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Red badge of courage critical thinking tool

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Victory's critical thinking tool can be used to create interactive scaffolded lessons for ELA, social studies, science , and math. This is an example of an ELA critical thinking lesson.

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Red badge of courage critical thinking tool

  1. 1. username Exploring Science Log In Exploring The Red Badge of Courage password The Red Badge of Courage A unique approach to literature
  2. 2. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out 2:35 Watch the video and think about it. The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 The introductory video provides context and engages students.
  3. 3. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Check Your Understanding 1.  What genre is The Red Badge of Courage? a.  fantasy b.  historical fiction c.  mystery d.  legend 2.  During what war does the action of The Red Badge of Courage take place? a.  the American Revolution b.  World War I c.  the Spanish-American War d.  the Civil War 3.  Who is the main character in The Red Badge of Courage? a.  Henry b.  Wilson c.  Jim d.  Simpson 4.  What did Crane use to write The Red Badge of Courage? a.  his experiences as a soldier in the Civil War b.  his work as a reporter during the Civil War c.  his research on battles and soldiers of the Civil War d.  his viewing of Matthew Brady’s photographs of the Civil War 5.  How was The Red Badge of Courage different from other novels of that time? a.  It was very realistic. b.  It had elements of science fiction. c.  It was autobiographical. d.  It had elements of the supernatural. Check AnswersBack The Red Badge of Courage This quick quiz checks and activates prior knowledge. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next
  4. 4. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out What Is Classic Literature? The Red Badge of Courage is considered a classic work of literature. Read the definition of “classic literature.” Then think about each word that appears. Based on the definition, decide if the word describes classic literature or not. Then click on whether the word describes classic literature or not classic literature. Classic literature is a book, poem, or short story that is a work of high quality. The work is noted for its excellence. It also can be appreciated at any time, not just in the time it is written. Often classic literature is one that was a new form or style when it was written. Classic literature is used as a model for future writers. The themes continue to speak to readers throughout history. mediocre timeless current engaging universal limited enduring valueless superior variable Back The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next This activity builds confidence by practicing a language sub- skill students will need when they use a close reading.
  5. 5. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Check Your Understanding Review the definition of classic literature. Then write why you think that The Red Badge of Courage is or is not a classic work of literature. Classic literature is a book, poem, or short story that is a work of high quality. The work is noted for its excellence. It also can be appreciated at any time, not just in the time it is written. Often classic literature is one that was a new form or style when it was written. Classic literature is used as a model for future writers. The themes continue to speak to readers throughout history. My Response Back The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Students analyze the nuances of defining classic literature. Next
  6. 6. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Compare and Contrast Two Works of Classic Literature Read the two texts. Think about how the texts are alike and different. Song of the Banner at Daybreak by Walt Whitman O you up there! O pennant! where you undulate like a snake hissing so curious, Out of reach, an idea only, yet furiously fought for, risking bloody death, loved by me, So loved—O you banner leading the day with stars brought from the night! Valueless, object of eyes, over all and demanding all— (absolute owner of all)—O banner and pennant! I too leave the rest—great as it is, it is nothing—houses, machines are nothing—I see them not, I see but you, O warlike pennant! O banner so broad, with stripes, I sing you only, Flapping up there in the wind. The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane Within him, as he hurled himself forward, was born a love, a despairing fondness for this flag which was near him. It was a creation of beauty and invulnerability. It was a goddess, radiant, that bended its form with an imperious gesture to him. It was a woman, red and white, hating and loving, that called him with the voice of his hopes. Because no harm could come to it he endowed it with power. He kept near, as if it could be a saver of lives, and an imploring cry went from his mind. Back The Red Badge of Courage Students compare texts to understand that classic literature is not defined by genre. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next
  7. 7. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Compare and Contrast poem Complete the Venn diagram. Think about the words or phrases that describe Song of the Banner at Daybreak, The Red Badge of Courage, or Both. Drag and drop the words to the correct spot. first person: point of view use: metaphors theme: patriotism historical fiction use: personification use: repetition third person: point of view Song of the Banner at Daybreak The Red Badge of Courage Both Back The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next This activity builds confidence by helping students compare theme, perspective, and language usage in two texts.
  8. 8. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Read about each Key Character. Use the sliders to decide how tragic or heroic each Key Character is. Highlight the text evidence that supports your decision. Henry Fleming Jim Conklin Wilson Tattered Soldier Henry’s Mother Tragic Heroic Back Analyze Key Characters The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students use a close reading of the text to evaluate the key characters.
  9. 9. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Henry Fleming Who is he? •  The protagonist, a young boy fighting in the Civil War •  Leaves his mother and their farm to fight •  304th regiment of the Union army What do we know about him? •  He has romantic ideas of war but wonders if he has the courage to fight in battle and when the first battle comes, he deserts his regiment and flees to the forest where he finds a dead soldier. •  When Henry leaves the forest, he meets up with a procession of wounded soldiers, including the tattered soldier, who make Henry feel paranoid that the other soldiers might find out he was a deserter. •  Once back with his regiment, Henry proves himself to be a courageous soldier in battle when he seizes the enemy’s flag and wins a small victory. However, he continues to struggle with paranoia about being found out as a deserter and holds himself high above the others, even after he learns how insignificant his life is compared to the war. Back Read about each Key Character. Use the sliders to decide how tragic or heroic each Key Character is. Highlight the text evidence that supports your decision. Analyze Key Characters The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students highlight text to provide evidence that supports their decisions.
  10. 10. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Who is he? •  Introduced as the “tall” •  Rooms with Henry and is considered his friend •  Dies early on from being shot in the side What do we know about him? •  He tells the regiment the rumors he’s heard about them being soon mobilized for battle and quarrels with Wilson. •  He tells Henry that he would do his part to fight in battle but would also run away from battle if everyone else ran. •  He leaves the procession of the wounded soldiers to die off the road and out of the way of the marching troops and wagons. He dies as a courageous and humble soldier. Back Read about each Key Character. Use the sliders to decide how tragic or heroic each Key Character is. Highlight the text evidence that supports your decision. Analyze Key Characters Jim Conklin The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students continue to evaluate the key characters.
  11. 11. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Who is he? •  Introduced as the “loud” soldier •  Young man in Henry’s regiment •  Fights alongside Henry and shows courage in battle What do we know about him? •  He argues regularly with other men about the rumors of their war strategy. •  As the first battle approaches, he admits to Henry that this will probably be his only battle as he expects to die. He gives Henry an envelope to give to his family. •  When Henry rejoins his regiment, Wilson is there to greet and care for him and they become close, fighting alongside each other. Henry notices that Wilson has transformed from a loud, brash instigator to a thoughtful and dutiful soldier. Back Read about each Key Character. Use the sliders to decide how tragic or heroic each Key Character is. Highlight the text evidence that supports your decision. Analyze Key Characters Wilson The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students can revise earlier decisions about tragic vs. heroic characters.
  12. 12. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Who is he? •  A soldier Henry meets when he deserts his regiment •  Walks along in the procession of wounded soldiers •  Curious about Henry’s wound What do we know about him? •  Henry meets the tattered soldier when he deserts his regiment and finds a line of wounded soldiers. •  The tattered soldier asks Henry where his wound is, heightening Henry’s sense of paranoia that they will know he deserted his regiment. •  As Henry tries to break away from the tattered soldier, he meets a dying Jim Conklin. Together they watch Jim die. •  Mentions to Henry that he’s not feeling too well himself and Henry, unable to stand any more death, leaves him in a field to die. Back Read about each Key Character. Use the sliders to decide how tragic or heroic each Key Character is. Highlight the text evidence that supports your decision. Analyze Key Characters Tattered Soldier The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next
  13. 13. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Who is she? •  Henry’s mother •  A farmer •  Introduced in Henry’s flashback What do we know about her? •  She tells Henry that he is more important to their farm than to the war and discourages him from joining the army. •  She cries when Henry tells her that he enlisted and gives a speech telling him to be careful and be smart. She doesn’t want him to do anything he’d be ashamed of her knowing about. •  She wants Henry to live up to his father’s morals, and she sends him away with clothes, socks, and blackberry jam so he will be comfortable during his service. •  Henry is irritated by her reaction to him leaving and is relieved to finally go. Back Analyze Key Characters Read about each Key Character. Use the sliders to decide how tragic or heroic each Key Character is. Highlight the text evidence that supports your decision. Henry’s Mother The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next
  14. 14. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Analyze Your Data What does your data tell about the key characters? Write what your data shows about the characters. Tell why you think the character is heroic or tragic, or both. heroic tragic Back The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students use a graph of their close reading results to analyze key players that were tragic or heroic.
  15. 15. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Analyze Settings Read about the time period and settings of The Red Badge of Courage. Think about how the time period and settings affect the characters. Highlight text you might want to use in your final essay. Then use the slider to decide if the setting affects character or does not affect character. Time Period Inspiration Home on the Farm Marching along the road Camping along the river In the forest The battlefield Affects Character Does Not Affect Character Back The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Students use a close reading of the text to evaluate how setting affects the characters.
  16. 16. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out When? •  During the American Civil War (1861-1865); this was a time of upheaval and pitted states against each other. One of the primary causes of the Civil War was the issue of slavery. What? •  It is believed that Crane used the battle of Chancellorsville in northern Virginia (May 1–5, 1863) as the inspiration for the battle scenes in The Red Badge of Courage. It was a critical battle of the Civil War, a bloody battle with about 17,000 casualties. Where? Home on the farm •  Distanced from the war, safe, quiet, close to town where church bells ring announcing the war, cows, nostalgia, childhood, flashback, barn, fields, house, seminary with classmates, rows of desks, village streets Camping along the river •  Morning fog, tranquility, safety, comfort, resting on the hills, rain, muddy roads, contrasted at night by darkness and red fires across the river that Henry imagines to be dragons advancing toward them •  Henry’s hut – temporary, log walls, cracker boxes as furniture, fireplace, picture from illustrated weekly, rifles on pegs, equipment hung on the walls, tin dishes lying on a pile of firewood, roof made of a folded tent, warm yellow glow of sunlight through the roof, sometimes the room is smoky from the fire •  Tents spring up like strange plants, campfires like red blossoms, fire makes rays that create satanic effects, a red shivering reflection, doom, romance, moon was lit and hung in a tree, blades of grass press against Henry’s face, rustling grass •  Glaring fire tints the water the color of wine, shines silver and gold on the masses of troops, insects sing solemnly across the river, caves along the woods Marching along the road •  Marching men, creaking and grumbling of wagons, chatter, laughing, singing, high spirits, dust, fairy blue skies In the forest •  Odor of the peaceful pines, monotonous axe blows, insects croon like old women, cathedral light of a forest •  Safety, men build barriers of sticks and branches, men flee here to retreat •  Henry deserts his regiment and goes into the forest – quiet, ground cluttered with vines and bushes, thick, takes effort to push through the branches and brush, seeking darkness, insects singing, birds singing, woodpecker pounding, peaceful, assuring, deep thickets, bogs, pine needles as a soft carpet, chapel of high arching boughs The battlefield •  Musketry, screams, cannon fire, floating smoke, blood, writhing bodies being shot, still corpses, horses, galloping hoofs, swords clashing and flashing, chaos, hills, trenches, a house stands ominously placid in the distant fields, open, exposed •  However, nature is never affected by the battle. It always goes on, sun shining, gleaming fields, despite the chaos caused by the people. Back Analyze Settings The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students use a close reading of the text to evaluate how setting affects the characters.
  17. 17. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out What does your data tell about the settings? Write what your data shows about the settings. Tell why you think the settings had a great or little effect on the characters. Affects Character Does Not Affect Character Back Analyze Your Data The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students use a graph of their close reading results to analyze the effect of setting.
  18. 18. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Analyze Key Events Read about each Key Event. Decide what are the main ideas of each section of the text. Highlight the text evidence that supports your decision. Chapters 1-3 Before the Battle Ø  Henry enlists in the war against his mother’s wishes but is convinced that war is a thing of the past now that it seems men are more educated and less inclined to violence. His regiment has been stationed along a riverbank for weeks and it seems there are only rumors, spread by Jim Conklin, that they’ll see battle the next day. Henry struggles internally with the question of whether or not he is brave enough not to run away from battle. Ø  The rumor turns out to be false, and although they don’t engage in a battle, the regiment is on the move. Henry observes the men in his regiment, wondering if any of them feel as unsure as he does about facing battle. The other men seem to be in high spirits, laughing and making jokes along their march. When Henry finally asks Wilson if he would run from a battle, Wilson says that he would definitely do his duty and fight, leaving Henry feeling alone. Ø  Henry is woken up by Jim and told to run. As the regiment runs along, Henry realizes that even if he wanted to escape, it would be physically impossible to break out of the group of soldiers surrounding him. Whenever the regiment stops, the soldiers build protective barriers around them, but the enemy is nowhere to be seen and Henry believes his superiors are incompetent in their leadership. Back The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students identify main ideas for each of the key events.
  19. 19. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Chapters 4-6 The Battle Begins: Ø  Rumors about the battle spread as the battle gets closer and more intense. Henry’s Lieutenant gets shot in the hand and has it casually bound up as a flood of soldiers come. Henry decides that he would run if he could get his legs to run as soon as he satisfies his curiosity and gets a glimpse of the battle. Ø  The enemy approaches and Henry’s first battle begins. He is nervous, but when the time comes he turns into an autonomous machine firing at the enemy. Although his captain is killed early on, they are successful in holding back the enemy. When Henry finally stops to look around he sees the horror of the dead soldiers and observes that the serenity of nature was not disturbed by their battle. Ø  Henry is very pleased with the way he acted in the battle, but the enemy attacks soon again and the men are tired and in disbelief. Henry freezes and most of the soldiers run, and he then runs away with them, overestimating the abilities of the enemy. He thinks that his superiors don’t know what they’re doing. However, in the end the enemy is once again held back. Back Analyze Key Events The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students continue to evaluate the key events.
  20. 20. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Chapters 7-10 Desertion: Ø  Henry feels that he did the right thing for himself and for the army by fleeing the enemy, and as he wonders if he’ll have to convince others of this, he creates a hypothetical situation that makes him hate the other soldiers and so he flees into the woods. He comes upon a place in the trees that he thinks is beautiful but sees the dead body of a soldier staring at him and runs. Ø  When Henry hears sounds of gunfire, he runs toward the battle out of curiosity and happens across a line of wounded men. He joins the march and a tattered man tries to talk to him about the battle, but when he asks Henry where he got hit, Henry panics and drops away from the line of men. Ø  Feeling ashamed for being unharmed among wounded men, Henry wishes he had been wounded as well to show that he had be courageous enough to fight. As he drops back through the line, he comes across Jim Conklin wounded and tells him he’ll take care of him. Jim runs into the woods, afraid of being trampled on the road and is followed by Henry and the tattered man where he dies. Ø  Henry is upset over Jim’s death. The tattered soldier tries to console him but then says he’s not feeling too well himself. Henry does not want to experience another death and can’t stand the guilt of desertion anymore, so he leaves the tattered soldier in a field. Back Analyze Key Events The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students highlight text to provide evidence that supports their decisions about the main ideas.
  21. 21. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Chapters 11-14 Returning to the Regiment: Ø  Sounds of battle grow louder and Henry comes to a road crowded with men and wagons. He wants to join them because he is hungry and tired and thirsty, but he fears what they might say about him. He tries to invent a story to tell them but ends up hating himself and wishing he were dead. Ø  Henry watches a group of men march away and then is suddenly surrounded by men running in every direction. When he tries to ask a fleeing man what’s happening, the man hits him on the head with his rifle to make him let him go. He thinks he might die from his head injury and reminisces about his life at home and his desire to be there instead of at war. Then a cheery soldier finds him and helps him back to his regiment. Ø  Henry approaches his regiment with caution because he is afraid of what they might do or say to him for leaving them, but they are glad to see him. The loud soldier, Wilson, is on duty. Corporal Simpson determines that Henry only got grazed by a shell, which actually was just a wound from the soldier hitting him on the head with a rifle. Wilson bandages up Henry’s head and gives him coffee to drink and his mat and blanket to sleep with. Ø  Henry wakes up and surveys all the men sleeping that look like corpses. Wilson, tending the fire and making food, gives some to Henry. Henry realizes that Wilson is now a wise, caring, and reserved man, no longer loud and foolish. Back Analyze Key Events The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next
  22. 22. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Chapters 15-16 To the Trenches: Ø  Henry’s regiment is ready to march. Henry realizes he still has Wilson’s yellow packet and plans to use it and Wilson’s confessions against Wilson. These items give Henry a superior sense of self, but then Wilson asks for the packet back, and Henry deems himself honorable for not holding it against Wilson. Henry decides to glorify himself because he saw war and now can mystify people back home with his stories. Ø  After marching to fight in the trenches, the men spend all day fighting and are tired and disheartened. They retreat to the woods and Henry denounces his superiors for being incompetent and causing them defeat. He’s paranoid that someone knows that he deserted the regiment and is sick of being shot at. When Wilson tries to console him, they argue and get yelled at by the Lieutenant. Chapters 17-18 Fighting In the Forest: Ø  Henry is outraged at the advancement of the enemy and makes threats against them. Wilson admits that if the enemy keeps coming, it is they who will be in trouble, not the enemy. Fighting begins and Henry turns into a fighting machine, not even stopping once they are no longer in danger. The other soldiers stare at him in exasperation, the lieutenant compliments him. Ø  There is a lull in the fighting, and the soldier Jimmie Rogers cries out in pain from his wounds. Wilson and Henry offer to fetch water for him but find no stream and, as they turn back, they come across a General who they overhear offering to send their regiment on a charge against the enemy, not expecting many of them to survive. Henry learns how insignificant his life is to this war. Back Analyze Key Events The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next
  23. 23. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Ø  The charge begins and Henry rushes forward, thinking it’s better to get this over with as soon as possible. The charge leaves a trail of bodies across the field and into the woods. The color Sergeant is shot and dies, Henry and Wilson pry the flag from his hands. Ø  The charge continues and there are confusing and conflicting orders. Henry and Wilson fight over the flag, but Henry gets the flag for himself. Henry is angry at the officer that sent them on the charge and urges his men to keep fighting, ending with a small victory. Ø  There is a lull in the shooting and the men are anxious as they return to the woods. They are greeted with mockery by another regiment who watched them charged and the General who sent them out said they didn’t even try. The Colonel says they did their best and the Lieutenant backs them up and says they did great. The men come to Henry and Wilson to tell them that they received praises from the Colonel and Lieutenant for fighting so well. Back Charge: Chapters 19-21 Analyze Key Events The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next
  24. 24. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Ø  As the enemy attacks again, Henry feels confident. It is chaos, and it is impossible to tell which side is winning. Henry is engrossed in the battle, not fighting back as a rebellion against the officer who called his regiment mule drivers and sent them on a charge. The Sergeant is shot in the face, but Wilson and the Lieutenant are unharmed. Ø  The Colonel orders the regiment to charge and Henry sees that it is the best way for them to survive. The others act similarly as they charge exhilarated and determined, closing in on the enemy. Henry lunges for the enemy flag and sees the bearer fighting to stay alive. Wilson captures the enemy flag and there are cheers. Four prisoners are captured and Henry and Wilson rest contentedly in the grass, each with a flag. Ø  The sounds of war become weaker, troops leave the battlefield and are ordered to retrace their path. They groan and complain but get up and move toward the river. Henry takes time to evaluate himself. He is gleeful with no regrets until he is haunted by the memory of his desertion and the tattered soldier. He becomes paranoid. Then he decides he ultimately acted as a man and looks toward tranquil skies. Back Victory: Chapters 22-24 Analyze Key Events The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next
  25. 25. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Summarize Click on your notes. Review the text you highlighted. Then write a summary of the key events in the book. Back The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students use their close reading of the text to summarize the key events.
  26. 26. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Analyze How the Author Develops Text: Scene 1 As he mused thus he heard the rustle of grass, and, upon turning his head, discovered the loud soldier. He called out, "Oh, Wilson!" The latter approached and looked down. "Why, hello, Henry; is it you? What are you doing here?" "Oh, thinking," said the youth. The other sat down and carefully lighted his pipe. "You're getting blue my boy. You're looking thundering peek-ed. What the dickens is wrong with you?" "Oh, nothing," said the youth. The loud soldier launched then into the subject of the anticipated fight. "Oh, we've got 'em now!" As he spoke his boyish face was wreathed in a gleeful smile, and his voice had an exultant ring. "We've got 'em now. At last, by the eternal thunders, we'll lick 'em good!" "If the truth was known," he added, more soberly, "they've licked US about every clip up to now; but this time—this time—we'll lick 'em good!" "I thought you was objecting to this march a little while ago," said the youth coldly. “Oh, it wasn't that," explained the other. "I don't mind marching, if there's going to be fighting at the end of it. What I hate is this getting moved here and moved there, with no good coming of it, as far as I can see, excepting sore feet and damned short rations." "Well, Jim Conklin says we'll get plenty of fighting this time.” "He's right for once, I guess, though I can't see how it come. This time we're in for a big battle, and we've got the best end of it, certain sure. Gee rod! how we will thump 'em!" He arose and began to pace to and fro excitedly. The thrill of his enthusiasm made him walk with an elastic step. He was sprightly, vigorous, fiery in his belief in success. He looked into the future with clear proud eye, and he swore with the air of an old soldier. The youth watched him for a moment in silence. When he finally spoke his voice was as bitter as dregs. "Oh, you're going to do great things, I s'pose!" The loud soldier blew a thoughtful cloud of smoke from his pipe. "Oh, I don't know," he remarked with dignity; "I don't know. I s'pose I'll do as well as the rest. I'm going to try like thunder." He evidently complimented himself upon the modesty of this statement. Read the passage involving the key characters Henry and Wilson on the eve of battle. Think about what is explicit and what is implied in the way Crane frames the dialogue and in the dialogue itself. Back The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students identify explicit and implicit effects of the author’s use of dialogue.
  27. 27. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out 1.  In paragraphs 3 and 5, Henry responds to Wilson’s first two questions briefly, beginning with “Oh” each time. What does that suggest to you about Henry at this moment? a.  He wants Wilson to leave him alone. b.  He wants to unburden himself to Wilson. c.  He is reluctant to talk about what’s wrong. d.  He is bored with Army life and has nothing to say. 2. In paragraph 6, why doesn’t Wilson try to draw Henry out if he thinks there’s something bothering his “peek-ed” friend? a.  He has gotten used to Henry’s moodiness. b.  He is too afraid to find out what’s wrong with Henry. c.  He accepts Henry’s explanation that nothing is wrong. d.  He is too insensitive and excited to care what’s wrong with Henry. 3. In paragraph 8, why does Henry bring up Wilson’s earlier complaints? a.  He wants to start a fight with Wilson. b.  He finds Wilson’s enthusiasm irritating. c.  He thinks Wilson’s confidence is insincere. d.  He wants to know why Wilson has changed his mind. 4. In paragraph 14, what does Crane suggest with the phrase “’thoughtful’ cloud of smoke”? a.  Crane wants to suggest that Wilson is not a thoughtful person. b.  Crane wants to suggest that men who smoke pipes are serious. c.  Crane wants to suggest that Henry thinks Wilson as pretentious. d.  Crane wants to suggest that smoke can have human characteristics. 5. In paragraph 17, what could Crane be showing the reader about Henry? a.  That Henry believes he’s a “good-a-'nough” man b.  That Henry assumes men must do “great things” in battle c.  That Henry knows a lot of men who deserted from the Army d.  That Henry wants to make Wilson more fearful of the coming fight Check Your Understanding Check AnswersBack The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next This quick quiz helps the teacher monitor student progress.
  28. 28. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out When the enemy seemed falling back before him and his fellows, he went instantly forward, like a dog who, seeing his foes lagging, turns and insists upon being pursued. And when he was compelled to retire again, he did it slowly, sullenly, taking steps of wrathful despair. Once he, in his intent hate, was almost alone, and was firing, when all those near him had ceased. He was so engrossed in his occupation that he was not aware of a lull. He was recalled by a hoarse laugh and a sentence that came to his ears in a voice of contempt and amazement. "Yeh infernal fool, don't yeh know enough t' quit when there ain't anything t' shoot at? Good Gawd!" He turned then and, pausing with his rifle thrown half into position, looked at the blue line of his comrades. During this moment of leisure they seemed all to be engaged in staring with astonishment at him. They had become spectators. Turning to the front again he saw, under the lifted smoke, a deserted ground. He looked bewildered for a moment. Then there appeared upon the glazed vacancy of his eyes a diamond point of intelligence. "Oh," he said, comprehending. He returned to his comrades and threw himself upon the ground. He sprawled like a man who had been thrashed. His flesh seemed strangely on fire, and the sounds of the battle continued in his ears. He groped blindly for his canteen. The lieutenant was crowing. He seemed drunk with fighting. He called out to the youth: "By heavens, if I had ten thousand wild cats like you I could tear th' stomach outa this war in less'n a week!" He puffed out his chest with large dignity as he said it. Some of the men muttered and looked at the youth in awestruck ways. It was plain that as he had gone on loading and firing and cursing without proper intermission, they had found time to regard him. And they now looked upon him as a war devil. The friend came staggering to him. There was some fright and dismay in his voice. "Are yeh all right, Fleming? Do yeh feel all right? There ain't nothin' th' matter with yeh, Henry, is there?" "No," said the youth with difficulty. His throat seemed full of knobs and burrs. These incidents made the youth ponder. It was revealed to him that he had been a barbarian, a beast. He had fought like a pagan who defends his religion. Regarding it, he saw that it was fine, wild, and, in some ways, easy. He had been a tremendous figure, no doubt. By this struggle he had overcome obstacles which he had admitted to be mountains. They had fallen like paper peaks, and he was now what he called a hero. And he had not been aware of the process. He had slept, and, awakening, found himself a knight. Back Read the text. Think about how the characters react to the battle. “He” in the text is Henry, the youth. Think about the language the author uses. Highlight text you might want to use in your final essay. Analyze How the Author Develops Text: Scene 2 The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students make inferences based on the author’s language choices.
  29. 29. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Check Your Understanding 1.  What does the word “lull” mean? a.  agitation b.  calm c.  confident d.  disconnect 2.  Which sentence best defines a “blue line”? a.  The Union soldiers wore blue uniforms. b.  The Confederate soldiers wore blue uniforms. c.  The soldiers appeared to be very sad. d.  The soldiers had formed in a large circle. 3.  Which character propels the action in the text? a.  the enemy b.  the lieutenant c.  his comrades d.  the youth 4.  What is another word for “crowing”? a.  singing b.  bragging c.  laughing d.  coughing 5.  Why does the youth refer to himself as a “knight”? a.  He has acted heroically. b.  He has defeated the enemy. c.  He had fought through the night. d.  He had saved his comrades during battle. Check AnswersBack The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Teachers use this quick quiz to monitor student skills in evaluating the author’s use of language.
  30. 30. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Read the text. Think about how Henry has changed. Highlight text you might want to use in your final essay. The colonel came running along the back of the line. There were other officers following him. "We must charge'm!" they shouted. "We must charge'm!" they cried with resentful voices, as if anticipating a rebellion against this plan by the men. The youth, upon hearing the shouts, began to study the distance between him and the enemy. He made vague calculations. He saw that to be firm soldiers they must go forward. It would be death to stay in the present place, and with all the circumstances to go backward would exalt too many others. Their hope was to push the galling foes away from the fence. He expected that his companions, weary and stiffened, would have to be driven to this assault, but as he turned toward them he perceived with a certain surprise that they were giving quick and unqualified expressions of assent. There was an ominous, clanging overture to the charge when the shafts of the bayonets rattled upon the rifle barrels. At the yelled words of command the soldiers sprang forward in eager leaps. There was new and unexpected force in the movement of the regiment. A knowledge of its faded and jaded condition made the charge appear like a paroxysm, a display of the strength that comes before a final feebleness. The men scampered in insane fever of haste, racing as if to achieve a sudden success before an exhilarating fluid should leave them. It was a blind and despairing rush by the collection of men in dusty and tattered blue, over a green sward and under a sapphire sky, toward a fence, dimly outlined in smoke, from behind which sputtered the fierce rifles of enemies. The youth kept the bright colors to the front. He was waving his free arm in furious circles, the while shrieking mad calls and appeals, urging on those that did not need to be urged, for it seemed that the mob of blue men hurling themselves on the dangerous group of rifles were again grown suddenly wild with an enthusiasm of unselfishness. From the many firings starting toward them, it looked as if they would merely succeed in making a great sprinkling of corpses on the grass between their former position and the fence. But they were in a state of frenzy, perhaps because of forgotten vanities, and it made an exhibition of sublime recklessness. There was no obvious questioning, nor figurings, nor diagrams. There was, apparently, no considered loopholes. It appeared that the swift wings of their desires would have shattered against the iron gates of the impossible. He himself felt the daring spirit of a savage, religion-mad. He was capable of profound sacrifices, a tremendous death. He had no time for dissections, but he knew that he thought of the bullets only as things that could prevent him from reaching the place of his endeavor. There were subtle flashings of joy within him that thus should be his mind. Back Analyze How the Author Develops Text: Scene 3 The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students use close reading to determine how the protagonist has changed.
  31. 31. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Check Your Understanding Drag and drop to the correct box the adjectives that describe Henry and his views and reactions to war at the beginning of the book and at the end. Henry at the Beginning of the Book Henry at the End of the Book scared courageous questioning proud dreamer heroic fearful angry romantic confident Back The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students use a simple drag-and-drop activity to synthesize their understanding of how the protagonist has evolved.
  32. 32. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage NotesLog Out Essay Write an essay on whether or not you think The Red Badge of Courage is a work of classic literature. Use text evidence from the book to support your claim and position. Revise your essay and complete the checklist. Then submit your essay. q  I know my audience. q  My position is clear. q  My position is supported by text evidence. q  I have proofed for grammar and spelling. q  My writing is logical and makes sense. q  I have made transitions so my writing flows. Back The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Next Students are now ready to write their report using the data and evidence they collected in their notes.
  33. 33. Exploring The Red Badge of Courage Log Out Congratulations!! You’ve completed the lesson. End of Lesson The Red Badge of Courage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 To prepare for the class discussion, students review the class results.

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