LEEDing the Way

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A White Paper that I created for my ENGL 420 class at Purdue University.

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LEEDing the Way

  1. 1.     Creating A Sustainable   Purdue University LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  1    
  2. 2. 2 Executive Summary A ccording to new research done by the American College and University President’s Climate Commitment group, colleges are saving green by going green. Higher educational institutions are saving money, greenhouse gases, as well as the environment. With the implementation of more green initiatives, research shows that “universities could save 16 percent of their energy costs - or $352,000 – if they took full advantage of all available energy-saving opportunities” (Bradley, 2009). Because of the new going green campaign, the push for more environmental friendly ways is taking the nation by storm. Even President Obama and his administration are showing their support for this green campaign by pledging to spend $150 billion over the next five years for green technology (Bradley, 2009). Many universities are jumping on board for the go green campaign by using more environmental friendly resources for academic work, establishing green student organizations, and using alternative green energy sources. Some universities are even taking the next step by becoming LEED certified in their existing buildings. Even Purdue University is joining this green campaign. According to Purdue Provost Timothy Sands, “Going green is not a fashion statement - it is becoming an imperative.” This White Paper will look at the various ways of going green and how they are actively benefiting the environment, as well as demonstrating how different universities are utilizing these green initiatives. We are also going to look at the ways Purdue University is going green and how they can take the next step by becoming LEED certified. Through our paper we hope to inspire all that read it to help their universities to become more environmental friendly and take the next step of action by retrofitting their existing buildings to become LEED certified. “Going green is not a fashion statement - it is becoming an imperative.” -Provost Sands, Purdue   University   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  2    
  3. 3. IntroductionM any scientists consider the climate change as the one of the most severe threats to sustainability. In recent history, the environmental issues that face our country have been on all of the scientist’s minds. As the Union of Concerned Scientists emphasizes,few issues pose more threat than rapidly accumulating carbon emissions and its effects.According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “there is a greater than 90percent chance that most of the warming we have experienced since 1950s is due to the increasein greenhouse gas emissions from human activities”(IPCC, 2007). The climate change will notonly influence air, land and oceans, but all the human beings on Earth. That is why there is anincrease in desire among university officials and students to create a campus that isenvironmental friendly. Universities are bringing about the leaders of today and the officials thatcan help solve these environmental problems. Since sustainability is agrowing concern on college campuses around the globe, many universitieshave implemented many different and effective green initiatives. Manycampuses around the United State have developed sustainability strategicprograms in order to take action for the improvement of the environmentin the short run and set goals for the future. Most of the green initiativesmight not have any noticeable effect now; instead they are set forsustainability of the future generations.Green building is one of the major ways campuses can add to differentgreen initiatives for better sustainability. This includes changing how campuses are built andoperated. In recent past, green college buildings have been built around the U.S. For thepurpose of compliance to standards, many college campuses are using USGBCs’ LEEDstandards for constructing new buildings and retrofitting old buildings. Following LEED’sguideline colleges can not only improve their water and energy efficiency and indoor air quality,but they can also raise awareness and bring knowledge to others. According to USGBC, collegesand universities have the highest percentage of LEED-certified green space than any other sector.LEED certified schools save an average of 30 percent of energy and water usage byimplementing these LEED standards. (USGBC).With more universities and colleges achieving LEED certification, they are not only bettering theenvironment, but they are saving themselves energy and money by implementing thesestandards.           LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  3    
  4. 4. History of Green Buildingin AmericaG reen building has been around in the U.S. since the American Institute of Architects (AIA) formed the Committee on the Environment in 1989. Three years later the Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy founded theENERGY STAR program. The roots for green building in America had been planted and werepoised to grow in the years to come. The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) was founded in 1993 asa non-profit community of leaders with a focus on raising awareness andavailability of green buildings within one generation. The USGBC’smission is “to transform the way buildings and communities are designed,built, and operated, enabling an environmentally and socially responsible,healthy, and prosperous environment that improves the quality of life”.LEED is the by-product of the USGBC and is the standardized system usedto score a green building. Purdue University currently has one LEED certified building, theRoger B. Gatewood Wing of Mechanical Engineering. The Roger B. Gatewood Wing earnedLEED Gold certification. Rick Federizzi, USGBC president and CEO, stated, “LEEDcertification identifies the Roger B. Gatewood Wing of Mechanical Engineering as a pioneeringexample of sustainable design and demonstrates Purdues leadership in transforming the buildingindustry” (Austin). Purdue wants to be a leader in green building and sustainability. In 2007, fourprofessionals in Physical Facilities at Purdue attained accreditation in new construction andmajor renovation for LEED (4 Complete). The training of faculty and the Roger B. GatewoodWing show Purdue University’s commitment to being a leader for universities across the countryin green building and sustainability in the future.         LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  4    
  5. 5. Water SustainabilityA n important green issue that Many universities might wonder how universities should focus on is exactly “going green” from a water- water efficiency and sustainability. efficiency standpoint can be done, especiallyWater is not only one of the world’s most if campus buildings were established manyprecious resources, but also one that is years ago. The answer is actually quiterapidly and wastefully being used. In fact, simple and many suggestions are relativelyover 5 billion gallons of potable water, cost-friendly.which is water that is safe for humandrinking, is flushed away as toilet water One way that many universities areevery day (Ried, 2008, p. 4). Why is this becoming more water-efficient is byimportant? Potable water, which is not only replacing or retrofitting bathrooms inneeded for human consumption, but also for campus buildings and residence halls. Likelysanitation and industrial purposes, only the most important and water-wastingaccounts for 2.5% of the world’s total water fixture in a bathroom is the toilet andsupply with only one third of that amount various options can be considered to “gobeing accessible to humans through various green” in this area:bodies of water, such as lakes, rivers, and • Toilets that are installed in olderstreams (Starr &Nicolow, 2007, p. 1). buildings on campus generally useBecause water is such a valuable resource to about 3.5 gallons per flush (Allianceall living things, it may come as no surprise for Water Efficiency, 2010). Tothen that the demand of potable water is contrast, by updating these toilets topredicted to double over the coming 30 newer models, only 1.28-1.6 gallonsyears, leaving many water resources of water will be used per flush,exhausted and potentially depleted (Starr which ultimately saves a great deal&Nicolow, 2007, p.1). This brings us to the of water over time (Alliance forrole of universities, whose platforms are far- Water Efficiency, 2010).reaching and impactful. Not only is water- • Statistics show that conventionalefficiency a way for universities to become toilets waste more water than urinalseco-friendly, but it is also a way for the and by having predominantly urinalsschool to be recognized for higher in male bathrooms, water can beenvironmental values, to educate its students saved by more than two timeson the importance of keeping the planet (Alliance for Water Efficiency,healthy, and to save expenditures in the long 2010).run.   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  5    
  6. 6. • Ultra-low-flush toilets and urinals • Some universities believe that having are also options for redesigned sensor flushers is a water-saving bathrooms. Due to the reduced time strategy, however these sensors tend of flushing, the consumption of to set off the flusher more often than water is also reduced (McCowan& needed, thus this strategy may be a Rogers, 2012, p. 53). detriment to water-efficiency (Alliance for Water Efficiency, 2010). Another way that many universities have been going green in terms of water waste is by taking a closer look at shower and faucet water pressure levels. According to the Energy Policy Act of 1995, the flow rate of a showerhead is not to exceed 2.5 gallons per minute, however due to personal preference and the impossibility of completely enforcing this regulation, many showers do not meet this standard (Alliance for Water Efficiency, 2010). Many showers Saving water with dual-flush in campus residence halls still use toilets. showerheads that allow nearly 5 gallons of Source: Harvard Law School. Retrieved March water to be used per minute, and if the 5, 2012. average shower is 10 minutes long, that http://www.law.harvard.edu/about/administration /facilities/energy/green-buildings-at-hls.html totals up to 50 gallons of water used on one shower for one person (Alliance for Water • Another toilet model option is to Efficiency, 2010). To cut down on the water install dual flushers that indicate usage, options are available for different different methods and water use for preferences: solid waste and liquid waste. Using this model for a solid waste flush • Showerheads should be replaced in would only use 1.6 gallons of water every residence hall to lower the and a liquid waste flush would water pressure levels. There are require an even smaller amount of showerheads that can be purchased water at around 1 gallon (Alliance in bulk for as little as $5 that still for Water Efficiency, 2010). deliver an enjoyable showering • Waterless urinals are also important experience without wasting water to consider, for virtually no water is (Alliance for Water Efficiency, required for these fixtures 2010). (McCowan & Rogers, 2012, p. 53). • Installing group showers in the residence halls are statistically   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  6    
  7. 7. shown to have people shower for (Alliance for Water Efficiency, less time than individual shower 2010). For landscape irrigation, it stalls, thus decreasing water usage would be smart to collect rainwater (Alliance for Water Efficiency, solely for irrigation purposes, 2010). especially since much of irrigation • No matter which style of design is water in college communities can be used, every showerhead should be considered potable, which is a cleaned thoroughly, so as no necessity to retain (McCowan & blockages can be present, thus Rogers, 2012, p. 52). unnecessarily increasing the water supply (McCowan& Rogers, 2012, p. 54). Faucets can also be addressed in a similar Aerators, suchfashion, whereas the average use of a faucet as this one,is between 5 and 30 seconds. To easily incorporate airensure better water efficiency: into the water • All older faucets should be flow, which reduces water retrofitted to have conserving usage up to aerators that limit the water flow 75%. (Alliance for Water Efficiency, Source: Blair 2010). The cost of conserving Chancy. Retrieved aerators typical runs less than $1 per March 5, 2012. http://www2.- faucet, but can reduce gallons of watersource.pdf water used to only 1 gallon per   minute. Being water efficient indoors has a direct Consider this. If irrigation water wouldcorrelation with being water efficient not come from potable water, it wouldoutside, for lower water consumption in come next from water supplies likeinside spaces naturally reduces the amount nearby lakes and rivers, yet theseof water pumped through outdoor spaces sources can be easily drained, therefore(McCowan & Rogers, 2012, p. 53). rainwater is a fantastic supplementLandscaping projects and redesigns can be (McCowan & Rogers, 2012, p. 52).an overlooked part of an eco-friendly Consider planting foliage on campuscampus campaign, yet the changes can cut grounds that is generally self-sustainingwater usage and increase conservation. To and that does not require extremeutilize outdoor water in an effective way: amounts of water. • Reclaimed rain water and use it for landscape irrigation or toilet water   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  7    
  8. 8. Universities Around the NationMany of these examples have actually beenput to use, like at Brown University, whereuniversity officials have installed water-efficient programs such as dual-flushingtoilets and vegetated roofs for managingexcess storm water (SustainableEndowments Institute, 2011). In the Tray -less dining, as seen here at the UniversityMidwest, University of Wisconsin-Madison of Michigan, will be coming to Purdue towas given a grade “A” by the College eliminate water waste.Sustainability Report Card because ofapplying these practices as well. Their water Source: University of Michigan. (2011). Coming Soon: Trayless dining in University of Michigan dorm cafeterias.sustainability programs include weather- Retrieved March 7, 2012 from http://www.annarbor.com/cgi-based irrigation systems and laundry bin/mt/mt- search.cgi?search=University%20of%20Michigan&__modservices that are high efficient in terms ofwater consumption (SustainableEndowments Institute, 2011). In fact, since • Created a rain garden behind the2005 these campus structural changes have Hillel House on campus, whichdecreased water usage per capita by 29%. serves to decrease pollution in local bodies of water and increase   absorption of excess runoff water (Sustainable Endowments Institute, Purdue University’s Solution to 2011). Water Sustainability Campus buildings and residence halls are allAs for Purdue University, many of the equipped with individual meters and low-water-saving strategies described previously flow showers and faucets, yet no formalare being implemented. To date, Purdue green policy has been set up by universityUniversity has a very driven student-run officials (Sustainable Endowments Institute,group known as the Boiler Green Initiative 2011). To account for any access rainwaterwho has implemented many water efficient and reduce runoff, Purdue also has installedstrategies on campus. Boiler Green Initiative (Sustainable Endowments Institute, 2011):has: • Living roofs • Pushed to have all dining courts • Retention ponds operate without the use of trays, • Porous pavement which would eliminate extra water use for washing (Sustainable All of aspects of Purdue University’s Endowments Institute, 2011). attempts at going green are great strides in   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  8    
  9. 9. an eco-friendly direction, however more should be done. The Cycle and Purpose of a Rain Garden. Source: Boiler Green Initiative. Retrieved March 5, 2012. http://www.boilergreen.com/committees/stormwaterTaking the Next Step The first two of these five points can be granted through creating a landscape that isAs a leading university in engineering and more suitable for water-efficiency. This cantechnology, Purdue University should set be done by minimizing campus grassy areashigher standards for green efforts and strive that require extreme watering and choosingfor LEED certification. While the university plants that are more climate-appropriate forscored a B- on their last report from the Purdue’s weather (Starr &Nicolow, 2007,Sustainable Endowments Institute, it is clear p.1). Irrigation sources are also important tothat more action must be taken to prove consider for LEED certification, andPurdue’s environmental integrity and collecting rainwater through onsite cisternsleadership. From the LEED rating system, or retention ponds can also help makefive points can be achieved through water landscaping issues more water-friendlysustainability (Starr &Nicolow, 2007, p.1). (Starr &Nicolow, 2007, p.1). • 1 point will be granted for reducing technologies (Starr &Nicolow, 2007, p.1). potable water by 50% Purdue University can achieve this level by • 2 points will be granted for reducing wastewater and potable water on eliminating potable water by 100% campus. To break it down, there is no (Starr &Nicolow, 2007, p.1). possible way to reduce the demand that causes wastewater, for all members of theThe second category of water-related LEED Purdue community have a physical need tocertification involves innovative wastewater use restroom facilities, thus ways to reduce     LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  9    
  10. 10. wastewater at the LEED level include using certification through its current greenultrahigh efficiency toilets, composting initiatives, it’s important to garner supporttoilets, waterless urinals, or even using from important Purdue officials. On behalfrainwater in toilets (Starr &Nicolow, 2007, of the U.S. Green Building Council, Robinp.1). Ried gives the following suggestions: • Accomplishing this portion can grant • Have campus leaders commit to 1 point LEED certification at the highest most decision-making roles (Ried,The final category of LEED required water- 2008, p.11).efficiency is reducing wastewater, which • Incorporate water-efficient strategiesrelates to the earlier goal of implementing into a campus’s long-term strategiceffective wastewater technologies. Simply planning so that there is always aput, Purdue University could achieve this by focus on LEED certification and thereplacing all campus toilets with dual flush university can ultimately save onsystems and ensuring that every sink and water resources and long-termshower has a low-flow system in place expenditures (Ried, 2008, p.11).(Starr &Nicolow, 2007, p.1). Going green in terms of water sustainability • By following these measures, the in LEED certification is a goal that Purdue LEED certification system would University should strive for, for the level of grant 2 points (Starr &Nicolow, sophistication and dignity that this higher- 2007, p.1). education institute holds can encourage aWhile Purdue University is certainly on the higher standard of water efficiency thatroad to leading the way in LEED forever changes the future. Case Study: Water Efficiency at the University of California Davis The University of California Davis campus recently built a Brewery, Wine, and Food building that achieved LEED Platinum, the highest-ranking possible. One of the reasons this building achieved the Platinum ranking is due to its water efficiency. Low-flow toilets and a landscaping irrigation system that achieved net-zero water usage as well as a rainwater harvesting system earned the team 5 out of 5 points in the water efficiency section of LEED. These design strategies help save money and stop the waste of water in a region of the country that does not have enough to go around (UC Davis).   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  10    
  11. 11. Energy and AtmosphereA mong other issues of sustainability billion annually on energy. Since on university campuses, universities use such a large amount of consumption and production of energy, it consequently makes themenergy and its effect on the atmosphere is responsible for a decent amount ofone of the most serious issues. According to greenhouse gas emissions, steps to reducethe EPA, buildings in the U.S are energy consumption and using cleanerresponsible for 39% of total energy energy sources are some of the top prioritiesconsumption and 68% of total electricity of many universities sustainability plans.consumption and result in 38% of carbon With increasing awareness and improvingemissions. Most of the energy that is technology, this issue can be tackled byproduced today is from non-renewable taking many different initiatives. It has beensources. According to Energy Information brought to many people’s attention thatAdministration (EIA) in 2010, 45 percent of green schools use an average of 30% lesselectricity produced in the United States was energy than conventional universities andfrom burning of coal. When coal is burned, are in turn saving hundreds of thousands ofcarbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases dollars (DOE, 2010). Many universitiesare emitted and collected in our atmosphere, have already taken various steps and arewhich many scientists believe is the reason serving as abehind climate change. The climate change model.is expected to have many adverse effectssuch as increased frequency of extreme Differentweather events, water shortages, sea level environmentalrises, and even rise of diseases. The organizationsgreenhouse gases are also responsible for such as the EPApollutants that contribute to acid rain and and the USGBCsmog around the globe, which further harms are encouragingour health and atmosphere. The atmospheric differentproblem of producing energy requires institutions toimmediate attention and action from all implement steps This figure shows energy end-usesorganizations around the globe in order to that in Campus Buildingssustain our future. would reduce the Source: Galayda, J. (2010, April). GreenAt university campuses, energy carbon footprint Building Trends in Higher Education.consumption has a large impact on in the Yudelson Associated. Retrieved March 6, 2012, fromenvironment as well as financial interests. atmosphere and www.greenbuildconsult.com/pdfs/higher-According to the EPA, institutions of higher also help them ed.pdfeducation collectively spend over $14 save money and   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  11    
  12. 12. various resources. USGBC’s LEED Universities are showing their commitmentcertification offers various methods with to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by:which university’s environmentalperformances are evaluated and provide a • Universities around the United Statesdefined standard for what constitutes a green have designated a certain office forbuilding in design, construction and sustainability, which focuses onoperation (LEED for schools, 2009). different issues including energy and its beneficial and harmful effects.The main steps with which USGBC These universities have aevaluates and encourages the energy and sustainability plan within theiratmosphere of a university building include: sustainability reports, which not only focuses on the current conditions, but • Commitment to reduce greenhouse also focuses on future goals. gas emissions • Two-thirds of the schools around the • Optimizing energy consumption on US have made a carbon reduction campus buildings commitment (Green Report Card, • Using renewable energy sources, 2011) especially on-site renewable energy sources Optimizing energy consumption on campus • Commissioning of building energy buildings is yet another technique that systems universities and colleges can minimize the • Measuring and verifying energy amount of energy they are using and the usage amount of pollutants arising from the energy • Raising awareness among use. This can be done in several ways: administrators and students • Space and water heating are theUniversities around the Nation dominant energy sources in most campus buildings. On average theyMany universities around the nation are use almost 32% and 24% of thetrying to implement new ways that would energy produced, respectively. Somehelp with the rising problem related to universities are conserving energy byenergy and atmosphere. This include using their heating and powerfollowing different standards encouraged by systems efficiently. They are using aEPA’s Energy STAR program, EIA, system called Combined Heat andUSGBC’s LEED and other energy Power (CHP). This system uses theorganizations. same source to produce both energy and heat that is supplied to theCommitment to reduce greenhouse gas buildings through steam. Thisemissions is one way that universities method utilizes the steam that buildsaround the nation are helping to conserve up in the process of producingenergy and improve the atmosphere.   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  12    
  13. 13. electricity and uses it as source of • Solar panels provide power to more heat. than 100 college campuses • Lighting uses almost 22% of the (AASHE, 2010). Solar panels are energy produced around campuses. being used on the roofs of buildings Universities are using more efficient and other facilities especially in the light sources including fluorescent states where there is plenty of lights and high efficiency LED sunshine, like Florida and California. lights. Motion and natural light • Since biomass is considered carbon sensors are also being used neutral, many universities are throughout the university campuses. converting fossil-fuel power plants to • Many universities are using more run via biomass. Many universities efficient products such as energy that had used fossil fuels now run on STAR computers, which will go to things such as woodchips and oat sleep when they are not being used. hulls. Using timers to regulate • For many universities, purchasing temperatures based on occupancy renewable energy is a better hours. alternative than producing their own renewable energy. Students aroundUsing renewable energy sources throughout the United States have encouragedcampus universities, especially on-site their universities to increase the feesrenewable energy sources will help improve in order to meet these demands.energy use and the atmosphere. This has • State governments are also doingbeen done in the following ways: their part by introducing laws that • Many universities around the nation would encourage campuses to use are using renewable energy sources renewable energy sources. In Indiana to reduce harmful emissions. In for example, new construction 2011, thirty-eight percent of the projects over $10 million are schools purchased renewable energy expected to pursue at least LEED and even more impressive is the fact silver certification (Green Report that fifty-two percent of the schools Card, 2011) produce renewable energy on Measuring, verifying and commissioning campus. This includes using solar, energy usage is a way to ensure proper wind, geothermal and bioenergy energy consumption and also a way to sources, which are known to produce ensure the atmosphere is not being polluted the minimum amount of greenhouse too much. This practice can be seen at many gases and also save the institutions universities: money. • Universities around the Midwest are • Having a detailed knowledge of using wind turbines to produce current energy usage helps take energy. better decisions about improving   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  13    
  14. 14. energy systems. Universities are using a method called ‘Sub- metering’ which measures the amount of every type of energy, not just electricity, used in different parts of a building hence providing a better way to analyze energy usage. This image shows an example of a green • Universities have developed plans building that utilizes natural light through day and have used engineered energy lighting, which required less artificial lighting. simulation to measure energy system performance. Tracking the Source: Parkins, Jane. (February 27, 2012). performance by comparing it to Healthcare Sector Continues to LEED. Retrieved March 6, 2012 predicted performance and then from:http://sageglass.com/blog/daylighting_bene evaluating it has helped universities fits/healthcare-healing-spaces-driving-leed- for their future plans. adoption/ • Commissioning is required around many university buildings in order to ensure that buildings are being conservation and efficiency. Some are operated as designed. having different type of friendly competitions, which would encourageRaising awareness among administrators the staff and students to be moreand students is a critical part of ensuring that responsible about their atmosphere.energy is being used correctly and that theamount of pollutants going into theatmosphere isn’t above the level.Universities have been doing this in many Purdue University’s Solution toways: Energy and Atmosphere • To actually achieve sustainability, Problems personal values and behaviors must be influenced. Universities have Like many other universities, Purdue understood this perspective and University has also implemented some of different programs on campuses have the above stated solutions to improve energy been initiated. Universities want to efficiency. Purdue is seeking formal produce students that are more recognition for its efforts through LEED environmentally aware and are certification. The Roger B. Gatewood wing sensible of their actions and its of the mechanical engineering building is impacts. the first LEED certified (Silver) building on campus. Currently there are two other • Universities are using different buildings, Marriot Hall and Recreational campaigns and are hosting annual get-togethers to promote energy Sports Center’s addition and renovation, are   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  14    
  15. 15. under construction which are registered to sustainability plan, which lets thembe LEED certified. Two other buildings are evaluate their current state and alsoalso planned to be LEED certified when the set goals for the future.renovation work begins (Purdue • Using Combined Heat and PowerSustainability Report, 2010). Staff also (CHP) or cogeneration method tofound that many of the buildings on Purdue produce electricity and heat oncampus already use many of the green campus buildings by Wade Utilitystandards under LEED certification. Plant, which is owned by Purdue. It uses coal and natural gas to power the plant to produce steam. Cogeneration helps Purdue to produce electricity at 60 % efficiency (Purdue Sustainability Report, 2010). Although this method is very efficient and significantly reduces carbon footprint, a huge amount of coal is burned in the process. Students at Purdue have rallied in support of alternative energy sources. • All new buildings are required to meet energy efficiency standards of This figure shows how Purdue American Society of Heating, University produces energy and heat Refrigerating and Air-conditioning and how they drive chillers. Engineers (ASHRAE). Source: Plant Operations. (n.d.). Energy, • Energy efficient lightings, Engineering, Sustainability. Retrieved March economizers and temperature 6, 2012, from setbacks are used around the campus http://www.purdue.edu/ees/energy/wade/plan buildings to reduce energy use. toperation.htm • Commissioning is a requirement of all newly developed buildings. • Sub-metering is available in everyPurdue’s initiatives to become more energy building around campus, which willefficient and to use cleaner energy sources provide real time energyin order to reduce the atmosphere impact consumption data.include: • A huge variety of awareness programs have taken place around • Purdue has an office of sustainability campus. Student organizations are solely responsible for its related also doing their part by hosting issues. They developed a programs and encouraging the   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  15    
  16. 16. university administrators and students to take further green initiatives. Boiler Green Initiative • Partner with local utility suppliers to monitored energy usage in two develop and fund renewable energy campus buildings that helped them installations on campus study energy consumption amongst • Install solar thermal installation for Purdue students. Purdue has also alternative energy held a friendly dorm competition • Quantify greenhouse gas emissions among four halls that tracked energy • Develop a financial incentive and water consumption of these halls program and encourage new students to be • Challenge other universities to more environmentally aware. residence hall energy competitionsPurdue Short and Long Term Goals include: We can see from what Purdue is doing • Following campus wide LEED now and what their goals are that they certification for new and old have a positive approach towards buildings. sustainability and are being responsible. • Pursue formulation and promotion of But still it seems that Purdue is not yet at campus wide Energy Policy. par with other universities in the energy • Develop on campus wind capacity and atmosphere sector. The college and use it produce energy sustainability report card graded Purdue ‘C’ in the climate change and energy section. The sooner the goals mentioned above are pursued the better it will be for Purdue in becoming a sustainable campus. Case Study: Energy Efficiency at the University of Michigan In 2004 the EPA named the University of Michigan as an ENERGY STAR Partner of the year for its reduction of greenhouse gases by installing more energy-efficient light bulbs, installing higher- efficiency motors, tuning up the mechanical systems, direct digital control points for automated systems, and variable air volume boxes in all of the campuses 123 buildings. By installing new equipment and tuning up old hardware the University of Michigan will save $9.7 million annually (Brown).   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  16    
  17. 17. Materials and ResourcesU niversities also need to understand The university currently supports the and manage the use of materials and recycling of “glass, plastics, metals, resources that go into both the batteries, office paper, confidentialconstruction and daily operation of buildings materials, cardboard, pallets, organics, andand facilities on their campuses. Buildings other materials (Building & Grounds,and daily operation of universities generates 2010).” Dual Stream recycling wasusage of large quantities of materials and launched on Purdue’s campus a few yearsresources. Green buildings have 50-90% ago to help the university meet the long termlower waste production, which greatly goal of maximizing the recycling rate by thereduces the impact on the environment most cost effective and efficient means(Keazer, 2009). Universities need to be available. The benefit of having a dual-cautious of the materials and resources they stream recycling program is that office paperchoose to consume and should strive to use can be resold at a substantial premium andsustainably grown, produced, and the revenue from this help offset some of thetransported materials as well as strive to operating costs of the recycling programreuse, recycle and reduce waste production. (Building & Grounds, 2010). The program works by collecting office paper separately from other mixed recyclables. The mixed recyclables can then be disposed of together Purdue University’s Solution to in a container and then sorted and processed Maintaining Materials and by the vendor. The university is hoping that Resources this program will work better than previous   efforts to recycle for a couple of reasons. More conveniently placed The Buildings and Grounds Department at recycling bins help to increase the likelihood Purdue University has an operation called that staff and students will participate in the program. Refuse & Recycling that is responsible for many green initiatives. The refuse side of Office   Mixed   the operation takes care of the municipal Trash   Paper   Recyclables   trash collection on campus. Each building Unbound   Newspapers/   Food  Waste   has a dumpster that is serviced by a Non-­‐Glossy   Ads/  Inserts   Snack   compactor truck that then transports the Neutral   Magazines   Wrappers   trash to the local transfer station to be Color   Books/   Liquids   transported to a landfill (Building &   Notebooks   Facial   Grounds, 2010). The university also has a Paper  clips   Glossy/  Bright   Tissues   recycling facility on campus where a variety and  staples   Colored  Paper   Restroom   of vehicles haul materials that are processed are  OK.     Cans     Paper   for reuse. Purdue is committed to a long- Plastics   Source:  Dual  Stream  Recycling,  Retrieved  March  3,  2012.   term goal of generating zero solid waste that http://www.purdue.edu/buildings_grounds/recycling/dual_strea has to be taken to a landfill. m_recycling.htm#where.       LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  17    
  18. 18. treatment in those areas.Purdue University has also taken steps to • Use of soy-based hydraulic oil inmaintain and protect the campus’s physical elevators.facilities which are an important step in • Partnering with the Horticulture &creating a more sustainable environment that Landscape Architecture academichelp manage and reduce the use of materials department to establish a campus-and resources. The following are initiatives wide arboretum.the Building and Grounds department has • Composting operations for animalstarted to help with these initiatives taken waste, leaves and brush that alsofrom their Sustainability page: support the cities of Lafayette and West Lafayette recycling • Retro commissioning of academic • Recycling programs that capture and buildings for energy efficiency (e.g. divert paper, cardboard, metal, fine tuning the mechanical systems plastic, glass, wood, e-waste, to reflect changes in building use). batteries, and construction debris. • The "Black & Gold & Green" There are more than 200 Recycling environmentally safe cleaning Centers strategically placed in program, which is based on bio- buildings across campus, along with renewable chemistry instead of recycling containers that collect petrochemicals. Our pilot program is office paper in another 1500 work expanding beyond Discovery Park. areas. • Partnering with Intercollegiate • Use of environmentally preferred Athletics and the student products like low VOC-emitting organization Boiler Green Initiative paints, carpeting and resilient to remove recyclables from Ross- flooring made from "green" Ade Stadium during football season. resources, new technology • Replacement of older T-12 emergency lighting, can liners, hand fluorescent lights with more energy towels and mop heads made from efficient T-8 lighting. recycled materials. • Carbon dioxide sensors that tell • Partnering with the student systems when lecture halls are organization Boiler Green Initiative empty, and occupancy sensors that to plant and maintain a green roof on signal when restrooms are not being Schleman Hall of Student Services. used, lessening the need for air Schleman Hall Green Roof Source: Purdue University News. Retrieved March 7, 2012. http://news.uns.purdue.edu/x/2009b/09091 6RidgwayGreen.html.     LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  18    
  19. 19. Taking the Next Step divert waste from landfills by “findingThrough these initiatives Purdue is taking multiple alternativesthe steps to be a model for other universities for end uses of theand reducing the impact that buildings and waste, reuse on site,grounds has on the environment. donation for reuse,While taking efforts to become LEED or resale (LEED forcertified there are number of ways the School,university can earn point from the materials n.d.). Whileand resources credit. This category focuses constructing newon “the environmental impact of materials building orbrought into the facility and the retrofitting existingminimization of landfill and incinerator buildings ondisposal for materials taken out of the campuses, Purduefacility (Humblet, 2010).” The university should focus on generating as little waste asshould focus on creating a campus wide possible because the less waste generated,sustainable purchasing policy that covers the less waste there is that needs recycling ortopics such as: ongoing consumables, reuse to earn the credit. Another way for thedurable goods, and facility alterations and university to earn credit is by using regionaladditions. University facilities can also materials. To earn these credits the “10%-receive credit for having storage and 20% material by cost must be extracted,collection of recyclables and building reuse harvested, and manufacture within 500 miles(maintain existing walls and floors). (LEED for School, n.d.)” of the project site. Purdue University has taken many ofPoints can also be awarded when a these steps when renovating buildings onconstruction waste management plan is campus and should continue to strive toused. Implementing a construction waste meet these LEED guidelines whenmanagement plan to recycle and/or salvage constructing new buildings on campus.construction and demolition waste will Case Study: Material and Resources at Kalamazoo College In 2009 the Hicks Student Center at Kalamazoo College in Southwest Michigan was awarded LEED Silver. One of the reasons the project received the rating it did is due to the materials and resources used on the project. On this project 90% of construction waste was diverted from landfills, 89% of the existing building structure was preserved, 41% of the buildings materials were from within 500 miles of the site, and 36% of the building materials used were made of recycled material or rapidly-renewable products (Betts).   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  19    
  20. 20. Indoor Environmental AirQuality   • Having their indoor air tested forI ndoor Environmental Air Quality is one radon of the main major environmental • Sealing off sources that contain problems that face our country today. asbestos, such as electrical insulationBecause people spend almost 90 percent of • Using “safe” sealants and adhesivestheir time indoors, improving the indoor air throughout buildingsquality should be a major concern. As amatter of fact, indoor air is 2-5 times more Improving Ventilation is also very effective,polluted than outdoor air (Black, 2012). but it can be costly. Improving theAccording to the Environmental Protection ventilation systems increases the amount ofAgency, “Twenty percent of the U.S. outdoor air coming into the building.populations, nearly 55 million people, spend Improving ventilation involves:their days in our educational systems.” TheEPA suggests to improving indoor air • Installation of energy-efficient heatquality three things should be done: recovery ventilation • Strategically placing air vents so that • Source control it maximizes the amount of outdoor • Improved ventilation air coming in • Purifying the Air • Use of solar chimneys   • Installation of a blower system that Universities Around the Nation removes heat, steam, and odors  Many universities around the nation areimplementing new green ways to helpimprove the rising problem of indoor airquality. Higher academic institutions haveimplemented EPA’s suggestions, sourcecontrol, improved ventilation, and purifyingthe air, for improving indoor air quality.Source Control can be seen as a veryeffective way of improving indoor airquality. It involves eliminating the sourcesor reducing the amount of pollutants from This is an example of a solar chimney tothose sources (EPA, 2012). Source control improve ventilation.methods involve: Source: Solar Chimney (2012) Solar Innovations. Retrieved • Restricting smoking to areas that are March 7, 2012 from http://www.solarinnovations.com/ at least 30 feet from buildings   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  20    
  21. 21. Purifying the air is another effective way to Purdue uses the recommendation of sourceremove indoor pollutants. Purifying the air control in many ways, which include:involves air cleaners that remove thepollutant particles in the air. Purifying the • Restriction of smoking in areas that areair can be done using various instruments: at least 30 feet away from other buildings • Use of large scale air purifiers • Use of radon fans This is done to prevent Environmental • Use of heat recovery ventilators Tobacco Smoke (ETS) from entering the • Use of energy recovery ventilators buildings. ETS is a mixture of the smoke released from a cigarette and it contains at least 40 known carcinogens. ETS has been linked to diseases such as, lung cancer, ear This is an example of a infections and pneumonia in children, and radon fan that can be placed can cause an increase in asthma attacks outside a building to help (EPA, 2012). purify the indoor air. • In biological and chemical labs, Purdue Source: Vitro America. (2009). Indoor Environmental Quality. is enforcing the use of fume hoods. Retrieved from http://www.vitro- america.com/leed/credits_ieq.htm The use of fume hoods rids toxic and   hazardous gases. Without these hoods many hazardous gases would pollute the indoor air causing many unwanted side effects (Purdue University, 2011). Purdue University also purifies the air toAll of these methods used to improve the help increase the quality of indoor air. Thisindoor air quality can be seen in many is seen in the development of:universities around the nation. Theseuniversities are taking the green initiative by • Dual-airflow windowstorm and are taking the necessary “green” This allows the flow of outdoor air into thesteps to improve their indoor air quality. buildings. It works as a heat exchanger,   which removes the heat and moisture from Purdue University’s Solution to the indoor air and exchanges it with fresh outdoor air (Wei, Zhao, and Chen, 2010). Indoor Air Quality    As a university, Purdue is taking many stepsto help improve the growing problem ofindoor air quality. They have not only takenthe necessary actions to mend this problem,but they are focusing their movements onbenefiting the environment. Purdue’sactions reflect the EPA’s recommendationsfor improving air quality.   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  21    
  22. 22. Taking the Next Step glazing between 2’6” and 7’^’ above   floor for building occupant in 90% ofEven though Purdue University is taking all regularly occupied areasmany “green” actions to improve indoor airquality, they could take it one step furtherand become LEED certified. If Purduebecame LEED certified then they would bedrastically decreasing the amount ofpollutants and toxins in the indoor air. Withdoing this, they would be creating ahealthier learning environment for studentsand faculty. For Purdue to achieve thisstatus, they would need to gain points fromvarious LEED standards. A few are listedbelow. One way to gain points is for Purdueto ensure that all adhesives and sealants usedon the interior of the building comply withthe LEED criteria (Vitro America, 2009).According to the U.S. Green BuildingCouncil, LEED criteria for sealants and This is a diagram explaining the way theadhesives include: ceiling should be constructed to prevent it from obstructing a line to the window.• Drywall and Panel Adhesives with a Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Source: Vitro America. (2009). Indoor Environmental Quality. Retrieved from http://www.vitro- limit of 50 g/L america.com/leed/credits_ieq.htm• PVC Welding Adhesives with a VOC limit of 510 g/L• Architectural Sealant with a VOC limit   of 250 g/LAlso, they would need to provide buildingoccupants with a connection between indoorand outdoor environments through the use ofdaylight and the view of highly occupiedareas. The LEED certification criteria,according to the U.S. Green BuildingCouncil, is comprised of: • Having a minimum glazing factor of 2% in a minimum of 75% of all regulatory occupied areas • The ceiling must not obstruct a line in section that joins the window • Achieve direct line of sight to the outdoor environment via vision   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  22    
  23. 23. Another way Purdue could earn points be between three and six feet abovetoward certification would be to have the floorOutdoor Air Delivery Monitoring. This • Monitor carbon dioxideinvolves having a monitoring system that concentrations within naturallywould ensure occupants comfort and health. ventilated spaces using a sensorThis system would also make sure theventilation system maintains the minimum With the compliance of these LEEDventilation standards. This monitoring standards and many others, Purdue cansystem would monitor carbon dioxide become LEED certified, making a cleaner,concentrations in two main areas: healthier, greener campus for all. • Within all densely occupied spaces, the monitoring system would need toCase Study: Indoor Environment at the University of IowaThe College of Public Health Academic Building at the University of Iowa is anticipating receivingLEED Gold upon completion in 2012. Indoor environment was a focus of the building since thestudents and faculty use it every day. In order to improve the indoor environment for the buildingsoccupants, low-emitting sealants, paints, carpet, and other materials were used. They also used asmuch natural light as possible to light the building and provide heat. The extra windows used toincrease the natural light also helps with indoor environmental quality by providing views of outside(Sustainable).   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  23    
  24. 24. Taking the Next Step   that provide this funding, the U.S. GreenI mplementing new buildings and Building Council believes retrofitting buildings to become LEED that more states will certified can be difficult and costly. implement these grants asThere are many phases to completing LEED funding becomescertification throughout new and existing available. Also, studiesbuildings. These include: have shown that LEED certification of building • Proposing accounts for only 2% of • Funding the total cost (BLOOM). • Implementing and Achieving Along with trying to accommodate funds for the projects, otherFor universities administrators to propose problems can arise, such as ensuring healthLEED certification projects they would first care and energy. Provost Sands says, “At aneed to meet with contractors to have a cost practical level, when we make long-rangeand time assessment done. This needs to be fiscal plans for the University, the twocompleted first to ensure the proper funds elements that create the greatest anxiety areand time is available. After assessments are health care and energy. Both increase muchdone, the school will host many meetings faster than the consumer price index. Bywith the Board of Trustees and the public to designing current and future buildings todiscuss the proposal. The Board of Trustees meet LEED standards, we are helping towill then decide to continue the project or ensure that energy costs will benot. Often there are formal announcements manageable.”of the proposal. Even though campus-building projects atAfter the proposal has been approved, universities’ are receiving less funding, therefunding becomes the next big obstacle. are still ways to achieve LEED certificationFortunately, there are some funding sources with a lower budget and less funding. Theseavailable to universities. The EPA, states include:that there are numerous funding sources,such as grants, tax-credits, or loans on the • Deciding which level of LEED certification is desiredstate and federal level. As of now, only two • Making a checklist of the LEEDstates have state grants available for LEED points that are realisticcertification. These two states are Illinois • Keeping to the budgetand Pennsylvania (Federal LEED Grants). • Engineering for Life Cycle ValueEven though these are the only two states   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  24    
  25. 25. Deciding which level of LEED certification An additional approach to completeis desired is a major way to achieve certification is to look at the green additionscertification with lower funding. Achieving to the building and see how they will affectsilver certification rather than gold the costs in the future. If an addition willcertification can save universities money. end up costing the university more, then it isEven though universities would rather probably not beneficial to keep it in the plan.achieve gold certification, on a limited The National Resource Defense Councilbudget it may not be feasible. Achieving suggests picking green additions that willsilver certification still sends a message to help you achieve certification and benefitthe public and other universities that the the university financially in the future.university is taking the steps to become a Many energy-saving additions will allow thegreener university. university to downsize or replace other equipment.Composing a checklist of the LEED pointsthat the university would be able to achieve Implementing LEED standards andis a way to save time and money. Some achieving certification is a timely process.universities have made the mistake of There are many steps that need to be takencreating a plan that has unrealistic goals. In to achieve certification. Once the proposaldoing this, it causes a delay in the and funding has been accounted for,completion of the project, leading to an construction can start. Once constructionincrease in costs. Also, when assembling begins, the construction company will needthis checklist, the university will need to to be in compliance with the LEEDmake sure they are meeting the state and standards in order to accomplishlocal regulations for buildings. certification. There are many construction firms that pride themselves in being LEEDAnother way to still achieve LEED certified companies. With hiring a LEEDcertification on low funding is to stick to the construction company, the university willbudget. The National Resource Defense ensure that they achieve the highest level ofCouncil says to ensure that the entire team LEED certification feasible to them.keeps their focus on the budget. Ensuringthat the project cost doesn’t exceed thebudget is key to not only completing theproject on time, but keeping funds forfuture projects as well. This graph shows the estimated additional costs for achieving LEED certification.   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  25    
  26. 26. AnalysisU niversities across the nation can benefit from approaching green building construction, not only from a single building perspective, but also at the campus-scale level. Purdue, along with other campuses across the nation have a responsibility to establish a highgreen standard in regard to campus sustainability and need to set an example for the rest of thecountry to follow. Students, faculty, and administrators have a responsibility to improve energyefficiency, conserve resources, and enhance environmental quality creating healthy living andlearning environments across the nation.As discussed above, there are many opportunities and areas that universities can focus on toimprove the sustainability efforts on campuses including water efficiency, energy andatmosphere, materials and resources, and indoor environmental quality. Building green reducesresource consumption and creates less waste on campuses. Green buildings also help decreasecost when it comes to energy, water usage, and waste disposal. By building green, the universitywill receive direct economic and environmental payback for the efforts it puts forward. Whilestriving for LEED certification, universities need to implement campus-wide policies andprocedures to help achieve the certification and help overall with the greening effort. Purdue hasalready taken a step inthe right direction withthe addition of theRoger GatewoodMechanicalEngineering Addition,which earned a GoldLEEDcertification. Thisachievement is asymbol of theuniversitiescommitment to agreener, moresustainable future.     Gatewood Wing at Purdue University Source: Austin, Judith. “Gatewood Wing Earns LEED Gold Certification” 23 September, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.purdue.edu/newsroom/genearl/2011/110923CordovaGatewood.h tml   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  26    
  27. 27. 1 Conclusion B ecoming environmentally aware and taking active green leadership roles goals that all universities should strive to achieve. This report illustrates the need for higher-education institutions to take initiative and set higher standards for their campuses, faculty, and students alike. Whether the focus is on water efficiency, energy and atmosphere usage, materials and resource allocation, or indoor environmental quality, all universities need to delve deeper into green issues and make every effort to foster a healthier future for all. Although many universities have set the standard for green campus life, Purdue University in particular can have a pivotal role in becoming a green leader. As a top university in the fields of engineering and technology, Purdue University should raise its standards to exceed the expectation of simply “going green” and become fully LEED certified. Although some may argue that the costs of renovation and retrofitting may seem like a financial setback, becoming LEED certified would set an educational example for students, sustain valuable university resources, and even cut back on future expenses. Purdue University’s Roger B. Gatewood Wing of the Mechanical Engineering Building is a prime, leading example of green accomplishment. By being the first Purdue building constructed to achieve LEED certification, the university has already raised its environmental standards and the quality of green campus living. Provost Sands says, “ The Gatewood Wing of Mechanical Engineering is our first LEED building. There will be many more.” Purdue University should thus continue on this path of green success and consider the importance of retrofitting old structures and implementing new systems to accommodate a completely LEED certified campus. Ultimately, instilling green values in academia and implementing environmentally-friendly practices on college campuses will be highly important to the success of a university and globally essential to the fate of our future.     “The Gatewood Wing of Mechanical Engineering is our first LEED building. There will be many more.” – Provost Sands, Purdue University   LEEDing the Way: Creating a Sustainable Purdue University Page  27    
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