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basic info about the American Civil War. Borrowed from a variety of sources

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  1. 1. The American Civil War
  2. 2. Abraham Lincoln • Early in his career, Abraham Lincoln was a lawyer, a member of the Illinois state legislature, member of the U.S. House of Representatives • He supported the Republican Party and the party’s efforts to stop slavery • He was nominated for a U.S. Senate seat, going against Democrat Stephen Douglas – Well known for the Kansas Nebraska Act
  3. 3. Lincoln-Douglas Debates • 1858, Douglas and Lincoln competed for a Senate seat • Lincoln tried to take advantage of his opponent’s fame, and challenged Douglas to a series of debates throughout the state • Thousands of people attended the seven debates • Lincoln focused on slavery and the future in the West – Said Democrats wanted to spread slavery across the continent – Lincoln, a Republican, felt slavery was wrong – Felt African Americans were “entitled to all the natural rights” listed in the Declaration of Independence – He did not feel AA’s were political or social equals, but – “in the right to eat the bread…which his own hand earns, he is my equal”
  4. 4. Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  5. 5. Lincoln-Douglas Debates • Douglas used Lincoln’s stance on equality against Lincoln • “Those of you who believe that the Negro is your equal…of course will vote for Mr. Lincoln” • Douglas criticized Lincoln for believing the country could not remain half slave and half free • Accused him of wanting to make all states free, which would lead to “warfare between the North and the South”
  6. 6. Lincoln-Douglas Results • Douglas’ response to the Dred Scott decision helped him win the Seat. – He said the people of each area have the power to vote for or against slavery. • Even though he lost, Lincoln gained national attention and media coverage • This helped him to gain the Republican nomination for President in the 1860 election
  7. 7. Election of 1860 • Northern Democrats chose Senator Stephen Douglas • Republicans chose Abraham Lincoln – He was against slavery, but said he would not try to abolish slavery wherever it existed, making him appeal to a large audience • John Breckinridge and John Bell also campaigned. • The three other candidate split many of the votes among themselves – Lincoln won 180/183 northern electoral votes – Breckinridge and Bell split the southern electoral votes – Douglas won only 12 electoral votes • Lincoln won the presidency, even though he did not win a single southern state • This was a reminder of the lack of political power in the South
  8. 8. • Also on page 573
  9. 9. Secession • Many southern whites believed Lincoln would abolish slavery once in power – This would destroy the South’s economy and lifestyle • Four days after Lincoln’s election, South Carolina’s legislature called for a special convention to consider secession. • After three days of discussion, all delegates voted to secede.
  10. 10. • Since secession was not directly discussed in the Constitution, some southern states believed they could get out of the Union just as they got in, by holding a state convention and voting. • Lincoln disagreed, saying no state can lawfully get out of the Union, without revolution, which was against the law.
  11. 11. Confederate States of America • By 2/1/1861, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas seceded from the Union • The seceding states formed The Confederate States of America, aka the Confederacy. • Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was elected President of the CSA.
  12. 12. First Shots of the War • Lincoln called for unity at his inaugural address • Confederate officials were already taking over federal storehouses and forts • Fort Sumter, near Charleston, South Carolina was a Union fort located in the South • Lincoln ordered the troops to be resupplied, but South Carolina troops demanded the Union troops leave the fort. • Confederate guns opened fire, beginning the Civil War. • 34 hours of Confederate bombardment forced the North to surrender
  13. 13. Border States • The free Northern states were solidly for the Union • Slave states that did not join the confederacy had to choose sides • N.C., Tennessee, Virginia, Arkansas – Joined confederacy • Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri bordered the North – The position of these states made them important to both the North and the South – While some soldiers fought for both sides, the border states eventually joined the Union
  14. 14. Union vs. Confederates
  15. 15. North Vs. South • Northern Advantages – Larger Population = More soldiers – More factories and shipyards – Better Railroads = easier transportation – More money • Confederate Advantages – Many skilled officers – Didn’t have to “win” anything, just not give up
  16. 16. Northern Strategy • Union general Winfield Scott developed the Union’s two-part strategy, the “Anaconda Plan” – Destroy the south’s economy with a naval blockade of seaports – Gain control of the Mississippi River to divide the Confederacy and cut its communication lines • Felt this would result in the least bloodshed; but would take time
  17. 17. Overview of the North’s Civil War Strategy: “Anaconda” Plan
  18. 18. The “Anaconda” Plan
  19. 19. Southern Strategy • Defend its territory and wear down the Union’s will to fight • Take Washington D.C. • Cotton Diplomacy- the belief that the British gov’t would support the South because of their reliance on cotton – British had large stockpiles of cotton and also acquired it from India and Egypt
  20. 20. Main Leaders • Ulysses S. Grant – Union General • George McClellan – Union General • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson – Confederate General – “There is Jackson standing like a stone wall” • Robert E. Lee – Confederate General
  21. 21. Main Battles/Events • Ft. Sumter-First Shots of the Civil War; located in Charlestown, South Carolina • First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) • Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) • Battle of Antietam: Bloodiest single day of the civil war; 23,000 casualties. First battle fought on northern soil. • Battle of Hampton Roads (Monitor vs. Merrimack/Virginia)
  22. 22. Main Battles/Events • Battle of Shiloh • Vicksburg • Gettysburg: Turning point of the war • Sherman’s March to the Sea: Used scorched earth policy. • Appomattox Courthouse: General Lee surrendered to General Grant, ending the Civil War.
  23. 23. Emancipation Proclamation • Lincoln supported freeing the Slaves if it would help the North win the war – He was hesitant because he feared it might weaken support for the war – Constitution did not give the President the right to end slavery; some saw slaves as property of the Southerners • After the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln called for all slaves in Confederate controlled areas to be freed
  24. 24. • News of this encouraged southern slaves to escape when Union troops were nearby • Some opposed the Proclamation, as they simply wanted to restore the Union, not to end slavery
  25. 25. Emancipation in 1863
  26. 26. The Emancipation Proclamation
  27. 27. Weapons • Most soldiers were issued smoothbore muskets that were difficult to load and could be fired at an accurate range of only about 100 yards, only three times in one minute. Rifled muskets were much more accurate and deadly with a range of up to 500 yards.
  28. 28. Destruction from Artillery • In the Civil War, some Cannons were rifled for better accuracy and more power. • Rifled cannons could accurately lob shells for almost 2000 yards; that is almost one mile!. • Smoothbore cannons were not as accurate and could be lobbed 500 yards.
  29. 29. The Confederate Seal MOTTO  “With God As Our Vindicator”
  30. 30. Inflation in the South
  31. 31. McClellan: ICanDoItAll!
  32. 32. Major Battles of the Civil War: Manassas, Virginia Bull Run
  33. 33. The Confederate Generals Jeb Stuart James Longstreet George Pickett “Stonewall” Jackson Nathan Bedford Forrest Robert E. Lee
  34. 34. Lincoln’s Generals Irwin McDowell Winfield Scott George McClellan, Again! George McClellan Ambrose Burnside Joseph Hooker George Meade Ulysses S. Grant
  35. 35. Civil War Casualties in Comparison to Other Wars
  36. 36. Manassas Junction, Va. • This was the first major land battle of the Civil War • Around Union 28,500 troops are going to battle 32,000 Confederate troops for control of an important rail road junction in Northern Virginia. • Many people from both sides thought this battle would determine the outcome of the war.
  37. 37. Bull Run, Manassas, Virginia • The first battle was an important Confederate victory. Manassas shows that the war was going to be very long and difficult for both sides.
  38. 38. Results • Confederate Victory • This battle convinced both sides that the war would be a long and costly affair. • Manassas National Battlefield Park: Home Page
  39. 39. Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) July, 1861
  40. 40. The Battleofthe Ironclads, March, 1862 The Monitor vs. the Merrimac
  41. 41. Battle of Antietam “Bloodiest Single Day of the War” 23,000 casualties September 17, 1862
  42. 42. The Bloodiest Day of the Civil War" The Battle of Antietam Confederate Losses Union Losses Killed-1,512 Killed--2,108 Wounded--7,816 Wounded--9,549 Captured/Missing--1,844 Captured/Missing--753
  43. 43. Antietam: Sharpsburg, Maryland • Bloody battle in Maryland resulted in a tie and Robert E. Lee’s army has to retreat back into Virginia. Lee attacked the north because he needed a victory on northern soil.
  44. 44. Vicksburg, Mississippi • This important battle gave the Union Army control of trade and he Mississippi River, which cut the Confederacy in half and allowed General Grant to control trade and communication on the river.
  45. 45. Vicksburg-Dec. 1862-July 1863 • Constant bombardment • Porter kept up a continual bombardment and cannonade for forty days, during which time he fired 7,000 mortar shells, and the gunboats 4,500 shells. Grant drew his lines closer and closer. He kept up a bombardment day and night • Mule meat was a rare meal • Banks of the Mississippi • Grant surrounds the city • Starves the people • Last stronghold of the South on the river
  46. 46. Chancellorsville, Virginia • Stonewall Jackson loses his life after achieving one of the greatest military maneuvers of the Civil War at Chancellorsville, in Virginia.
  47. 47. Chancellorsville May 63 Hooker in command of Union Troops • Hooker had 125,000- lost 17,000; Lee had 58,000, lost 13,000 • Confederate success • Hooker flank was taken • JACKSON IS KILLED by his own troops
  48. 48. The War in the West, 1863: Vicksburg
  49. 49. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania • Gettysburg was an important Northern victory. The confederate Army was cut down by almost 25%.
  50. 50. The Road to Gettysburg: 1863
  51. 51. Gettysburg Casualties
  52. 52. Sherman’s “March to the Sea” through Georgia, 1864
  53. 53. 1864 • Sept-Dec. 1864- March through Georgia • General Sherman takes Atlanta Burns it-then marches to Savannah-a present to Lincoln on Christmas. • Troops live off land-denuded a strip of land 60 miles wide 120 miles long • Military objective-conquer territory; Economic objective-destroy resources Psychological objective-break the will of the people as the Union marches through the Confederacy
  54. 54. The Final Virginia Campaign: 1864-1865
  55. 55. Surrender at Appomattox April 9, 1865
  56. 56. Union Prison Camp at Andersonville, GA
  57. 57. Original Andersonville Plan  Planned to hold 10,000 men.  Had over 32,000 at one time.
  58. 58. Distributing “Rations”
  59. 59. Union “Survivors”
  60. 60. Ford’s Theater (April14, 1865)
  61. 61. WANTED~~!!
  62. 62. The Execution