Comenius Water a vital element 2nd. Meeting Caltanissetta (Sicily) 15th – 19th March
Presentation <ul><li>We are from... Calaf </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of water in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </l...
We are from... Calaf <ul><li>Calaf is in the middle of Catalonia. It is in a district called Anoia and in the province of ...
Calaf Barcelona Our situation E b r e  r i v e r
The most important monuments <ul><li>The belfry of Calaf is the third tallest in Catalonia.  </li></ul><ul><li>The market ...
The economy of Calaf <ul><li>The economy in Calaf is based on the dryness agriculture,  specially cereals. </li></ul><ul><...
Our school <ul><li>Our school has aproximately 280 students . </li></ul><ul><li>These students are from Calaf and other vi...
The importance of water  <ul><li>The use of water in Catalonia  is distributed like you can see in the graphic. The agricu...
The water in Catalonia and Spain <ul><li>The most important river in Catalonia is the Ebro.  </li></ul><ul><li>Other impor...
Universal exposition of Zaragoza 2009 Tower of water Ebro river in Zaragoza
The importance of water in industry <ul><li>The water is very important in Anoia district for the industry. </li></ul><ul>...
The importance of water in industry <ul><li>The ancient factories were built near the river and this activity polluted a l...
The importance of water in economy <ul><li>Spain is one of the most important turistic places in the world. </li></ul><ul>...
The importance of water in agriculture <ul><li>In the area of Calaf the dry agriculture is very important. </li></ul><ul><...
The importance of water in navigation <ul><li>The rivers are unnavigable in Catalonia and Spain (except Guadalquivir until...
Use of fresh water or salt water <ul><li>The water of rivers is stored in dams and it is cleaned in water treatment plants...
Use of fresh water <ul><li>One of the water treatment plant in Catalonia is situated in Abrera. </li></ul><ul><li>This pla...
Process of a fresh water treatment plant <ul><li>Obtaining water from river and cleaning of the big materials like sand or...
Use of salt water <ul><li>In 1950’s it was built the first salt water treatment plant in Spain. It was built in Canary isl...
Process of salt water treatment plant <ul><li>Taking water from the system. It was built a pipe that enter s  5 km in the ...
Process of salt water treatment plant <ul><li>3. Pump of high pressure.  This  pump separates  the  salts  from the  water...
Advantages and disadvantages of salt water <ul><li>ADVANTAGES:  </li></ul><ul><li>-  It can use a big quantity of water wh...
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Caltanissetta

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Comenius Calaf

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Caltanissetta

  1. 1. Comenius Water a vital element 2nd. Meeting Caltanissetta (Sicily) 15th – 19th March
  2. 2. Presentation <ul><li>We are from... Calaf </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of water in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of fresh water or salt water. </li></ul>
  3. 3. We are from... Calaf <ul><li>Calaf is in the middle of Catalonia. It is in a district called Anoia and in the province of Barcelona. It has aproximately 3500 inhabitants. It is about 680 metres on the sea level. It has got Mediterranean climate. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Calaf Barcelona Our situation E b r e r i v e r
  5. 5. The most important monuments <ul><li>The belfry of Calaf is the third tallest in Catalonia. </li></ul><ul><li>The market of Calaf is well-known in all the autonomous communities. In the past it was done on Saturday mornings in “Plaça gran” -> </li></ul>
  6. 6. The economy of Calaf <ul><li>The economy in Calaf is based on the dryness agriculture, specially cereals. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four main factories that make building material. </li></ul><ul><li>The market is important, too, for the economy of the village. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Our school <ul><li>Our school has aproximately 280 students . </li></ul><ul><li>These students are from Calaf and other villages like: Torà, Sant Martí, Prats, Segur, la Molsosa... </li></ul><ul><li>In our school work 30 teachers. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The importance of water <ul><li>The use of water in Catalonia is distributed like you can see in the graphic. The agriculture spends the 50 %, the second place is for the industry and finally there are the domestic and urban uses. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The water in Catalonia and Spain <ul><li>The most important river in Catalonia is the Ebro. </li></ul><ul><li>Other important rivers are Llobregat and Segre. </li></ul><ul><li>The bed’s river in Catalonia and Spain is unconstant. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of dams is a constant source of water in Catalonia and Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>There are importants dams in Catalonia like Sau, Siurana or Oliana. </li></ul>This is the map of the main rivers and dams in Catalonia.
  10. 10. Universal exposition of Zaragoza 2009 Tower of water Ebro river in Zaragoza
  11. 11. The importance of water in industry <ul><li>The water is very important in Anoia district for the industry. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important industries of this area are textile, leather and manufacture of paper. </li></ul><ul><li>We can see in this photo the canal of water in Igualada. This canal distributed the water through different factories of leather. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The importance of water in industry <ul><li>The ancient factories were built near the river and this activity polluted a lot. </li></ul><ul><li>Now some of these factories are closed for the crisis of textile industry and the new factories try to pollute less. </li></ul><ul><li>Now there are new projects to clean the Anoia river. </li></ul><ul><li>We can see at this photo the leather museum in Igualada. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The importance of water in economy <ul><li>Spain is one of the most important turistic places in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of the villages in Catalonia coast have an important turistic industry. </li></ul><ul><li>The turistic activity increases the use of water: these villages increase their inhabitants in summer and there are a lot of leisure activities that need water. </li></ul><ul><li>The dams are used in Spain for hydroelectric power station. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The importance of water in agriculture <ul><li>In the area of Calaf the dry agriculture is very important. </li></ul><ul><li>In other parts of Catalonia and Spain there are irrigation agriculture, too. </li></ul><ul><li>All of these activities spend a lot of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Now there are new systems of irrigation to save water. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The importance of water in navigation <ul><li>The rivers are unnavigable in Catalonia and Spain (except Guadalquivir until Sevilla) </li></ul><ul><li>The rivers are few large and irregular. </li></ul><ul><li>The navigation is very important on the sea. Catalonia and Spain have a very important fishing fleet. </li></ul><ul><li>There are important commercial seaports, too, like Barcelona. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Use of fresh water or salt water <ul><li>The water of rivers is stored in dams and it is cleaned in water treatment plants for the human uses. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays it’s usual in Spain to clean the salt water of the sea for human uses. </li></ul><ul><li>The water of the sea is cleaned in salt water treatment plants. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Use of fresh water <ul><li>One of the water treatment plant in Catalonia is situated in Abrera. </li></ul><ul><li>This plant distributes water to 80 towns, aproximately and it’s very important in the area of Barcelona and the district of Anoia. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Process of a fresh water treatment plant <ul><li>Obtaining water from river and cleaning of the big materials like sand or stones. </li></ul><ul><li>Pumping water and adjustment of PH of water with dioxide of carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture and floculation. Clean water with chlorine and other reagents. </li></ul><ul><li>Filter water with sand. (Beds of sand above 70 cm) </li></ul><ul><li>Filter water with acti ve coal. </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible electric cycling pump. Eliminate the salt of water. </li></ul><ul><li>A dd chlorine again and store water for human use. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Use of salt water <ul><li>In 1950’s it was built the first salt water treatment plant in Spain. It was built in Canary islands. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays this system of water treatment is developing in Spain to solve the problem of water. </li></ul><ul><li>The salt water treatment plant of El Prat (near Barcelona) started to work in 2009 and it’s one of the biggest in Europe. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Process of salt water treatment plant <ul><li>Taking water from the system. It was built a pipe that enter s 5 km in the sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-treatment. It clean s water of solid materials: sand, stones, seaweed… Filter of water and microfilter. Add chlorine and other ch e mic hal process. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Process of salt water treatment plant <ul><li>3. Pump of high pressure. This pump separates the salts from the water. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Reverse osmosis water. It separates the salt water and cleans water with the pressure in membranes. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Post-treatment. It neutralizes the PH of water and disinfects the water with ozone. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Advantages and disadvantages of salt water <ul><li>ADVANTAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>- It can use a big quantity of water when the rivers are dry. </li></ul><ul><li>- After the treatment this water is as good as the fresh water from the rivers. The taste is similar than fresh water or even better. </li></ul><ul><li>DISADVANTAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>- The process of this treatment plant can harm marine life. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of this process is more expensive than the process of fresh water. </li></ul><ul><li>This process moves the sand of the beaches and it can affect the sea ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>- When the process is finished: what I can do with the remainder salt? </li></ul>

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