New approaches to civil rights


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New approaches to civil rights

  1. 1. Quick Write 5-20-10 <ul><li>Arizona is the first state to demand that immigrants meet federal requirements to carry identity documents legitimizing their presence on American soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe a state should have the right to do this? Or should this be a federal (national) issue? </li></ul>
  2. 2. New Approaches to Civil Rights
  3. 3. Affirmative Action <ul><li>Although most of the legal forms of racism and discrimination had been dismantled, many African Americans felt little difference in their daily lives </li></ul><ul><li>Most felt they still lacked access to good jobs and adequate schooling </li></ul><ul><li>As part of this movement they looked towards a new initiative, affirmative action </li></ul><ul><li>This called for companies and industries doing business with federal government to actively recruit African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Later this was expanded to include other minority groups and women </li></ul>
  4. 4. Affirmative Action <ul><li>Supporters argued that the policy that because so few companies had hired from these groups that there was little chance to develop necessary job skills </li></ul><ul><li>Critics of this considered this “reverse discrimination,” claiming that white workers were kept from jobs, promotions, and a place in schools because a number had been set aside for minorities or women </li></ul>
  5. 5. Equal Access to Education <ul><li>By the 1970’s African American leaders pushed harder for educational improvements </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1960’s many of the schools had remained segregated </li></ul><ul><li>So NAACP pushed for a new policy of “busing” or transporting children to outside of their neighborhood to go to school </li></ul>
  6. 6. White Flight <ul><li>Many whites responded to this by taking their kids out of public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 20,000 whites students left Boston’s public school system for private schools </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hispanic American’s Organize <ul><li>Hispanic American’s also worked for greater rights during this period </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1960’s about 3 million Hispanics lived in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanics came from countries like Cuba and Mexico to flee political regimes or to find better jobs </li></ul><ul><li>The largest group was Mexican Americans, many who arrived during WWII to work on the huge farms in the South and West </li></ul>Hispanic American’s Organize
  8. 8. Hispanic American’s Organize <ul><li>Many Hispanics would arrive illegally as well, crossing the U.S.-Mexican border with the help of “coyotes,” guides who charged huge sums of money for their services </li></ul><ul><li>Due to their lack of legal protection, many of these workers were exploited and forced in to poor working conditions and small pay </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cesar Chavez <ul><li>One of the biggest champions for the rights of farm workers is Cesar Chavez </li></ul><ul><li>He would organize strikes against California growers demanding union representation, increased wages, and better benefits </li></ul>
  10. 10. &quot;...there has to be someone who is willing to do it, who is willing to take whatever risks are required. I don't think it can be done with money alone. The person has to be dedicated to the task. There has to be some other motivation.“ - Cesar Chavez
  11. 11. Cesar Chavez <ul><li>When employers resisted, Chavez would enlist college students, churches, and civil rights groups to boycotts and other non-violent methods </li></ul><ul><li>especially table grapes, one of California’s largest agricultural products </li></ul><ul><li>Chavez would help create a new organization in support of the workers, the United Farm Workers, UFW </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cesar Chavez <ul><li>The strength of the new union helped to ensure boycotts would continue </li></ul><ul><li>The boycotts finally ended in 1970, when growers agreed to contract wages and improved working conditions </li></ul>
  13. 13. Growing Latin Political Activism <ul><li>Hispanic American’s became more politically active during the 1960’s and 1970’s </li></ul><ul><li>A new political part, La Raza, or the United People worked to organize Mexican American voters </li></ul><ul><li>Goal was to push for better job training programs and greater access to financial institutions. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Growing Latin Political Activism <ul><li>One issue both Hispanic students and political leaders promoted was bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>This was practice of teaching immigrant students in their own language while they learn English </li></ul><ul><li>Many Hispanics argued that they were at disadvantage with native English speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Congress supported their arguments and created the Bilingual Educational Act </li></ul>
  15. 15. Native Americans <ul><li>Native American’s in the 1970’s were one of America’s smallest minority groups, less than 1% </li></ul><ul><li>Protestors to Native American rights would create the Declaration of Indian Purpose, calling for policies to create greater economic opportunities on reservations </li></ul>
  16. 16. Native Americans <ul><li>AIM- American Indian Movement was organized in 1968 to fight high unemployment, inadequate housing, and racial discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>In a symbolic protest, AIM occupied the abandoned federal prison, Alcatraz </li></ul>
  17. 19. Native Americans <ul><li>Native American would fall short of achieving all of their goals, but did win some </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing funding for education, </li></ul><ul><li>Won better water and land rights through the federal court system </li></ul><ul><li>Through these protest many native American reservations have seen improvements </li></ul><ul><li>More recently, due to their sovereignty, the establishment of gambling casinos has led to a prosperous enterprises </li></ul>