Richard the Lionhearted left England to fight in the Crusades (Christians v. Muslims for control of the Holy Land). His people were very proud, but someone had to Myth and history are intertwined in the England of 800 years ago. We all remember the outlaw, Robin Hood. From his hideout in Sherwood Forest, he and his band of Merry Men preyed on the rich and gave to the poor. Their archenemy was the Sheriff of Nottingham, who took his orders from the sinister Prince John. While Robin Hood never existed, John certainly did. He was the central character in a real life drama that led to a milestone in human liberty: The Magna Carta.As we know from Disney: Richard the Lionhearted left England to fight in the Crusades (Christians v. Muslims for control of the Holy Land). His people were very proud, but someone had to run the country. His younger brother Prince John took the throne in his stead. Prince John loved fine things: good food, good wine, fine clothes, fine jewelry, and threw many, many parties. He was not as physically impressive as his brother and far from being as well-liked, so he hoped that these lavish parties would gain him friends from the upper class. Since he was paying for a war on top of all these extra expenses, he was severely draining the English treasury. And what’s the best way to make money for your country? TAXES! Is he going to tax the rich or the poor? Who does it make sense to tax? (Kids will say rich) Why? (Because they have money) That would make sense, but he taxed the poor instead. Any ideas why?(He didn’t want to lose the favor of the rich by taxing them) So, in comes Robin Hood to save the day and rob from the rich to give to the poor. Unfortunately, that’s a big, fat lie.The truth: Prince John's older brother, Richard, became king of England when their father, Henry II, died. King Richard I (also called Richard the Lionhearted) spent almost the entire 10 years of his reign away from England. He fought in tournaments, led crusades and waged several wars on the continent of Europe.Since Richard needed revenue to pay for his adventures, he taxed his subjects heavily. At one point Richard was captured by his enemies and held for ransom (a common practice in feudal Europe). Richard's tax collectors in England had to raise an enormous sum of money to free him. Despite Richard's demands, the people back home in England loved him as a conquering hero.When Richard died in 1199, John became King. Unlike his brother, John tended to stay at home and run his kingdom on a day to day basis. John, however, continued his brother's harsh tax policy. Because John lacked Richard's heroic image and charisma, his subjects began to hate him for his constant demands for more tax money. Fuming over John's heavy taxes and other abuses of power, his subjects plotted rebellion. A handful of rebel barons raised armies to fight against the king.
(Play song in iTunes)At some point, probably on June 19, King John put his seal on the final draft of what we call today “the Magna Carta" or "The Great Charter." In exchange, the rebellious barons renewed their oath of allegiance to King John, thus ending the immediate threat of civil war.In its original form Magna Carta consisted of 63 articles or chapters. Many concerned matters of feudal law that were important to the rebel barons, but are of little relevance to us today. (Have students try to figure out what each section means)Chapter 39 is the most important to us today:No free man shall be arrested or imprisoned or disseised [property taken] or outlawed or exiled or in any way victimized, neither will we attack him or send anyone to attack him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.Some have interpreted this provision to mean that Magna Carta guaranteed to free men the right to a trial by jury. However, the idea of a jury trial as we would recognize it today had not yet developed by 1215.Why is this important? (Show next slide of torture devices)The purpose of this chapter was to prevent King John from personally ordering the arrest and punishment of a free man without lawful judgment. According to Magna Carta, "lawful judgment" could only be made by judges ruled by "the law of the land," or by one's peers in a trial by combat.Magna Carta of 1215 was not really intended to be a list of rights for Englishmen or even the barons themselves. It was more like a contract in which John bound himself to abide by its provisions. The barons only wanted King John to satisfy their complaints against his abusive rule, not overthrow the monarchy. The real significance of this document lies in the basic idea that a ruler, just like everyone else, is subject to the rule of law. When King John agreed to Magna Carta, he admitted that the law was above the king's will, a revolutionary idea in 1215.
Democracy comes to england
Quick Write 8-25-10<br />What did Renaissance mean?<br />What was the purpose of the Reformation?<br />
The Magna Carta and Robin Hood<br />How fiction reflects real history<br />
Remember: Democracy had been developing<br />The Greeks had developed the initial roots of democracy<br />The Romans adapted it <br />Created a Republic<br />Judaism and Christianity spread the ideas of individual worth <br />It would be in England that democracy <br /> finally takes root!<br />
Reforms in Medieval England<br />1066, William of Normandy defeated the Anglo-Saxons<br />William then took the English throne<br />Results:<br />Ended feudalism & economic system of the Middle Ages<br />began centralized government in England<br />Henry II, one of William’s descendants, began developing democratic ideas in England<br />A little bit of democracy might be good.<br />
King Henry<br />His greatest achievement:<br />Created Juries and Common Law<br />What did that mean?<br />People were tried by a jury not a royal judge<br />Unified England under a “common Law” for the WHOLE kingdom <br />
Juries & Common law<br />OLD WAY<br />In the past, people were tried in Feudal <br /> courts<br /> or sent to a duel <br /> or physically painful dangerous acts to survive<br />Henry’s new innovation led to a royal judge and 12 men asking questions of the accused<br />Most people found this more just <br />Common Law: reflected customs and principals established over time<br />NEW WAY<br />
Background:<br />King Richard the Lionhearted<br />Prince John, later king<br />Not so popular<br />Taxes<br />Tax the poor<br />Tax the rich<br />
Democracy Develops in England<br /><ul><li>In 1215 angry nobles rebelled against the king and forced him to grant guarantees of certain traditional and political rights.
They presented these demands in the Magna Carta.</li></li></ul><li>Magna Carta<br /><ul><li>Respect for individual rights and liberties
Due process of law-King could not unrightfully punish his subjects
King could not levy taxes without the consent of Parliament
Magna Carta was significant because it limited the power of the monarch (King/Queen)</li></li></ul><li>England’s Parliament<br />The Magna Carta:<br />Cost monarchs absolute power <br />protect the rights and liberties <br />creating a Parliament<br />Parliament: <br />England’s national legislature<br />House of Commons: Knights and Burgesses<br />House of Lords: Nobles and Bishops<br />Absolute Power is no more!<br />
Glorious Revolution<br />In 1689 people were unhappy with King James <br />his disregard for Parliament and being Catholic<br />Afraid of a Catholic Dynasty<br />Citizens forced him out of Power, replaced him with his protestant daughter, Mary<br />
Glorious Revolution<br />Before assuming the throne the new Queen and her husband had to swear acceptance of the English Bill of Rights. <br />This change in power came to be known as the Glorious Revolution.<br />
Glorious Revolution<br />Monarch’s power was now restricted by the constitution and the laws of the country<br />Rights and liberties were essential to people<br />This Glorious Revolution left an important legacy. It suggested there were times when Revolution was justified.<br />
QUIZ ON DEMOCRACY SO FAR…ARE YOU ON TARGET?<br />Take out a separate sheet of paper. <br />Put your name on the top<br />Label “Democracy Quiz”<br />Number 1-8<br />You only need about a half sheet<br />
Glorious Revolution</li></ul>Use the words above to answer the questions below<br />Ruled by a small group of wealthy people<br />Taught through question-answer<br />Citizens control the state directly by voting<br />Limited the power of the king<br />Not one of the major monotheistic religions<br />Basis of the legal system that unified England<br />Government developed by Romans, that elected officials<br />Felt people should be rule by philosopher kings<br />
Your Assignment<br />You will be creating a chart to demonstrate the change in powers and control by a king.<br />You will show and describe a king’s rule in absolute power.<br />You will show and describe a king’s rule after the Magna Carta take affect.<br />You will show and describe the increased control of parliament and the overthrown king<br />You will show and describe the effects of the Glorious Revolution and the English Bill of Rights<br />