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Chapter 13 packet

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Chapter 13 packet

  1. 1. Name Period Date Chapter 13 Worksheet PacketCh. 13.1 RNALesson Objectives Contrast RNA and DNA. Explain the process of transcription.Lesson SummaryThe Role of RNA RNA (ribonucleic acid) is a nucleic acid like DNA. It consists of a long chainof nucleotides. The RNA base sequence directs the production of proteins. Ultimately, cell proteinsresult in phenotypic traits. The main differences between RNA and DNA are:The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose.RNA is generally single-stranded and not double-stranded like DNA.RNA contains uracil in place of thymine.RNA can be thought of as a disposable copy of a segment of DNA. Most RNA molecules areinvolved in protein synthesis. The three main types of RNA are:Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries copies of instructions for polypeptide synthesis from the nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm.Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) forms an important part of both subunits of the ribosomes, the cell structures where proteins are assembled.Transfer RNA (tRNA) carries amino acids to the ribosome and matches them to the coded mRNA message.RNA Synthesis Most of the work of making RNA takes place during transcription.In transcription, segments of DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNA molecules.In prokaryotes, RNA synthesis and protein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm. In eukaryotes,RNA is produced in the cell’s nucleus and then moves to the cytoplasm to play a role in theproduction of protein. The following focuses on transcription in eukaryotic cells.The enzyme RNA polymerase binds to DNA during transcription and separates the DNA strands. It then uses one strand of DNA as a template from which to assemble nucleotides into a complementary strand of RNA.RNA polymerase binds only to promoters, regions of DNA that have specific base sequences. Promoters are signals to the DNA molecule that show RNA polymerase exactly where to begin making RNA. Similar signals cause transcription to stop when a new RNA molecule is completed.RNA may be “edited” before it is used. Portions that are cut out and discarded arecalled introns. The remaining pieces, known as exons, are then spliced back together to form thefinal mRNA.The Role of RNA 1. Complete the table to contrast the structures of DNA and RNA. Sugar Number of Strands Bases DNA RNA single uracil 2. 2. On the lines provided, identify each kind of RNA. a. transfer RNA b messenger RNA c. ribosomal RNA
  2. 2. RNA Synthesis For Questions 4–10, complete each statement by writing the correct word or words. 3. The process of using DNA to produce complementary RNA molecules is called transcription 4. The sequence of transcribed in mRNA complements the sequence in the DNA template. 5. In eukaryotes, RNA is formed in the cell’s nucleus and then travels to the cytoplasm. . 6. The enzyme RNA polymerase binds to DNA during transcription. 7. RNA polymerase binds to regions of DNA called promoters , which are “start” signals for transcription. 8. introns are portions of RNA that are cut out and discarded. 9. exans are spliced together to make the final mRNA. 13.2 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis Lesson Objectives Identify the genetic code and explain how it is read. Summarize the process of translation. Describe the “central dogma” of molecular biology. Lesson Summary The Genetic Code A specific sequence of bases in DNA carries the directions for forming a polypeptide, a chain of amino acids. The types and order of amino acids in a polypeptide determine the properties of the protein. The sequence of bases in mRNA is the genetic code.The four bases, A, C, G, and U, act as “letters.” 3. The code is read three “letters” at a time, so that each “word” is three bases long and corresponds to a single amino acid. Each three-letter “word” in mRNA is known as a codon. Some codons serve as “start” and “stop” signals for protein synthesis. Translation Ribosomes use the sequence of codons in mRNA to assemble amino acids into polypeptide chains. The process of decoding of an mRNA message into a protein is translation. Messenger RNA is transcribed in the nucleus and then enters the cytoplasm. 4. On the ribosome, translation begins at the start codon. Each codon attracts an anticodon, the complementary sequence of bases on tRNA. 5. Each tRNA carries one kind of amino acid. The match between the codon and anticodon ensures that the correct amino acid is added to the growing chain. 6. The amino acids bond together, each in turn. The ribosome moves along the mRNA, exposing codons that attract still more tRNAs with their attached amino acids. 7. The process concludes when a “stop code” is reached. The newly formed polypeptide and the mRNA molecule are released from the ribosome.8. The Molecular Basis of Heredity Molecular biology seeks to explain living organisms by studying them at the molecular level, using molecules like DNA and RNA.
  3. 3. 9. The central dogma of molecular biology is that information is transferred from DNA to RNA to protein.10. Gene expression is the way in which DNA, RNA, and proteins are involved in putting genetic information into action in living cells.The genetic code is generally the same in all organisms.The Genetic CodeUse the diagram to answer Questions 1–7. 1. What are the words along the outside of the circle?the amino acids. 11. 2. What can you find by reading this diagram from the inside out? you find what each codon and the other things correspond. 12. 3. For which amino acid is AAA a codon? lysine 13. 4. What is the codon for tryptophan? AUG 14. 5. For which amino acid is GGA a codon? glycine. 15. 6. What is a codon for alanine? GCA 16. 7. What are three other codons for alanine? GCC, GCU, GCG.TranslationUse the diagram to answer Questions 8–10. Phenylalanine leucine lysine methionine 8. What is the anticodon for leucine? 9. What is the codon for leucine? GAC 10. List the amino acids in the order they would appear in the polypeptide coded for by this mRNA. 11. What is the difference between transcription and translation?transcription is synthsis RNA molecule from DNA template then translation is the sequence of base of an mRNA is converted into the sequence of amino acids of a protein.12. Complete the table to describe the steps in protein synthesisStep DescriptionBeginning of ribosome attaches to an mRNA in the cytoplasm. tRNA bring the propertranslation amino acids into the ribosomes. ribosome attaches these amino acids to the growing chain.
  4. 4. Assembly of bond holding the first tRNA molecule to its amino acids is broken. polypeptide thetRNAthaen moves onto a third binding site, from which it exits the ribosome. ribosome then moves to the 3 codon. Completing the ribosome stop codon, it releases both the newly formed polypeptide and the polypeptide mRNA molecule. 13. Describe the role of rRNA during translation. help hold ribosomal proteins in place and locate the beginning of the mRNA message. The Molecular Basis of Heredity For Questions 14–18, write the letter of the correct answer on the line at the left. 14. The instructions for assembling proteins are contained in the A. genes. B. ribosomes. C. exons. D. introns. 15. The central dogma of molecular biology is that information is transferred from A. RNA to protein to DNA. B. DNA to protein to RNA. C. protein to DNA to RNA. D. DNA to RNA to protein. 16. An exception to the central dogma isA. the infection of a virus by a bacteriophage. B. the ability of some viruses to transfer information from RNA to DNA. C. the expression of different genes during different stages of development. D. the translation of the codon into the anticodon of tRNA. 17. The way in which DNA, RNA, and proteins are all involved in putting genetic information into action in living cells is called17. A. translation. B. transcription. C. gene expression. D. viral transfer. 18. All organisms are mostly the same in A. the proteins they make on their ribosomes. B. how their proteins catalyze chemical reactions. C. the size of their genes. D. the molecular biology of their genes. 13.3 Mutations Lesson Objectives 18. Define mutations and describe the different types of mutations. 19. Describe the effects mutations can have on genes.20. Lesson Summary Types of Mutations Mutations are heritable changes in genetic information. There are two categories of mutations: gene mutations and chromosomal mutations. 21. Gene mutations produce changes in a single gene. Point mutations involve only one or a few nucleotides. Substitutions, insertions, and deletions are all types of point mutations. In a substitution, one base is changed to a different base, which may affect only a single amino acid and have no effect at all. In insertions and deletions, one base is inserted or removed from the DNA sequence. Insertions and deletions are called frameshift mutations because they shift the “reading frame” of the genetic message. Frameshift mutations can change every amino acid that follows the point of mutation and can have dramatic effects on the organism.
  5. 5. Chromosomal mutations produce changes in the number or structure of chromosomes. They include deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations. Deletion involves the loss of all or part of a chromosome. Duplication produces an extra copy of all or part of a chromosome. Inversion reverses the direction of parts of a chromosome. Translocation occurs when part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another.Effects of Mutations Genetic material can be altered by natural events or by artificialmeans. Errors can be made during replication. Environmental conditions may increase therate of mutation. Mutagens are chemical or physical agents in the environment that causemutations.The effects of mutations on genes vary widely:Some mutations have little or no effect.Some mutations produce beneficial variations. One example is polyploidy in plants, in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes. Polyploid plants are often larger and stronger than diploid plants. Mutations can also produce proteins with new or altered functions that can be useful to organisms in different or changing environments.Some mutations negatively disrupt gene function or dramatically change protein structure. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell disease can result.Effects of Mutations 10. The cellular machinery that replicates DNA inserts an incorrect baseA. most of the time. B. about half the time.C. roughly once in every million bases. D. roughly once in every 10 million bases.
  6. 6. 11. Small changes in genesA. disappear quickly. B. gradually accumulate over time.C. prevent the next generation from developing. D. do not affect future generations. 12. A possible mutagen isA. an anticodon. B. translocation. C. hemoglobin. D. ultraviolet light. 13. What happens when cells cannot repair the damage caused by a mutagen?A. The DNA base sequence changes permanently. B. The DNA base sequence is notaffected.C. The organism is not affected. D. The organism is affected temporarily. 14. Which of the following most accurately summarizes the effects of mutations on living things?A. Most mutations are harmful, but some have little effect.B. Many mutations have little or no effect, but some can be harmful or beneficial.C. Most mutations are beneficial and a few are harmful.D. About half of mutations are beneficial and half are harmful. 15. Mutations are important to the evolution of a species because theyA. happen over the long period of time that evolution requires.B. cut out and replace damaged or useless genes.C. are a source of genetic variability.D. accelerate the transcription rate of DNA. 16. Cancer is the product of a mutation thatA. causes the uncontrolled growth of cells.B. changes the structure of hemoglobin in the blood.C. brings about stunted growth and severe pain.D. causes a translocation in a pair of chromosomes. 17. Polyploidy is the condition in whichA. a piece of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches to another chromosome.B. an organism has an extra set of chromosomes.C. a mutagen speeds the mutation rate.D. an insect develops a resistance to a pesticide.13.4 Gene Regulation and ExpressionLesson ObjectivesDescribe gene regulation in prokaryotes.Explain how most eukaryotic genes are regulated.Relate gene regulation to development in multicellular organisms.Lesson SummaryProkaryotic Gene Regulation Prokaryotes do not need to transcribe all of theirgenes at the same time. They can conserve energy and resources by regulating their activities,
  7. 7. producing only those genes necessary for the cell to function. In prokaryotes, DNA-bindingproteins regulate genes by controlling transcription. An operon is a group of genes that areregulated together. An example is the lac operon in the bacterium E. coli:This group of three genes must be turned on together before the bacterium can use lactose as food.When lactose is not present, the DNA-binding protein called lac repressor binds to a region called the operator, which switches the lac operon off.When lactose binds to the repressor, it causes the repressor to fall off the operator, turning the operon on.Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Transcription factors are DNA-binding proteins. Theycontrol the expression of genes in eukaryotes by binding DNA sequences in the regulatoryregions. Gene promoters have multiple binding sites for transcription factors, each of whichcan influence transcription.Complex gene regulation in eukaryotes makes cell specialization possible.The process by which microRNA (miRNA) molecules stop mRNA molecules from passing on their protein-making instructions is RNA interference (RNAi).RNAi technology holds the promise of allowing scientists to turn off the expression of genes from viruses and cancer cells, and it may provide new ways to treat and perhaps even cure diseases.Genetic Control of Development Regulating gene expression is especiallyimportant in shaping the way a multicellular organism develops. Gene regulation helps cellsundergo differentiation, becoming specialized in structure and function. Master controlgenes are like switches that trigger particular patterns of development and differentiation incells and tissues. Homeotic genes are master control genes that regulate organs that develop in specific parts of the body. Homeobox genes share a similar 130-base DNA sequence called homeobox. They code for transcription factors that activate other genes that are important in cell development and differentiation in certain regions of the body. Hox genes are a group of homeobox genes that tell the cells of the body how to differentiate as the body grows.Environmental factors can also affect gene expression.Prokaryotic Gene Regulation 1. How do prokaryotes conserve energy? it absorbs energy from the sun and nutrients from, soil. 2. How do DNA-binding proteins in prokaryotes regulate genes? the main binding forceis hydrogen and bods 3. What is an operon? a group of genes that are regulated together. 4. What is in the lac operon in E. coli?
  8. 8. when the controls the expression of the protein in E, coli 5. What is the function of the genes in the lac operon of E. coli? 6. What turns the lac operon off? by repressors 7. How does a repressor protein turn off the lac operon? when they combine 8. How does lactose turn on the lac operon? by the reppressor 9. Complete the table to describe the role of each regulatory region or molecule in the operation of the lac operon.Regulatory Region or Molecule What It DoesRepressor protein protein that is repressoredOperator turns on and offRNA polymerase its a chemical forture the RNALactose it feeds bacteriumEukaryotic Gene Regulation10 b.11. What is a TATA box? What does a TATA box do?12. What are transcription factors and what do they do?13. Explain how gene regulation makes cell specialization possible.14. What is microRNA and how is it related to mRNA?15. Explain how the process of RNA interference works.Genetic Control of Development 16. As an embryo develops, different sets of genes are regulated byAmRNA& lac repressors Boperons and operators Ctranscription factors andrepressors Dpromoters& operators
  9. 9. 17. The process through which cells become specialized in structure and function is A. transcription. B. gene expression. C. differentiation. D. RNA interference. 18. Homeotic genes are A. regulator genes that bind to operons in prokaryotes. B. master control genes that regulate organs that develop in specific parts of the body. C. parts of the silencing complex that regulates gene action through RNA interference. D. base sequences complementary to sequences in microRNA. 19. What role do homeobox genes play in cell differentiation? A. They code for transcription factors that activate other genes important in cell development and differentiation. B. They block certain gene expression. C. They cut double-stranded loops into microRNA. D. They attach to a cluster of proteins to form a silencing complex, which binds to and destroys certain RNA. 20. In flies, the group of homeobox genes that determines the identities of each segment of a fly’s body is the group known as A. silencing complexes. C. operators. B. promoters. D. Hox genes. 21. Clusters of Hox genes are found in A. flies only. B. flies and frogs only. C. plants only. D. nearly all animals.Make

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