Nscu 302 wk 2 4


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Nscu 302 wk 2 4

  1. 1. Cell Organelles and their Functions
  2. 2. Cells  Cells are the basic unit of all living things.  IF IT IS ALIVE, IT HAS CELLS!  Cell Theory: – All organisms are made up of one or more cells – The cell is the basic unit of all organisms – all cells come from cells
  3. 3. Two Types of Cells
  4. 4. Parts in common Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Organelles DNA
  5. 5. This is a prokaryotic cell  Is a single celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles.  Its DNA is locked in the cytoplasm.
  6. 6. Four “Classes” of Eukaryotic Cells  There are 4 classes of eukaryotic cells. Will only discuss 2; Plant & Animal cells - Plant cells Animal Cells
  7. 7. Cell Differentiation  Each kind of cell has a DIFFERENT job to do…it is specialized. I am a heart cell! I am a skin cell
  8. 8. When you hear the new vocabulary, just think of a TURTLE!
  9. 9. Cell Membrane  The cell membrane holds the cell together and allows nutrients into the cell.  It’s just like a turtle’s skin - the cell membrane is on the edge of a cell.
  10. 10. Cytoplasm  Cytoplasm is the watery gel (Jello!) inside a cell….it’s goop! It holds the ORGANelles.  Cytoplasm is like the turtles blood and other liquids.
  11. 11. Mitochondria  Mitochondria is an ORGANelle that releases energy from food.  Every type of cell has a different amount of mitochondria. There are more mitochondria in cells that have to perform lots of work, for example - your leg muscle cells. Other cells need less energy to do their work and have less mitochondria.  Mitochondria is like a turtle’s stomach.
  12. 12. Nucleus  The nucleus controls the cell.  It is the largest organelle in the cell and contains the cell’s DNA.  The nucleus is like the turtle’s brain.
  13. 13. Nucleolus  Inside the nucleus is another organelle called the nucleolus.  It is responsible for making ribosomes.  It is similar to all the neuron pathways inside a turtle’s brain.
  14. 14. Chromosomes  Chromosomes are inside the nucleus and are made of genes (DNA).  Genes decide the cells traits and activities (heart cell, eye cell - such as color).
  15. 15. Nuclear Membrane  The nuclear membrane allows substances to pass in and out of the nucleus.  It surrounds the nucleus (the brain) like the turtle’s skull…protects it.
  16. 16. Vacuoles  Vacuoles are spaces in the cytoplasm (gel) where food and chemicals are stored  It’s like “fat” on a turtle I am NOT fat…I’m just a little plump!!
  17. 17. Endoplasmic Reticulum  It is a network of membranes throughout the cytoplasm of the cell.  It helps to move materials around the cell.  It is much like the blood vessels throughout a turtle.
  18. 18. Golgi apparatus  It is organelle in the cell that is responsible for sorting and correctly shipping the proteins produced in the ER.  The Golgi apparatus are stacks of membrane-covered sacs.  They also package proteins to be moved out of the cell.  It’s like the digestive system of a turtle.
  19. 19. Vesicles  It is a small sac that surrounds material to be moved into or out of a cell
  20. 20. Ribosomes  Organelles that help in the synthesis of proteins.  Some ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm, but most are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. While attached to the ER, ribosomes make proteins that the cell needs and also ones to be exported from the cell for work elsewhere in the body.
  21. 21. Lysosomes • Lysosomes function as the cell's recycling compartment. • Lysosomes contain digestive chemicals that help break down food molecules, wastes, and worn out cell parts. • It’s similar to the turtle’s digestive system! The lysosomes are stained RED!
  22. 22. Cell Wall  Cell Walls are only in plant cells  They make the cell strong and rigid  They are like a turtle’s shell (but only plants have them…that’s why grass stands straight up!)
  23. 23. Chloroplasts  Chloroplasts are only in plant cells  They contain chlorophyll, which helps make energy/food from sunlight  Chlorophyll is green in color. I’m green…do I have chloroplasts?
  24. 24. What’s the Difference?  So what are two things that Plant cells have that animal cells don’t? ? Chloroplasts & Cell Walls
  25. 25. This PowerPoint presentation has been adapted and modified by Dorothy Moore. Obtained from Biology PowerPoints: Cell Vocabulary, by Mr. Ryan submitted 12/09/06 at www.worldofteaching.com/biologypowerpoints.html