Day 2 Cold War Competition


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  • The Soviet Union suffered an estimated 25 million WWII deaths, half of whom were civilian As a result they felt justified in their claim to Eastern Europe Furthermore, they felt they needed Eastern Europe as a buffer against future German aggression
  • the FBI along with British intelligence began questioning Fuchs in 1949. He ultimately confessed and was convicted of espionage in a two-day trial. He spent fourteen years in Wormwood Scrubbs prison. After his release, he moved to East Germany.
  • Day 2 Cold War Competition

    1. 1. What are some ways that countries compete with each other? Unit: The Cold War Cold War Competition
    2. 2. Cold War Competition
    3. 3. <ul><li>Harry Truman Joseph Stalin </li></ul>The Cold War rivalry between the two superpower unfolded into multiple arenas: military, espionage, sports industrial, and technological developments Cold War Competition
    4. 4. <ul><li>World’s Nations grouped politically into 3 groups: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Industrialized </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalist nations </li></ul><ul><li>2. Communist nations </li></ul><ul><li>3. Developing </li></ul><ul><li>nations-not aligned with the first two </li></ul>Setting the Stage
    5. 5. <ul><li>The U.S. and Russia used variety of techniques to gain influence around the world </li></ul><ul><li>CIA and KGB used covert secret activities such as spying and assassination attempts as well as gave aid and helped develop nations </li></ul>Cold War Strategies
    6. 6. <ul><li>Foreign Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>Espionage </li></ul><ul><li>Brinkmanship </li></ul><ul><li>Multinational Alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Proxy Wars </li></ul>Major Strategies
    7. 7. <ul><li>1948- Berlin Airlift </li></ul><ul><li>1949- China </li></ul><ul><li>1950- Korean War </li></ul><ul><li>1951- Arms Race </li></ul><ul><li>1957-Space Race </li></ul><ul><li>1959- Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>1960- U-2 Spy Plane </li></ul><ul><li>1961- Berlin Wall </li></ul><ul><li>1964- Vietnam War </li></ul>Major Events of the Cold War
    8. 8. <ul><li>Stalin installed “satellite” communist governments in the Eastern European countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and East Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of Stalin’s influence in these regions Europe countries were caught in a tug of war between democracy and communism </li></ul>In a 1946 speech, Stalin said communism and capitalism were incompatible – and another war was inevitable Competition: Influence in Europe
    9. 9. <ul><li>NATO </li></ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact </li></ul>Two sides of Cold War
    10. 10. <ul><li>What was the goal of NATO? </li></ul>Checking for Understanding <ul><li>To stop the spread of communism </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Berlin Airlift </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union blocked access to West Berlin hoping to force West Berlin to become Communist. </li></ul><ul><li>The Airlift was an issue of American integrity and an exercise of it's Airforce might. The Airlift helped solidify America as an emerging super power in the 1940's. </li></ul>Competition: Who gets Berlin?
    12. 12. <ul><li>Soviet-Communist ideology inspired China, Communist forces and Nationalist forces had been battling since the late 1920s, led by Mao. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States was backing the Nationalist forces. </li></ul><ul><li>The two had stopped their war during World War II in an effort to resist Japanese occupation. With the end of World War II, civil war broke out again. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nationalists were defeated causing the United States to stop sending aid. In October 1949, Communists set up the People’s Republic of China. </li></ul>Competition: Influence in China
    13. 13. Competition: Influence in Korea
    14. 14. Where is Korea?
    15. 15. <ul><li>Keeping in line with Truman’s Doctrine of Containment, Korea split at the 38 th Parallel with a Communist North and a Democratic South. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1949, the Soviet Union had withdrawn from North Korea, but had generously supplied the North Korean army with tanks, airplanes, and MONEY, encouraging them to take over South Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>The Russian hope… The U.S. won’t defend the South Koreans. (They were wrong) </li></ul>Containment USSR- Stalin China- Mao N. Korea-Il Sung http:// /
    16. 16. <ul><li>On June 25, North Korean communist forces cross the 38th parallel and invade South Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>On June 27, Truman orders U.S. forces to assist the South Koreans while the U.N. Security Council condemns the invasion </li></ul><ul><li>On Sept.15 1950, MacArthur ordered a daring invasion behind enemy lines </li></ul>Korean War 1950-1953
    17. 17. <ul><li>China, feeling threatened, sends over a huge army (about 300,000 men) greatly outnumbering the United States and United Nation forces. </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur’s idea… Nuclear weapons on the Chinese armies. </li></ul><ul><li>Truman says NO! </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think he would say no? </li></ul>China Enters the War No one embarrasses me!!
    18. 18. <ul><li>MacArthur doesn’t like being told no. He goes to Congress and the press to try to win support for his strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the big problem here? </li></ul><ul><li>Just one problem… He forgot </li></ul><ul><li>who his boss was. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think is going to happen to MacArthur? </li></ul>You better check yourself! Wipe that smile off your face! Have you forgotten who I am?
    19. 19. You're FIRED!
    20. 20. <ul><li>Stalemate ensues for the next 2 years. </li></ul><ul><li>After 5 million soldiers and civilians are dead, at the peace table the boundary lines were set almost where the war started. </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower hinted about possibly using a Nuclear attack– China and Korea were scared ( brinkmanship ) </li></ul><ul><li>In July of 1953, an armistice (cease fire) was signed. </li></ul><ul><li>Today Korea is still divided at the 38 th parallel with communist N. Korea and a democratic S. Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States still maintains an army of 40,000 to this day in South Korea to keep the peace. </li></ul>Korean War Ends
    21. 21. <ul><li>What was a cause of the Korean War? </li></ul>Checking for Understanding <ul><li>Communist North Korea (backed by USSR) invade South Korea </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Why was MacArthur fired? </li></ul>Checking for Understanding <ul><li>For subordination, not listening to the President (Truman) </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>What is brinkmanship? </li></ul>Checking for Understanding <ul><li>The willingness to go to the brink of war to force an opponent to back down </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Soviets tested their first atomic bomb in 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>US Test the new more powerful H-Bomb in 1952 </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets Test their own H-Bomb 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>The Competition continued… </li></ul><ul><li>The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States allies, the Soviet Army and their respective allies during the Cold War. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Cold War, in addition to the American and Soviet nuclear stockpiles, other countries also developed nuclear weapons </li></ul>Competition: Arms Race
    25. 25. <ul><li>4 major types of </li></ul><ul><li>nuclear testing: </li></ul><ul><li>1. atmospheric, </li></ul><ul><li>2. underground, </li></ul><ul><li>3.exoatmospheric </li></ul><ul><li>4. underwater. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Nuclear Missiles!
    27. 27. <ul><li>Less money $ a large army </li></ul><ul><li>More money for atomic weapons of all kinds. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1,000 to18,000 bombs by 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting small wars to stop the spread of Communism were too expensive (like Korea) </li></ul><ul><li>Instead threaten to use nuclear weapons, this policy is called Massive Retaliation </li></ul>&quot;More BANG for the Buck&quot; Massive Retaliation
    28. 28. <ul><li>What is the idea behind “More BANG for your Buck”? </li></ul>Checking for Understanding <ul><li>Less money $ a large army </li></ul><ul><li>More money for atomic weapons </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>What is Massive Retaliation? </li></ul>Checking for Understanding Threatening to use nuclear weapons to get our way
    30. 30. <ul><li>The competition of space exploration between the Soviet Union and the US </li></ul>The Space Race was used by government leaders to instill hope in the future of their country for their people Competition: Space Race
    31. 31. 1957 Sputnik – 1st Satellite October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first rocket to reach space from Kazakhstan. It was the first satellite that orbited the earth .
    32. 32. <ul><li>To counter this, the United States Government established the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) on July 29, 1958 </li></ul>We feel stupid!
    33. 33. <ul><li>The wound deepened when the United States' tried to impress the world with a rocket called Vanguard </li></ul><ul><li>Vanguard exploded on the launch pad, while the entire world was watching </li></ul>http:// = MxWxjFCqUzE
    34. 34. <ul><li>Score: </li></ul><ul><li>One for </li></ul><ul><li>the </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets </li></ul>First man in space
    35. 35. <ul><li>USA spent the 60s trying to catch up to the Soviets. </li></ul>
    36. 36. 1969- Armstrong lands on moon! Conspiracy? ...but what if we never really made it?
    37. 37. QW 3-8-10 <ul><li>Answer the following review questions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Why was Douglas MacArthur fired? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What was goal of NATO? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What 3 groups did nations become divided into during the Cold War? </li></ul>
    38. 38. Asking the question: What if…? <ul><li>There was enormous pressure to catch the Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>What if the moon landing could be faked? </li></ul><ul><li>Would people really question such a miraculous achievement? </li></ul><ul><li>It would once and for all show that the US had not only caught up to the Soviets, but passed them… </li></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>1963 – longest space flight so far – 98hours – Gemini 4 </li></ul><ul><li>1966 – first orbital docking of 2 spacecrafts in space </li></ul><ul><li>May 1969 – first spacecraft to leave earth’s orbit – Apollo 10 </li></ul><ul><li>July 1969 – first moon landing – Apollo 11 – Neil Armstrong </li></ul><ul><li>1957 – First satellite in space – Sputnik </li></ul><ul><li>1957 – First animal (dog) in space </li></ul><ul><li>1961 – First human in space – Yuri Gagarin </li></ul><ul><li>1962 – the woman in space – Valentina Tereshkova </li></ul><ul><li>1962 – first space walk – Alexi Leonov </li></ul>United States Soviet Union Major &quot;Wins&quot; of the Space Race
    40. 40. <ul><li>It ended in 1975 when a US spacecraft docked with a Soviet spacecraft and the astronauts and cosmonauts aboard met each other in space and exchanged flags and gifts </li></ul>Space Race Ended
    41. 41. <ul><li>Why was Sputnik a wake up call to the United States? </li></ul>Checking for Understanding <ul><li>that the U.S. was falling behind the Soviet Union in missile/space technology. </li></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>In 1959 Cuba turned to communism which was supported by the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Bay of Pigs: In 1961 under Kennedy CIA trained anti-Castro Cuban exiles and invaded Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Goal was to over throw Castro </li></ul><ul><li>We failed! </li></ul>Competition: Cuba You can’t touch me
    43. 43. Cold War Competition2 Part 2
    44. 44. <ul><li>The U.S. failed Bay of Pigs invasion led Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev to believe expansion in Latin America would be easy </li></ul><ul><li>1962 secretly built 42 missiles in Cuba </li></ul>Competition: Cuban Missille Crisis
    45. 46. <ul><li>President Kennedy’s demand for the removal of the missiles put the U.S. and U.S.S.R. on a collision course </li></ul><ul><li>World feared nuclear war </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles if U.S. would not invade Cuba </li></ul>Lets Make a Deal Don’t invade
    46. 47. <ul><li>What was the goal of Bay of Pigs? </li></ul>Checking for Understanding <ul><li>To over throw Castro and eliminate communism from Cuba </li></ul>
    47. 48. <ul><li>Why was the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 was significant? </li></ul>Checking for Understanding <ul><li>it was the closest the U.S. and Soviet Union ever came to nuclear warfare. </li></ul>
    48. 49. Competition: Espionage <ul><li>Distrust of one another led to espionage (spying) </li></ul><ul><li>During WWII Stalin acquired top secret information concerning the development of the Atomic Bomb at Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Soviets has a spy working covertly inside the laboratories. </li></ul><ul><li>FBI along with British intelligence began questioning Fuchs in 1949. He ultimately confessed and was convicted of espionage in a two-day trial. He spent fourteen years in prison. After his release, he moved to East Germany. </li></ul>
    49. 50. <ul><li>U-2 Affair </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War tensions increased when in 1960 the USSR shot down a US spy plane over Russia </li></ul><ul><li>At first, the United States government denied everything </li></ul><ul><li>US was forced to admit when the USSR produced its remains (largely intact) and surviving pilot </li></ul>Competition: Espionage
    50. 51. <ul><li>Why was the U2 Affair an embarrassment? </li></ul>Checking for Understanding <ul><li>We denied spying on the USSR yet they had our pilot alive as proof </li></ul>
    51. 52. <ul><li>The Berlin Wall was erected in the night of August 13, 1961. To keep East Germans in. </li></ul><ul><li>If communism was so great why did so many East Germans try to flee </li></ul>WEST: Prosperous, helped by US, attracted people from the East. Seen by USSR as infection in the heart of Communist East Germany. EAST: Much less prosperous and under Communist control Berlin Wall
    52. 53. Built in 1961
    53. 54. Berlin Wall
    54. 55. Berlin Wall
    55. 57. <ul><li>Barbed wire fence 6 feet high </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced with concrete blocks </li></ul><ul><li>6ft high and 66 miles long </li></ul>1st Stage
    56. 58. <ul><li>1962- a second fence was added, parallel to the first one </li></ul><ul><li>Area 100 yards further in </li></ul><ul><li>“Death Strip”- Area between the 2 strips </li></ul>2nd Stage
    57. 59. <ul><li>1965- Concrete slabs between steel </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete Sewage pipe on top </li></ul>3rd Stage
    58. 60. <ul><li>1975 new concrete segments </li></ul><ul><li>4.5 feet wide </li></ul><ul><li>12 feet high </li></ul>4th Stage
    59. 61. Berlin opens in 1989 Wall torn down 1990
    60. 62. Berlin Wall Today
    61. 65. <ul><li>The tearing down of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 are two events that signaled the end of what? </li></ul>Checking for Understanding <ul><li>The End of the Cold War </li></ul>
    62. 66. <ul><li>The Communist North Vietnamese threw out the French in 1954 </li></ul><ul><li>The United States was heavily supporting the French and President Eisenhower was worried if one fell they all would </li></ul><ul><li>Stated in the Truman Doctrine, the United States would have to step in here. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This was our major justification for U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1965, we have 185,000 troops in Vietnam under President Johnson. </li></ul><ul><li>The last U.S. forces left in 1973 with nothing to show for it and within two years, Communists overran South Vietnam. </li></ul>My Doctrine to the RESCUE! Competition: Influence in Vietnam
    63. 67. <ul><li>What did the Truman Doctrine pledge to do? </li></ul>Checking for Understanding <ul><li>Aid any country threatened by communist aggression </li></ul>
    64. 68. <ul><li>the Olympic Games have strived to represent the highest ideals of sport as diplomacy—the power of friendly competition to transcend world politics. </li></ul><ul><li>But during the Cold War the Olympics were a symbol of which nation was superior </li></ul><ul><li>plus it was an arena to make a political statement </li></ul>Competition: Olypmics
    65. 69. <ul><li>Due to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, President Jimmy Carter announced that the United States would boycott the 1980 Moscow Summer Games </li></ul>Competition: Olypmics
    66. 70. <ul><li>The 1980 boycott set the stage for the Soviet Union and its satellite states to hold their own boycott of the 1984 Los Angles Summer Games </li></ul>Competition: Olypmics
    67. 71. <ul><li>1980 Olympic Games in New York was a major accomplishment for the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>We were the underdog men's hockey team, facing off against the highly favored Soviet Squad. </li></ul><ul><li>After being badly beaten by the Soviets 10–3 in a pre-Olympic exhibition game, the U.S. team came back and beat the mighty Russians, going on to win the gold medal. </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;Miracle on Ice&quot; became much more than a game in America. It was a jolt of national pride and proof to many American's that a democratic society could produce better players than the athlete &quot;factory&quot; of the state-sponsored communist system. </li></ul>Miracle on Ice
    68. 72. <ul><li>How were the Olympics viewed by the Soviet Union and the United States? </li></ul>Checking for Understanding <ul><li>during the Cold War the Olympics were a symbol of which nation was superior plus it was an arena to make a political statements </li></ul>
    69. 73. <ul><li>The United States and Soviet Union continued to compete with one another in multiple areas to prove their dominance in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>As we will learn later, communism in the Soviet Union eventually collapsed in 1991. </li></ul>Competition Continues
    70. 74. Chipmunks and the Cold War