Management de projet
en contexte international
Jean-François MARCONNET

jfmarconnet@free.fr

2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet

EA...
International Project Management
What do we talk about? Project Management in
International context
We’ll place ourselves ...
Objectives
Learn the fundamentals of the methodology and tools of
Project Management
Learn the main characteristics that a...
Agenda
Project Management methodology
1 – Introduction
2 – The environment of the project
2.1 Customer – Supplier relation...
Agenda
Project Management methodology
1 – Introduction
2 – The environment of the project
2.1 Customer – Supplier relation...
Project Management methodology
1 - Introduction
What is a project?
“ A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique pr...
Project Management methodology
1 - Introduction
Different notions
A Program = a set of Projects, eg : nuclear program, spa...
Project Management methodology
1 - Introduction
What is Project Management?

Quality

Reaching objectives (fixed at the be...
Project Management methodology
1 - Introduction
What is Project Management?
Management dimension : the PM role is to make ...
Project Management methodology
1 - Introduction
It means the PM is at the interface of numerous people and functions
and t...
Agenda
Project Management methodology
1 – Introduction
2 – The environment of the project
2.1 Customer – Supplier relation...
Project Management methodology
2.1 - Customer – Supplier relationships
Customer – Supplier relationship is THE fundamental...
Project Management methodology
2.1 - Customer – Supplier relationships
The structure chosen by the Contracting Authority t...
Project Management methodology
2.1 - Customer – Supplier relationships
Intra-Project relationships : the PM assigns owners...
Project Management methodology
2.2 – Organizational structures
Organizational structure is of high importance for project ...
Project Management methodology
2.2 – Organizational structures
Projectized organization : invented to strengthen project w...
Project Management methodology
2.2 – Organizational structures
Matrix organization : most used organization today in compa...
Agenda
Part 1 : Project Management methodology
1 – Introduction
2 – The environment of the project
2.1 Customer – Supplier...
Project Management methodology
3.1 – Phases of a project
The Project Life Cycle goes from the initial idea of the product/...
Project Management methodology
3.1 – Phases of a project
Each phase is dedicated to a specific type of work, and a Phase a...
Project Management methodology
3.1 – Phases of a project
Phase 3 Development : it’s the detailed definition of the solutio...
Project Management methodology
3.1 – Phases of a project
Phase 5 Operations : cruise speed of the product life. One will m...
Project Management methodology
3.2 – Economic Life Cycle of Products
Economic Life Cycle of a single Product :

Modified f...
Project Management methodology
3.2 – Economic Life Cycle of Products
Economic Life Cycle of several Products :

Modified f...
Agenda
Part 1 : Project Management methodology
1 – Introduction
2 – The environment of the project
2.1 Customer – Supplier...
Project Management methodology
4.1 – Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Time

Quality
Cost

Why? Breaking down a project allow...
Project Management methodology
4.1 – Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Time

Quality
Cost

When does the PM need to build the...
Project Management methodology
4.1 – Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Time

Quality
Cost

How does the PM build the WBS?
The...
Project Management methodology
4.2 – Schedule of the project

Quality
Time

Cost

What is a time schedule? This is a calen...
Project Management methodology
4.2 – Schedule of the project

Quality
Time

Cost

Advantages : can manage a huge number of...
Project Management methodology
4.3 – Costs of a project

Quality
Time

Cost

Cost control : it is a process that can guara...
Project Management methodology
4.3 – Costs of a project

Quality
Time

Cost

Spending curve : the “S curve”
Phase 1 : star...
Project Management methodology
4.3 – Costs of a project

Quality
Time

Cost

Commitments vs spendings

Modified from Aïm, ...
Project Management methodology
4.3 – Costs of a project

Quality
Time

Cost

Follow-up of spendings :

ACWP : Actual Cost ...
Project Management methodology
4.3 – Costs of a project

Quality
Time

Cost

(Cazaubon et al., 1997)
2012-2013 - JF. Marco...
Project Management methodology
4.3 – Costs of a project

Quality
Time

Cost

(Cazaubon et al., 1997)
2012-2013 - JF. Marco...
Agenda
Project Management methodology
1 – Introduction
2 – The environment of the project
2.1 Customer – Supplier relation...
Project Management methodology
5 – Risk Management
What is a risk?
A random event that :
can be predicted (future) only wi...
Project Management methodology
5 – Risk Management
Risks analysis :

Average
(2)

Actions needed

Weak
(1)

Probability

S...
Project Management methodology
5 – Risk Management
Interpretation :
Risks of low probability of occurrence and of low seve...
Project Management methodology
5 – Risk Management
An action plan needs to be defined, meaning for each action one
must de...
Project Management methodology
5 – Risk Management
Analyzing the risks : method : the most robust method is
called FMECA F...
Project Management methodology
5 – Risk Management
Example of Pareto diagram :

80

In this example, 80%
of the defective ...
Project Management methodology
5 – Risk Management
The most important risks (those who generate most cases) will
be proces...
Project Management methodology
5 – Risk Management
Corrective actions are implemented with the goal of reducing
either the...
Agenda
Part 1 : Project Management methodology
1 – Introduction
2 – The environment of the project
2.1 Customer – Supplier...
Project Management methodology
6 – Team building, communication, meetings
The Project Manager is the Leader of a group :
B...
Project Management methodology
6 – Team building, communication, meetings
Project meetings management : a successful meeti...
Project Management methodology
6 – Team building, communication, meetings
Reformulate : the intervention of an attendee is...
Project Management methodology
6 – Team building, communication, meetings
Communication : nowadays, a good communication i...
Project Management methodology
6 – Team building, communication, meetings
Team building : 3 major rules
Encourage TEAM wor...
Project Management methodology
Synthesis

Buttrick, 2005

2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet

EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int.

52
Project Management methodology
References
A Guide to the Project Management Body Of Knowledge, Project
Management Institut...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Management projet international

1,342 views

Published on

Cours de management de projet international, an anglais, école de commerce niveau bac + 3.

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Management projet international

  1. 1. Management de projet en contexte international Jean-François MARCONNET jfmarconnet@free.fr 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 1
  2. 2. International Project Management What do we talk about? Project Management in International context We’ll place ourselves in the shoes of the Project Manager 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 2
  3. 3. Objectives Learn the fundamentals of the methodology and tools of Project Management Learn the main characteristics that a successful PM must have Understand the main problems that Project Management in International context generates Learn the fundamental attitudes to have when being a PM in International context 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 3
  4. 4. Agenda Project Management methodology 1 – Introduction 2 – The environment of the project 2.1 Customer – Supplier relationships 2.2 Organizational structures 3 – Project Life Cycle 3.1 Phases of a project 3.2 Economic life cycle of products 4 – The “gold triangle” : Quality (technical), Time, Costs 4.1 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 4.2 Schedule 4.3 Costs 5 – Risk Management 6 – Team building, communication & meetings References 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 4
  5. 5. Agenda Project Management methodology 1 – Introduction 2 – The environment of the project 2.1 Customer – Supplier relationships 2.2 Organizational structures 3 – Project Life Cycle 3.1 Phases of a project 3.2 Economic life cycle of products 4 – The “gold triangle” : Quality (technical), Time, Costs 4.1 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 4.2 Schedule 4.3 Costs 5 – Risk Management 6 – Team building, communication & meetings 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 5
  6. 6. Project Management methodology 1 - Introduction What is a project? “ A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service” (from Guide to Project Management Body Of Knowledge, Edition 2000, Project Management Institute) (endeavor = effort; to undertake = to carry out, to search) NF EN ISO 9000 norm : “ A unique process, which contents a set of coordinated and controlled activities, including begin and end dates undertaken with the goal of reaching an objective conform to specific requirements, including time, cost and resources constraints” Main characteristics : Temporary Unique Domain : product as well as service / specific requirements Coordinated and controlled activities Time, Cost, Quality (technical) constraints A Project is different from Production : The deliverable of a project is information (eg how to produce for a product) The deliverable of a production is a physical output (eg a product) 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 6
  7. 7. Project Management methodology 1 - Introduction Different notions A Program = a set of Projects, eg : nuclear program, space program A Program Manager manages several Project Managers Affair = project or program very economically oriented : it associates to the project the contractual relationships between the company and its customer(s) Project domains : various and infinite Engineering structure : bridge, tunnel, highway, specific building => unique customer Organizational project : Y2000 switch, organization of Olympic Games, change of accounting rules Product development: the goal is to produce several copies for several customers, often the case in industry 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 7
  8. 8. Project Management methodology 1 - Introduction What is Project Management? Quality Reaching objectives (fixed at the beginning) in terms of : Quality (technical performances) Cost Time Time Cost These variables are NOT independent, this is a “gold” triangle To reach these objectives, the Project Manager uses a systematic methodology and tools. The goal of the PM is to have always a knowledge on : The progress of the project (technical, cost, schedule) and forecast of the end of the project The risks on the project that can prevent its success : Project Management can also be defined as the actions to prevent risks to occur in project execution. 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 8
  9. 9. Project Management methodology 1 - Introduction What is Project Management? Management dimension : the PM role is to make work together people that : belong to different departments have different jobs and objectives may have different cultural approach toward a common goal : project success. It is achieved through a Project team of whom the PM is the leader. The PM is also the leader of the Core team, composed of representatives of different areas. 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 9
  10. 10. Project Management methodology 1 - Introduction It means the PM is at the interface of numerous people and functions and thus must have : Communication skills Negotiation skills Team management capability and leadership Writing capability : every important decision must be written! Always be open-minded : always ask questions for clarification/confirmation Be systematic and organized 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 10
  11. 11. Agenda Project Management methodology 1 – Introduction 2 – The environment of the project 2.1 Customer – Supplier relationships 2.2 Organizational structures 3 – Project Life Cycle 3.1 Phases of a project 3.2 Economic life cycle of products 4 – The “gold triangle” : Quality (technical), Time, Costs 4.1 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 4.2 Schedule 4.3 Costs 5 – Risk Management 6 – Team building, communication & meetings 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 11
  12. 12. Project Management methodology 2.1 - Customer – Supplier relationships Customer – Supplier relationship is THE fundamental notion that defines the relations between parties at several levels : NF EN ISO 9000 defines a Customer as “A structure who receives a product” NF EN ISO 9000 defines a Supplier as “A structure who provides a product” Such relations occur at different levels : Industrial organization : The structure that is the owner of the project and buys it is called the Contracting Authority (in French MOA or Maître d’ouvrage). It is represented by a Project Director, whose role is : To follow the progress of the work To achieve financial control of the project To check the conformity of the works to the needs expressed To inform the final customer if any 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 12
  13. 13. Project Management methodology 2.1 - Customer – Supplier relationships The structure chosen by the Contracting Authority to make the works is called the Prime Contractor (in French MOE maître d’oeuvre) and is represented by a Project Manager, whose role is : To conduct the project through its different phases (see below) To inform its Management and its Customer through the organization of status reviews To manage the project team To be accountable of quality (technical performance), cost and time To analyze risks To arbitrate To choose external sub-contractors and follow technical as well as contractual aspects of sub-contractors Note that the Contracting Authority and the Prime Contractor may belong to the same company Contractual relationships : 2 types of markets exist, e.g. : Market Project Type Obligation Cost Fixed rate Product Recurrent Results Fixed at the beginning Means oriented Eng. Structure Unique Means Control of cost along the works 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 13
  14. 14. Project Management methodology 2.1 - Customer – Supplier relationships Intra-Project relationships : the PM assigns owners of some parts of the work to be done (Work Package Leaders), people in charge must be accountable of delivering what has been promised : there’s a contract between : The Project Manager who’s customer of the work The Work Package Leader who’s its supplier 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 14
  15. 15. Project Management methodology 2.2 – Organizational structures Organizational structure is of high importance for project working. It has evolved in time and reflects the importance granted to project work in companies. Functional organization : the oldest organization scheme, dated from the beginning of the XXth century. From PMBOK, Edition 2000 p. 20 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 15
  16. 16. Project Management methodology 2.2 – Organizational structures Projectized organization : invented to strengthen project work : From PMBOK, Edition 2000 p. 21 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 16
  17. 17. Project Management methodology 2.2 – Organizational structures Matrix organization : most used organization today in companies which need to work in project very often From PMBOK, Edition 2000 p. 23 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 17
  18. 18. Agenda Part 1 : Project Management methodology 1 – Introduction 2 – The environment of the project 2.1 Customer – Supplier relationships 2.2 Organizational structures 3 – Project Life Cycle 3.1 Phases of a project 3.2 Economic life cycle of products 4 – The “gold triangle” : Quality (technical), Time, Costs 4.1 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 4.2 Schedule 4.3 Costs 5 – Risk Management 6 – Team building, communication & meetings 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 18
  19. 19. Project Management methodology 3.1 – Phases of a project The Project Life Cycle goes from the initial idea of the product/service up to its end of use. It is composed of Phases. At the end of each Phase, a Review is organized. If it is passed, the next Phase can be started and the milestone (transition phase) is successful. => a project can be summarized as a succession of phases and milestones which are passed with the execution of specific reviews : Description Objective Status of project at phase end (after phase review) Phase 0 Time Phases Opportunity Concept proposal, initial idea from the customer Begin Phase 1 Initial business case PM estimates several solutions Functional Phase 2 Definition PM selects and estimates more precisely THE solution selected Specified Phase 3 Development Detailed study Defined Phase 4 Qualification Achievement Achieved Phase 5 Operations After-Sale care Alive Phase 6 Dismantling Withdrawal Withdrawed 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 19
  20. 20. Project Management methodology 3.1 – Phases of a project Each phase is dedicated to a specific type of work, and a Phase action list is pre-defined (Quality procedures) Each phase requires specific deliverables to be generated. The deliverables are the output of the work. The PM is responsible for the deliverables to be generated. Each Phase is completed by a Phase Review either with the Project Team or with Management (or both). This Review enables to validate the Phase. Phase 0 Opportunity : the customer of the project exposes his initial idea of product/service as a Concept Proposal. Main deliverable : Concept Proposal Phase 1 Initial business case : this phase is iterative and several potential solutions are examined and estimated (time to develop, cost, quality obtained). Main deliverable : Customer Specifications Phase 2 Definition : one solution is selected from all the solutions proposed in Phase 1. For this one, one will estimate in detail : the technical flowchart the logical chain of tasks the schedule the technical specifications One will consult suppliers Main deliverables : Technical Specifications, Product Development Plan 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 20
  21. 21. Project Management methodology 3.1 – Phases of a project Phase 3 Development : it’s the detailed definition of the solution, industrial development phase. One will : Choose the suppliers Launch the supply of all necessary components Build prototypes Realize elementary, then functional trials Finalize technical specifications Build and finalize the production files Main deliverables : Technical Specifications (finalized), Introduction in Production Specifications Phase 4 Qualification : realizing, integrating and accepting serial products. In this phase one will : Initiate the procedures for managing technical evolutions, derogations, anomalies Initiate the training of Customer Support teams and users Main deliverables : Technical evolutions & derogations specifications 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 21
  22. 22. Project Management methodology 3.1 – Phases of a project Phase 5 Operations : cruise speed of the product life. One will manage : Transfer of responsibility (at the beginning of the phase) Traceability of sold products/services After-sales operations Maintenance (including feedback from “field” and analysis of break-downs, incidents, anomalies…) Main deliverables : Maintenance Specifications Phase 6 Mature life/Dismantling : one will organize the dismantling phase (if needed). Main deliverable : Dismantling Procedures 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 22
  23. 23. Project Management methodology 3.2 – Economic Life Cycle of Products Economic Life Cycle of a single Product : Modified from Aïm, 2007 Phase Phase Phase Phase 1 2 3 4 : : : : investments paid (high average street price ASP) the competition arrives in the game (ASP decrease) maximum profitability (product in promotion) the competition is very strong (ASP sacrified) 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 23
  24. 24. Project Management methodology 3.2 – Economic Life Cycle of Products Economic Life Cycle of several Products : Modified from Aïm, 2007 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 24
  25. 25. Agenda Part 1 : Project Management methodology 1 – Introduction 2 – The environment of the project 2.1 Customer – Supplier relationships 2.2 Organizational structures 3 – Project Life Cycle 3.1 Phases of a project 3.2 Economic life cycle of products 4 – The “gold triangle” : Quality (technical), Time, Costs 4.1 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 4.2 Schedule 4.3 Costs 5 – Risk Management 6 – Team building, communication & meetings 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 25
  26. 26. Project Management methodology 4.1 – Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Time Quality Cost Why? Breaking down a project allows to break down its complexity, so : The identification of difficulties is easier The identification of the risks on the project is easier What is it? The WBS (= technical flowchart) is the tool of reference for the project. It is a tree that enables to analytically break down the project into more simple set of tasks called Work Packages (WP). For big projects, each WP can be a project. Each WP must answer the questions : What is to be studied (technical content)? What is to be realized once the WP is over (deliverables)? Quality With which means? What are the tasks to be done? Who will do the job (WP Leader)? Time Cost Who is responsible for the completion of the WP? What is the time constraint? What is the budget allowed? 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 26
  27. 27. Project Management methodology 4.1 – Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Time Quality Cost When does the PM need to build the WBS? The WBS reflects what and how the product/service will be done. Therefore, it can be built only after the need analysis has been completed and the product/service definition is stabilized (technically, timely, costly). Thus, it must be done at the end of Phase 1 (slide 19). As the WBS identifies the sets of tasks, eg : tasks of management, quality, engineering, certification, supply… the WPs need to take into account : The technical structure of the product/service to be built The organizational structure of the enterprise. The vision of the project through the organization is called the Organization Breakdown Structure (OBS) 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 27
  28. 28. Project Management methodology 4.1 – Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Time Quality Cost How does the PM build the WBS? The PM is not alone, and he/she must discuss and negotiate with experts. Each WP has to be a contract between the Project Manager and the WP Leader accountable for the WP. Synthesis : the WBS must give for each WP : Description of the tasks and identification of the deliverables; The name of the person accountable for the WP (WP Leader) : this person is supplier of the PM and will need to provide the PM regular status reports; Define time constraints; Define a budget. This is a contract between the Project Manager and the WP Leader, all these information need to be written! 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 28
  29. 29. Project Management methodology 4.2 – Schedule of the project Quality Time Cost What is a time schedule? This is a calendar graphical representation that shows : The logical links between tasks to be realized The major key dates called milestones (dates of reviews, of deliveries…) A milestone needs a management action to be passed (acceptation) and is a transition. Types of schedules : The Master Schedule : eg GANTT chart is the most used today Goal : obtain a synthetic vision of the progress of the project (=> notion of “super-tasks”) Advantages : easy reading, unambiguous Drawbacks : limited number of tasks, simplified logical links between tasks The Detailed Schedule : (eg GANTT, PERT, CPM, PDM charts) Goal : enable to manage all the tasks, at a detailed level. For example, it can be used by WP Leaders to manage their WP and a summary will be put in the Master Schedule of the project. 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 29
  30. 30. Project Management methodology 4.2 – Schedule of the project Quality Time Cost Advantages : can manage a huge number of tasks and can give information on Critical Path, margins on tasks. Drawbacks : complex to read and interpret, it is not a communication tool for the PM to other parties : management, project team, sub-contractors… Examples of MS Project Master Schedules 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 30
  31. 31. Project Management methodology 4.3 – Costs of a project Quality Time Cost Cost control : it is a process that can guarantee during the whole project life cycle to forecast, follow and optimize all project costs with the goal to reach a final forecasted cost for the project. Cost reports : to be produced by the PM, they content : The initial budget The cost commitments The estimate of future costs up to project completion The estimate of the total cost at project end, deviation wrt budget How to estimate the budget needed for a project? By estimating the budget needed by each WP and making the sum of all WP budgets 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 31
  32. 32. Project Management methodology 4.3 – Costs of a project Quality Time Cost Spending curve : the “S curve” Phase 1 : starting phase, the project team starts to work Phase 2 : growth Phase 3 : decrease of resources, the people are stopping progressively working for the project Modified from Aïm, 2007 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 32
  33. 33. Project Management methodology 4.3 – Costs of a project Quality Time Cost Commitments vs spendings Modified from Aïm, 2007 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 33
  34. 34. Project Management methodology 4.3 – Costs of a project Quality Time Cost Follow-up of spendings : ACWP : Actual Cost of Work Performed BCWS : Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled BCWP : Budgeted Cost of Work Performed 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. Modified from Aïm, 2007 34
  35. 35. Project Management methodology 4.3 – Costs of a project Quality Time Cost (Cazaubon et al., 1997) 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 35
  36. 36. Project Management methodology 4.3 – Costs of a project Quality Time Cost (Cazaubon et al., 1997) 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 36
  37. 37. Agenda Project Management methodology 1 – Introduction 2 – The environment of the project 2.1 Customer – Supplier relationships 2.2 Organizational structures 3 – Project Life Cycle 3.1 Phases of a project 3.2 Economic life cycle of products 4 – The “gold triangle” : Quality (technical), Time, Costs 4.1 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 4.2 Schedule 4.3 Costs 5 – Risk Management 6 – Team building, communication & meetings 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 37
  38. 38. Project Management methodology 5 – Risk Management What is a risk? A random event that : can be predicted (future) only with a probability of occurrence (no certainty) can have a negative impact : notion of severity Risks can be of different types on a project : Technical : related to the maturity of a technology, of difficulties of Quality implementing a technology Time Time Cost Costs Remember these parameters are NOT independent! Analyzing the risks : the key point is the earlier a risk is known in the project, the greater will be the possibility to prevent its occurrence (see definition of Project Management) 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 38
  39. 39. Project Management methodology 5 – Risk Management Risks analysis : Average (2) Actions needed Weak (1) Probability Strong (3) Risks need to be identified and for each of them, the Severity as well as the Probability of occurrence need to be estimated. They are graphically represented in a matrix of risks evaluation : Severity Moderate (1) 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet Important (2) Major (3) EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 39
  40. 40. Project Management methodology 5 – Risk Management Interpretation : Risks of low probability of occurrence and of low severity are considered acceptable for the project. Knowing and monitoring them is enough. Risks of high probability and high severity are not acceptable for the project => immediate actions need to be started to reduce the probability of occurrence or/and the severity of such risks. Risks of intermediate probability and severity cannot be accepted and actions need to be started to reduce these risks. 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 40
  41. 41. Project Management methodology 5 – Risk Management An action plan needs to be defined, meaning for each action one must define : Description of the action Owner of the action Due date Date of next review The action plan needs to be reviewed regularly with the team. 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 41
  42. 42. Project Management methodology 5 – Risk Management Analyzing the risks : method : the most robust method is called FMECA Failure Mode Effects and Criticity Analysis (in French AMDEC Analyse des Modes de Défaillances, de leurs Effets et de leur Criticité) Principle : the risks are identified in the conception phase (=> early) The identification is done thanks to the feedback of experience on prior similar products/services (=> it needs information from other departments like After-Sales or Tech Support for example) The risks are quantified : Probability of occurrence (P) Level of severity (S) Ease of detection (D) The Criticity is derived : C = PxSxD The risks are sorted by C descending The risks are plotted on a Pareto diagram which enables to identify the most important ones : rule of “80%-20%” : 80% of the consequences are due to 20% of the causes. 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 42
  43. 43. Project Management methodology 5 – Risk Management Example of Pareto diagram : 80 In this example, 80% of the defective cases can be explained by 50% of the problems From PMBOK, Edition 2000, p. 105 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 43
  44. 44. Project Management methodology 5 – Risk Management The most important risks (those who generate most cases) will be processed. For each risk, the root cause(s) has to be determined. For that, investigations need to be done on the conception : an action plan is defined. The PM is responsible for the follow-up of the action plan. * RPN = Risk Parameter Number (Criticité) 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 44
  45. 45. Project Management methodology 5 – Risk Management Corrective actions are implemented with the goal of reducing either the probability or/and the severity of the risks. Some time after, the list of risks is reviewed and for all the risks, the Criticity is re-computed, the Pareto diagram is plotted etc… normally, the most important risks have declined and the global quality has increased. The method is iterative, the major drawback is it is long and heavy to perform. That’s why it is mostly used in industries where safety (thus total quality) is mandatory. But the method gives excellent results. 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 45
  46. 46. Agenda Part 1 : Project Management methodology 1 – Introduction 2 – The environment of the project 2.1 Customer – Supplier relationships 2.2 Organizational structures 3 – Project Life Cycle 3.1 Phases of a project 3.2 Economic life cycle of products 4 – The “gold triangle” : Quality (technical), Time, Costs 4.1 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 4.2 Schedule 4.3 Costs 5 – Risk Management 6 – Team building, communication & meetings 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 46
  47. 47. Project Management methodology 6 – Team building, communication, meetings The Project Manager is the Leader of a group : Being a PM means being the leader of a workgroup : the Project Team. The PM is at the interface of numerous functions and people. The major difficulties he/she faces are : often has no hierarchical power on team members => his/her management cannot play with this register; he’s not a specialist but a generalist who has organizational skills, meaning : he/she needs to ask questions again and again, to consult specialists but he/she needs to know where he/she wants to conduct the group! he/she must make very different people work together toward a common objective : project success => His/her Leadership capability is key 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 47
  48. 48. Project Management methodology 6 – Team building, communication, meetings Project meetings management : a successful meeting depends on : technical preparation of the content by the PM : a meeting must have : Clear objectives; Clear agenda; Pre-defined dedicated time (and means). choice of attendees (each of them must have an added value) the PM behavior as a coordinator of the group dynamic. The PM must play with different registers : Questioning : Open question : “Can you explain your point of view?” Closed question : “When did it happen?” Echo question : reply by asking back the question Relay question : transmit the question to another person Mirror question : transmit the question to the whole group 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 48
  49. 49. Project Management methodology 6 – Team building, communication, meetings Reformulate : the intervention of an attendee is reformulated by the PM to clarify it for everybody (incl. himself). Revive : the PM must listen carefully and revive the questions not answered or elapsed. Silence : all the non-verbal communication is of high importance. Synthesis : the PM, periodically and at the end of the meeting, will synthesize the content of the meeting and recapitulate the action plan if any. After each meeting he conducted, the PM must write synthetic minutes and distribute them (in a few days max. after the meeting) to all people who attended the meeting. These minutes must : Be conform to the discussion which took place; State clearly and faithfully the decisions of the meeting; Indicate what will happen next. 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 49
  50. 50. Project Management methodology 6 – Team building, communication, meetings Communication : nowadays, a good communication is key and is part of the project success The PM MUST communicate, even when not explicitly required, to report project progress : To the Management To other people in the company By which means? Classical means : E-mail; Insert an article in internal magazine if any … To say what? Inform on progress; Inform on milestone passed and on all successes. Don’t forget : influence and image are important for project success. 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 50
  51. 51. Project Management methodology 6 – Team building, communication, meetings Team building : 3 major rules Encourage TEAM work and RESPONSIBILITY Always put focus on final unique responsibility Break functional barriers using a multi-functional team Two different managements : Functional management (hierarchical management) : aims at keeping existing processes. Doesn’t like change, because it can affect efficiency Project management : manages change, because of limited temporality, and work toward unknown. => Style of project management : always be positive and look for solutions to problems rather than criticize and note errors ! 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 51
  52. 52. Project Management methodology Synthesis Buttrick, 2005 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 52
  53. 53. Project Management methodology References A Guide to the Project Management Body Of Knowledge, Project Management Institute, Edition 2000, Newton Square Pennsylvania USA French Edition : Guide du Corpus des connaissances en management de projet (2004), Project Management Institute, 3ème édition, Newton Square Pennsylvania USA AIM R. (2007), “L’essentiel de la Gestion de projet”, Editions Gualino, Paris BUTTRICK R. (2005), “Gestion de projets”, 2ème édition, Pearson Education France CAZAUBON C., GRAMACCIA G., MASSARD G. (1997), “Management de projet technique”, Editions Ellipses DESTORS M., LE BISSONNAIS J. (2003), “Le Chef de projet paresseux… mais gagnant!”, 2ème édition, Microsoft Press, Paris 2012-2013 - JF. Marconnet EAC3 Filière DI/Mngt Prj Int. 53

×