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The Fifth Force - How NASA Builds Teams

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this is an introduction to the 4D process of team building that is described in the book "How NASA Builds Teams"
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The Fifth Force - How NASA Builds Teams

  1. 1. THE FIFTH FORCE The UNDENIABLE power of…
  2. 2. 4 FORCES OF NATURE GRAVITY STRONG NUCLEAR WEAK NUCLEAR ELECTRO- MAGNETIC
  3. 3. THE 5TH FORCE SOCIAL CONEXT
  4. 4. IGNORE THE 5TH FORCE
  5. 5. SOME IMAGES ARE UNFORGETABLE
  6. 6. WHAT CAUSED THE CHALLENGER DISASTER? ROGER’S COMISSION: “O”-rings become less resilient when they get cold
  7. 7. WHAT ALLOWED THE CHALLENGER DISASTER? “Normalization of Deviance” Dianne Vaughn Toxic relationships Continual political pressure Delay now impacts everything
  8. 8. Hubble Space Telescope…oops  $2Billion budget over run  AND the mirror was ground wrong
  9. 9. WHY DID KOREAN AIRLINERS CRASH 17x OTHER AIRLINES?
  10. 10. MANAGE THE 5TH FORCE Enhance Performance Lower Risk Develop Leaders
  11. 11. WHAT IS THE 5TH FORCE?  Diane Vaughan (Challenger), “It is unfortunate…that these forces are invisible and unacknowledged.”
  12. 12. Context Drives Behavior  Would you modify your behaviors in each of these contexts: Giving / receiving a marriage proposal? Fiancé's family dinner? Bachelor / bachelorette party? Hijacked on honeymoon?
  13. 13. Detecting Social Context
  14. 14. Measuring Social Context
  15. 15. Which Behaviors to Measure? Intuited Emotional Logical Sensed Deciding Information
  16. 16. Visioning We all need hopeful futures Cultivating We all need to feel appreciated Directing We all need the ability to succeed Including We all need to feel that we belong The Four “Dimensions” ≡ Human Needs Intuited Emotional Logical Sensed
  17. 17. Universal human needs underlie every 4–D process. 4–D dashboards are operating in 75 countries. London France Malaysia SOEs-China 4D IS GLOBALLY APPLICABLE
  18. 18. Making the invisible…Visible Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Explosions, failures, crashes Success, profits, performance 300 Team Baseline
  19. 19. Average Performance Enhancement Bottom Quintile < Ave. Quintile Average Quintile > Ave. Quintile Top Quintile 53% 66% 70% 75% 66% 71% 76% 80% 72% 75% 79% 83% 77% 81% 84% 90% All 198 teams with multiple assessments (2008) ~4% Enhancement / TDA cycle +7%/TDA +5%/TDA +4%/TDA +2%/TDA +2%/TDA
  20. 20. How Team Development Assessments Work
  21. 21. ON–LINE SEGMENT Behavioral Norms Rationale for Your Choices Why Each Behavior Matters Numerical Scores The “Standard” (Criterion) Case Studies What “good” Looks like
  22. 22. TDA Report – Team Self-Development Team Leaders discuss report with members and direct three actions: 1. Schedule re-assessment 2. Decide workshop or modules 3. Identify behavior-specific actions Responsible Action Due Smith, John Develop and Implement our Appreciation Enhancement System 6/28/2012 Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. 57% 68% 72% 81% 6/07 9/07 4/08 6/09 Real “ABC” Team Data Individual’s Perceptions Relatively low scoring behaviors are candidates for action items Addressing Shared Interests Being Outcome Committed Appropriately Including Others Keeping All Agreements Resisting Blaming or Complaining Clarifying Roles, Accountability and Authority Most Recent Previous Assessment Current Assessment Expressing Authentic Appreciation Expressing Reality -based Optimism
  23. 23. Case Studies Fifth Force #5 – Case Studies STEREO P. 54 Avionics Systems Division HNBT P. xix
  24. 24. You (+ charge) 1. Context-shifting  Restored Profit My customer relationship is broken Charlie, I am in real trouble We need a 4-D Workshop, but they won’t attend ## - This isn’t about changing them Rather, you changing you! Them (+ charge)
  25. 25. You Them Context-shifting  Restored Profit Charlie, I am in real trouble My customer relationship is broken We need a 4-D Workshop, but they won’t attend ## - This isn’t about changing them Rather, you changing you! Change yourself from a “proton” to a “neutron”
  26. 26. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Context-shifting  Restored Profit 1. Team Development (Assessment), as always 2. Three-day Workshop (~24 participants) Good to Go Shift Story-lines Manage Emotions Express AppreciationShared Interests 3. CSW & Re-Team Development (Assessment) What you can Authentically Appreciate about the other party, or your mutual (difficult) Situation? Which Emotions (and group) are you experiencing? What Shared Interests can you identify by asking, “What do they want that I can want for them also?” Reaching broadly, whom (person or organization) should you Include to garner support and avoid stimulating anger. What explicit or implicit Agreements have you broken that could affect others’ perception of your trustworthiness? What Unpleasant Reality must you acknowledge and what Optimistic Outcome can you now imagine realizing? How Committed are you to realizing your Outcome – if less than 100%, how can you enhance your commitment? How can you reduce Victims’ helplessness; Rescuers’ weariness, Rationalizers’ anxiety, or Blamers’ (deadly) anger? Have you clarified and communicated your Roles, Accountability, and Authority to all involved? What Green Story–lines support behaviors that take you to your Outcome? (Response–able) What Red Story–lines support behaviors that take you away from Outcome? (Blamer, Victim) What Outcome are you 100% Committed to realizing? (Think expansively) What Situation do you want to resolve – involving people, performance, competition, etc.? Actions & 4–D Requests you will now take/make and are these sufficient? Which Emotions (and group) must you now express?
  27. 27. Context-shifting  Restored Profit Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Then, recurrent TDAs sustained performance & profit for years Takeaways: Aligned 4-D Processes (Assessments, Workshop & CSW) restored profit and saved the Program Manager’s job.
  28. 28. 2. Context-shifting  Saved Project Charlie, “Stereo” is in real trouble Conflict across the two implementing organizations HQ is threating cancellation of this $500M Project 1. Team Development (Assessments) for each org. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. NASA/Goddard JHU/APL “Sins” = Inexperienced Leadership; Broken RAAs;…
  29. 29. Context-shifting  Saved Project 2. Three-day Workshop (~12 leaders each side) Shift Story-lines Manage Emotions Express AppreciationShared Interests + 0.5 years + 1.0 years + 1.5 years + 2.0 years + 2.5 years + 3.0 years + 3.5 years (and beyond) Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave.Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. JHU/APLNASA/Goddard 3. Dual Team Development (Assessments) every ~6 months
  30. 30. Context-shifting  Saved Project The Stereo Project Manager: “We went from being the butt of ugly jokes to being a model of managerial excellence thanks to the 4-D System.” The Stereo Deputy Project Manager: “It was amazing, to watch our performance, and our customer’s perspective, track right along with our 4-D assessment scores.”
  31. 31. 3. Avionics for the Moon Program About 150 people organized into 10 teams We must perform to save the program Top Leaders (2) 8 People 16 People 18 People 13 People 9 People 14 People 11 People 15 People 13 People 16 People 1. Formed a “Leadership Team” Top leaders plus the leaders of all the sub-teams They understood that people mimic their leaders’ behaviors
  32. 32. Context-shifting  Moon Avionics Shift Story-lines Manage Emotions Express AppreciationShared Interests - Leadership team shared all their TDA Results - All shared TDA actions - Many were the same 2. TDAs for “lead” & 10 working teams ~24 Person “Leadership Team” Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. . . . . . . 10 Teams All ‘teams” Scored in lower quintiles They met every 6 months to discuss issues and TDA results/actions 3. Three-day “leadership team” Workshop
  33. 33. Context-shifting  Moon Avionics All team scores (like Stereo) moved up together. After two- years, all teams were in the top-quintile. Years later, they continue periodic TDAs to maintain top-quintile performance. ~24 Person “Leadership Team” Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. . . . . 10 Teams
  34. 34. Fifth Force #6 – Common Assessment Mistakes Common TDA Structural Errors
  35. 35. Top Leaders (2) 8 People 16 People Mistake – TDA Crosses Multiple Teams Mixed Results No Action Focus Blaming Others? A single Multi- team TDA
  36. 36. Top Leaders (2) 8 People 16 People The Best Method – Three TDAs Segregated Results Action Focus No Blaming TDAs for each Team TDA for pseudo “leadership team” Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave.
  37. 37. Mistake – TDAs “I want a TDA to improve teamwork.” “New 4-D provider set’s up and briefs TDA report.” They were not a “team; they were geographically diverse entrepreneurs w/ little contact Instead, (coordinated) IDAs for all Invite all knowledgeable colleagues to participate All share resulting ideas/actions Share their benchmarks with trusted others Better – IDAs
  38. 38. How to Proceed? With your team members’ e-mail addresses in the dashboard, we launch your TDA Educate Bottom Ave. Top > Ave. < Ave. Benchmark ? Boost ~15 Minutes on- line ~90 Minutes to process the TDA Report Fifth Force #7 – Closure
  39. 39. Closure Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has. – Margaret Mead, Anthropologist Visit www.NASATeambuilding.com for resources System4-D

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