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A brief slideshow outlining key points in the disease of schizophrenia

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  1. 1. Schizophrenia …one of the most disabling and emotionally devastating illnesses known
  2. 2. Schizophrenia was coined in 1911 by the Swiss psychiatrist, Eugen Bleuler from the combination of two Greek words meaning “split mind.”
  3. 3. Schizophrenia affects: <ul><li>(B.E.C.) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition </li></ul>
  4. 4. Contributory Factors <ul><li>Genetics (80% to 85% of the variance in the illness can be attributed to genetic factors ) </li></ul><ul><li>Early environment </li></ul><ul><li>Neurobiology </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological and social processes </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition during the mother’s first trimester of pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Infections in the second trimester </li></ul><ul><li>Population density of the area in which a person is raised </li></ul><ul><li>Cannabis use during adolescence </li></ul>
  5. 5. Symptoms: <ul><li>Inappropriate emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Social withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Disordered thought </li></ul><ul><li>Delusions </li></ul><ul><li>Paranoia </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul>
  6. 6. After diagnosis… <ul><li>People express extreme fear after learning of this disorder; there is even word of people losing jobs, friends, even homes due to their condition being made public. </li></ul><ul><li>It is imperative to balance personal rights and choices with services and safety - nowadays patient’s autonomy is considered priority. </li></ul><ul><li>Note that patients with schizophrenia are more than likely to have impaired decision-making capabilities, thus often times putting psychiatrists into positions where values of doing good and avoiding harm carry an altered sense of moral weight. </li></ul><ul><li>It is at times extremely beneficial to try to persuade the patient to have his or her family involved at some level with their care as family members possess sometimes the capability to provide the patient with a certain sense of meaning and joy. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Technically Speaking… <ul><li>A range of sources can meet in a final common molecular pathway that stretches across multiple regions of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>These disturbances, all trickling down to the functions they subserve give rise to many different clinical features. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these changes in the molecular structure most likely include variations in signaling via the dopamine D1 receptor in addition to abnormalities in signaling via the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and changes in a subpopulation of y- aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons in the cerebral cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients typically moke more per day and inhale more nicotine per cigarette, encouraging researches to consider that these patients are transiently self-medicating – possibly normalizing the function of the α7 nicotinic receptor; an endophenotype is mediated by this same receptor! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Positive and Negative: <ul><li>Positive symptoms are outside the range of normal functioning e.g. hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Negative symptoms are the loss of normal functioning e.g. poverty of speech </li></ul><ul><li>Negative symptoms seem to be the major contributor to debilitation as patients interests yield to severe loss in normal functioning. Only modest progress has been made in treating them effectively. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Treatment: <ul><li>Antipsychotics are a mainstay of treatment for most schizophrenia patients. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative symptoms are viewed often times as being treatment-resistant, two-thirds of approximately 35 studies comparing conventional and atypical antipsychotics in treating negative symptoms found atypical antipsychotics to be more effective. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Treatment (continued) <ul><li>Active psychosis always shows to be the common cause of hospital admission thus forming a pharmacological objective of eliminating or reducing positive symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Although controlling these positive symptoms obviously reduces hospitalizations, the patient’s actual capacity is improved only minimally. </li></ul><ul><li>The three biggest challenges in the treatment of negative symptoms therefore become their </li></ul><ul><ul><li>modest therapeutic response, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pervasiveness, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diminution of patients’ quality of life. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strangely, most negative symptoms that occur in association with positive symptoms are more responsive to treatment. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Final Words: <ul><li>The matter of substance use seems to run perpetually alongside this disorder and thus it is important to form the realization that both are long-term conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term, unemployment, and poverty run hand in hand with the disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Any thinking that negates the recognition that substance use is a chronic illness can be pushed aside. It is essential to treat patients in an integrated manner – that is, integrating mental health and substance abuses treatments to overcome problems in splitting care into separate systems. Empirical evidence demonstrates both require a lifetime of attention. </li></ul>