Vietnam ends


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Vietnam ends

  1. 1. QW 5-10-10 <ul><li>:Do you think a Military Draft is a good thing? Why or Why not? </li></ul>
  2. 2. 11 th Grade History Project <ul><li>Reminder: in your paper, I don’t want a biography about a person. I don’t want , “ Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929. He had six brothers and sisters. ” </li></ul><ul><li>The point of your paper, which you will explain throughout your paper, is WHY IS YOUR TOPIC IMPORTANT TO US HISTORY. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the paper, you will explain how your song relates to your topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Your Presentation Needs to Answer the Following Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Why/How did your person/event impact United States history? </li></ul><ul><li>2. How is your visual a representation of that event? </li></ul><ul><li>3. How is your song connected to that event? </li></ul>DUE 6-4-10!
  3. 3. Vietnam: The End
  4. 4. Credibility Gap <ul><li>When American troops first entered the Vietnam War, many Americans supported the military effort. </li></ul><ul><li>As the war drag on, public support decreased. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans began to question the government and believed a credibility gap had developed, making it difficult to believe what the Johnson administration said about the war. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 5 page in-class Essay <ul><li>Using Notes from your handout you must create a 5 page essay on the Vietnam War </li></ul><ul><li>Must cite your specific example </li></ul><ul><li>Must use both sides of the argument for being in the war </li></ul><ul><li>Take a stand on your view of the war </li></ul><ul><li>DUE IN 25 mins!!!!! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Protests on the War <ul><li>As casualties mounted in the war, public protest intensified and demanded the U.S. pull out of Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Although some American’s supported the war, it was the opponents of the conflict that gained the most attention </li></ul>
  7. 7. Protests on the War <ul><li>People who protested the war did so for different reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Some saw the conflict as a civil war the U.S. had no business being in </li></ul><ul><li>Others saw South Vietnam as a corrupt dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>Teach-in’s: began in March of 1965 when a group of faculty members and students abandoned their classes to informally discuss the war and the reasons why we were there </li></ul>
  8. 8. Anger over the Draft <ul><li>Young protestors focused on what they saw as a unfair draft system </li></ul><ul><li>At the beginning of the war college students were able to defer military service until after graduation </li></ul><ul><li>Thus low-income families were more likely to send boys to war instead of college </li></ul>
  9. 9. Draft Lottery
  10. 10. Anger over the Draft <ul><li>This meant minorities, particularly African Americans made up a large number of the soldiers in Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>The high number of African Americans and poor Americans dying in the war angered African American leaders like Martin Luther King </li></ul><ul><li>King waited until 1967 to speak out against the war not wanting do distract from the Civil Rights Movement </li></ul>
  11. 11. Anger over the Draft <ul><li>As the war escalated, American officials increased the draft call, putting many college students at risk </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 500,000 draftees refused to go. </li></ul><ul><li>Many burned their draft cards or simply did not report when called </li></ul><ul><li>Some fled to other countries, such as Canada, Sweden, </li></ul><ul><li>Other chose prison rather than fight </li></ul>
  12. 12. Protests of the War <ul><li>Demonstrators held public rallies and marches </li></ul><ul><li>Students for a Democratic Society SDS, organized a march on Washington D.C. which drew over 20,000 participants </li></ul><ul><li>Two years later a rally at Washington’s Lincoln Memorial drew tens of thousands </li></ul>
  13. 13. Draftable but can’t Vote? <ul><li>Anger over the draft also fueled discussions over the voting age. </li></ul><ul><li>Many draftees argued that if they were old enough to be drafted, they should be old enough to vote </li></ul><ul><li>In, 1971 the 26 th Amendment would pass, giving all citizens age 18 and older the right to vote </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hawks and Doves <ul><li>By 1968 the nation seemed to be divided into two camps: </li></ul><ul><li>those that opposed the war and wanted out of Vietnam were known as Doves </li></ul><ul><li>Those who insisted we stay and fight were known as hawks </li></ul><ul><li>(in a poll done in mid-1967 68% of American’s favored continuing the war) </li></ul>
  15. 15. 1968: The Pivotal Year <ul><li>The year 1968 began with a surprise attack by the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese army on numerous cities. </li></ul><ul><li>The simultaneous strikes, while ending in military defeat for the Communist guerillas, stunned the American public. </li></ul><ul><li>That same year Kennedy and MLK were assassinated </li></ul>
  16. 16. Tet Offensive <ul><li>Both sides agreed to a truce to celebrate the New Year. </li></ul><ul><li>Vietcong launched major attacks on over 100 cities and 12 U.S. air bases that lasted 1 month </li></ul><ul><li>Militarily it was a defeat for the Vietcong. Psychologically defeat for the US </li></ul><ul><li>The credibility gap increased as the US continued to lose. </li></ul>
  17. 29. Turning Point in the 60s <ul><li>After the Tet Offensive, support for the war decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson tells the nation that he will not run for re-election </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon wins the election, promises to end War </li></ul>
  18. 31. Nixon in the White House <ul><li>In 1969, Nixon announced the first U.S. troop withdrawals from Vietnam. However, as Nixon pulled out the troops, he continued the war against North Vietnam, a policy that some critics would charge prolonged the war for several more years… </li></ul>
  19. 32. Nixon <ul><li>Peace talks but no agreement who should rule Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamization - Nixon’s plan to end the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual withdrawal of US, S. Vietnam would take on more combat roles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Peace with Honor”-maintain US dignity during the withdrawal. </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon secretly ordered the bombing of Laos and Cambodia which held a number of Vietcong soldiers </li></ul>
  20. 33. Anti-War Feelings <ul><li>In 1969 Americans learned of a 1968 event that further increased their feelings that this was a senseless war. </li></ul><ul><li>My Lai Massacre - US troops were ordered to find Vietcong in the village. </li></ul><ul><li>No Vietcong were found, troops shot 504 innocent people. </li></ul>
  21. 35. Questions: The My Lai Massacre <ul><li>What difficulties did the US military face in Vietnam? </li></ul><ul><li>What two tactics used by the Vietcong seem to be most effective against the US? </li></ul><ul><li>What effect do these tactics have on the men of Charlie Company? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some injustices performed by the US military on the Vietnamese people? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was the occurrence at My Lai particularly bad? </li></ul><ul><li>2 paragraphs (five sentences each): Were the men of Charlie Company justified for how they acted at My Lai? Are they criminals, or victims of bad circumstances? Explain. </li></ul>PBS My Lai Massacre0:10:00 – 0:50:00
  22. 36. Counter Culture Go To Counter Cultuer PPT
  23. 37. QW 5-15-10 <ul><li>Do think that our current war in Iraq and Afghanistan has created a counter culture movement here in the U.S. against these wars? </li></ul>
  24. 38. Grade Level Project!!! <ul><li>I must have your song choice by 5-18, next Tuesday or I will take 10 points off of your final score!!! </li></ul><ul><li>If you are doing a PowerPoint and even if you are not save all of your files in a new folder! </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? SO WHAT? If you do not </li></ul><ul><li>an you import a song, but it is not </li></ul><ul><li>in the folder, it will NOT play when </li></ul><ul><li>you present, so just save EVERYTHING YOU IN ONE PLACE </li></ul>Project Due in 21 Days!
  25. 39. <ul><li>Nixon invades Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>College students protest and held the nations 1st general student strike. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 million students closed down 1,200 campuses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kent State-students protesting the war and entrance into Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>Guard sent in and killed 4 students </li></ul>Kent State
  26. 44. Pentagon Papers <ul><li>1970 Congress repealed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution due to Nixon’s escalation of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Pentagon Papers- Secret documents about the war. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmed the gov. lied about the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed plans to enter the war even though Johnson promised he would not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never a plan to end the war as long as the North persisted </li></ul></ul>
  27. 45. America Leaves in 1973 <ul><li>U.S. signed an “Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam” </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. to remove all troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North could leave troops already in South  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Vietnam would resume war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No provision for POWs or MIAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For America the war ends in 1973 </li></ul></ul>
  28. 47. Finally… a United Vietnam <ul><li>Two more years of fighting continued. </li></ul><ul><li>North attacks and defeats the South. South’s capital of Saigon is renamed Ho Chi Minh City </li></ul>
  29. 48. Impact <ul><li>Vietnam unified under Communism </li></ul><ul><li>3 million Vietnamese killed 58,000 Americans killed 300,000 wounded </li></ul><ul><li>$150 billions U.S. spend in funding the war </li></ul><ul><li>War changed attitudes about war </li></ul><ul><li>Draft was eliminated </li></ul>
  30. 50. Impact <ul><li>War Powers Act - president informs Congress in 48 hours if sent into hostile areas without declaration of war </li></ul><ul><li>May not stay for more than 90 days unless Congress approves   </li></ul><ul><li>This gave president a lot of military power (perhaps more than they should have) </li></ul><ul><li>2,583 American POWs / MIAs still unaccounted for today. </li></ul>
  31. 52. Lessons for Future Presidents <ul><li>Wars must be of short duration. </li></ul><ul><li>Wars must yield few American casualties. </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict media access to battlefields. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and maintain Congressional and public support. </li></ul><ul><li>Set clear, winnable goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Set deadline for troop withdrawals. </li></ul>