judgment and the potential for action. Content What is “contained” and “communicated” as transactional documents Manifestation of Data, Information, and Knowledge
  58. 58. Content and the Knowledge Dynamic Ideally, content would fully expose data, information & knowledge in a way that was both persistent and universally accessible
  59. 59. The Emergence of Intelligent Content The Evolution of Content Technologies Makes it possible to encode content in a way that is: Discoverable Processable Informative Makes it possible to deploy tools that enable users: to create rich content to access personalized documents to access applications tailored to their needs Combines with other factors to produce conditions of emergence Digitization of knowledge resources & business processes
  60. 60. The Meaning of Intelligent Content Intelligent Content Expresses its full meaning in an open manner Can be used by people and by applications Can be located based on its content & context Can be tailored to fit specific circumstances Can be delivered as a combination of authoritative documents & application behaviour (work instruments)
  61. 61. The Function of Intelligent Content Intelligent content can play the unique role of integrating knowledge assets, technology Result Intent resources & business processes in ways that can be streamlined, systematically optimized & adapted dynamically
  62. 62. The Significance of Intelligent Content In the Age of Intelligent Content The persistence of content becomes more certain Technology resources become far more contingent & disposable Business processes become far more adaptable Radical change become far more feasible in business models & tools Knowledge assets truly become the core assets of the enterprise Knowledge becomes increasingly “executable” & this drives evolution The Fractal Enterprise emerges
  63. 63. Some More Questions What are the practical implications? What practices need to be put in place to work with Intelligent Content? What types of solutions benefit the most from Intelligent Content? Comments or Questions: What are the main obstacles? jgollner@stilo.com
  64. 64. The Virtuous Swarm of Content & Technology Questions?
  65. 65. References This presentation leverages material developed in the following papers: The Emergence of Intelligent Content (Jan 2009) Implementing Content Technologies on an Enterprise Scale (Feb 2008) The Anatomy of Knowledge (Oct 2006) Available at: www.gollner.ca

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